1. Family: Poaceae Barnhart
    1. Stipagrostis Nees

      1. This genus is accepted, and its native range is Dry parts of Africa, S. European Russia to Central China and India.

    [FZ]

    Gramineae, E. Launert. Flora Zambesiaca 10:1. 1971

    Spikelets
    Spikelets 1-flowered, pedicelled, in terminal contracted or lax panicles.
    Inflorescences
    Rhachilla disarticulating above the glumes.
    Florets
    Florets hermaphrodite, equalling or shorter than the glumes.
    Glume
    Glumes persistent, equal or unequal, narrow, acuminate to obtuse, occasionally emarginate, 1-11-nerved, usually both 3-nerved.
    Lemma
    Lemma narrow, cylindric, with involute margins, 3-nerved, grooved ventrally, becoming indurated at maturity, bearing at the base a well developed pungent or minutely 2-fid, usually oblique, barbate or glabrous callus, awned from the apex of the lemma or from the apex of a usually twisted column; awns usually 3, all plumose, or at least the central one plumose, or with a penicil of hairs at the apex of the column; articulation present, being situated at or above the middle or between the base of the column and the body of the lemma.
    Palea
    Palea usually much less than 1/2 the length of the lemma, indurated, 2-nerved, glabrous.
    Lodicules
    Lodicules usually 2, or absent, obtuse.
    Stamens
    Stamens 3.
    Pistil
    Ovary glabrous; styles free; stigmas 2, plumose.
    Fruits
    Caryopsis terete, frequently shallowly grooved ventrally, tightly enclosed by the lemma, free; hilum linear; embryo usually 1/3-1/2 the length of the caryopsis.
    Habit
    Annual or densely caespitose perennial grasses with a well developed knotty rhizomatous base, with usually erect, simple or branched, hollow or solid culms, and with usually long narrow leaves; ligule of a dense rim of cilia; panicles narrow, spiciform or effuse and open.
    [GB]

    nonem

    Habit
    Annual (6), or perennial (51). Rhizomes absent (41), or short (5), or elongated (12). Stolons absent, or present (1). Culms erect (17/28), or geniculately ascending (14/28), or decumbent (6/28); reed-like (1/2), or slender (1/2); 2-45.92-200 cm long; firm (50), or wiry (2), or woody (4); without nodal roots (1/1), or rooting from lower nodes (1/1). Culm-internodes similar in length (1/2), or unequal, the upper longer (1/2); terete (1/1). Lateral branches lacking (12/29), or sparse (3/29), or ample (2/29), or fastigiate (4/29), or suffrutescent (13/29). Ligule a fringe of hairs. Leaf-blades persistent (52), or deciduous at the ligule (4); aciculate (11), or filiform (31), or linear (14), or lanceolate (1); herbaceous (52), or coriaceous (4); stiff (19), or firm (37). Leaf-blade midrib indistinct (1/1). Leaf-blade apex muticous (40), or pungent (17).
    Inflorescences
    Inflorescence a panicle; subtended by an unspecialized leaf-sheath (55), or an inflated leaf-sheath (1); exserted (46), or embraced at base by subtending leaf (15). Panicle open (34/55), or contracted (24/55), or spiciform (3/55). Spikelets solitary. Fertile spikelets pedicelled. Pedicels filiform (1/1); tip widened (1/1).
    Spikelets
    Spikelets comprising 1 fertile florets; without rhachilla extension. Spikelets linear (2), or lanceolate (54); subterete; 6.225-14.28-50 mm long; breaking up at maturity; disarticulating below each fertile floret. Floret callus evident (5), or elongated (51); pubescent (35/55), or pilose (7/55), or bearded (14/55); obtuse (2), or acute (17), or pungent (36), or 2-toothed (1).
    Fertile
    Spikelets comprising 1 fertile florets; without rhachilla extension. Spikelets linear (2), or lanceolate (54); subterete; 6.225-14.28-50 mm long; breaking up at maturity; disarticulating below each fertile floret. Floret callus evident (5), or elongated (51); pubescent (35/55), or pilose (7/55), or bearded (14/55); obtuse (2), or acute (17), or pungent (36), or 2-toothed (1).
    Glume
    Glumes persistent; exceeding apex of florets (54/54); thinner than fertile lemma (53), or similar to fertile lemma in texture (3). Lower glume linear (4/55), or lanceolate (54/55), or oblong (1/55); 0.5-1.014-8 length of upper glume; membranous (46), or chartaceous (9), or cartilaginous (1); without keels (52/54), or 1-keeled (3/54); 1 -veined (2), or 3 -veined (49), or 4 -veined (4), or 5 -veined (7), or 6 -veined (2), or 7 -veined (4), or 8-9 -veined (3). Lower glume lateral veins absent (2), or distinct (54); without ribs (52/54), or ribbed (2/54). Lower glume surface smooth (43), or asperulous (10), or scabrous (3); glabrous (46), or puberulous (4), or pubescent (1), or pilose (12). Lower glume apex emarginate (3/55), or truncate (2/55), or obtuse (7/55), or acute (10/55), or acuminate (33/55), or attenuate (4/55), or setaceously attenuate (1/55); muticous (51/55), or mucronate (3/55), or awned (2/55). Upper glume linear (5/55), or lanceolate (53/55), or oblong (1/55); 1.1-2.699-5 length of adjacent fertile lemma; membranous (46), or chartaceous (9), or cartilaginous (1); without keels (52/54), or 1-keeled (2/54); 1 -veined (5), or 2 -veined (3), or 3 -veined (50), or 4 -veined (3), or 5 -veined (6), or 7-9 -veined (1). Upper glume lateral veins without ribs (53/54), or ribbed (1/54). Upper glume surface smooth (45), or asperulous (9), or scabrous (2); glabrous (47), or puberulous (4), or pubescent (1), or pilose (8); without hair tufts (55), or with basal tufts of hair (1). Upper glume apex entire (54), or dentate (2); 2 -fid (1/1); emarginate (1/54), or truncate (2/54), or obtuse (4/54), or acute (15/54), or acuminate (31/54), or attenuate (5/54), or setaceously attenuate (1/54); muticous (50/55), or mucronate (6/55), or awned (2/55); 1 -awned (2/2).
    Florets
    Fertile lemma lanceolate (5), or elliptic (1), or oblong (51); subterete (19/19); chartaceous (3), or coriaceous (53); without keel (54/54); 3 -veined (54/54). Lemma surface smooth (45), or granulose (1), or scaberulous (4), or scabrous (2), or papillose (2), or tuberculate (2), or punctate (2). Lemma margins flat (1), or convolute (55); exposing palea (2), or covering most of palea (54). Lemma apex emarginate (1/53), or acute (52/53); without ornament (55), or tuberculate (1); awned; 1 -awned (1), or 3 -awned (55). Principal lemma awn straight (2), or geniculate (1), or 3-branched (53); limb glabrous (1), or ciliate (1), or plumose (54). Column of lemma awn glabrous (49/54), or pubescent (1/54), or ciliate (4/54), or plumose (1/54); without distinct apical hairs (51/54), or with bearded apex (3/54). Lateral lemma awns longer than principal (1/54), or subequal to principal (10/54), or shorter than principal (43/54). Palea present (55), or absent or minute (1); not rolled (54/55), or involute (1/55); 0.1-0.3446-0.5 length of lemma; membranous (53/55), or chartaceous (2/55); 0 -veined (1/4), or 2 -veined (3/4); without keels (53/55), or 2-keeled (2/55).
    Flowers
    Lodicules 2 (4/4); membranous (3/3). Anthers 3 (5/5). Ovary glabrous (1/1).
    Fruits
    Caryopsis with adherent pericarp (22/22); linear (1/20), or fusiform (9/20), or ellipsoid (5/20), or oblong (2/20), or obovoid (1/20), or oblanceolate (2/20); isodiametric (1/2), or dorsally compressed (1/2). Embryo 0.3-0.4419-0.66 length of caryopsis. Hilum linear (15/15); 0.33-0.922-1 length of caryopsis.
    Distribution
    Europe (2), or Africa (48), or Temperate Asia (23), or Tropical Asia (6).
    [FTEA]

    Gramineae, W. D. Clayton, S. M. Phillips And S. A. Renvoize. Flora of Tropical East Africa. 1974

    Habit
    Densely tufted perennials, suffrutices with knotty rhizomatous base, or delicate annuals
    Leaves
    Leaf-blades narrow or terete, sometimes early deciduous leaving sheaths and chlorophyll-bearing culms as the main photosynthetic organs
    Inflorescences
    Panicle open or contracted
    Spikelets
    Spikelets 1-flowered with scarious glumes; lemma cylindrical, indurated, produced into a three-branched awn; awn with or without a column, articulated at the base of the column or near the middle of the lemma, the branches or at least the central one plumose; callus well-developed, pungent or minutely bifid, usually oblique; palea usually less than half as long as the lemma.

    Images

    Distribution

    Native to:

    Afghanistan, Algeria, Angola, Botswana, Canary Is., Cape Provinces, Cape Verde, Caprivi Strip, Chad, China North-Central, China South-Central, Cyprus, Djibouti, Egypt, Eritrea, Ethiopia, Free State, Gulf States, India, Iran, Iraq, Kazakhstan, Kenya, Kirgizstan, Kuwait, KwaZulu-Natal, Lebanon-Syria, Lesotho, Libya, Mali, Mauritania, Morocco, Mozambique, Namibia, Niger, Nigeria, Northern Provinces, Oman, Pakistan, Palestine, Saudi Arabia, Senegal, Sinai, Socotra, Somalia, South European Russi, Sudan, Swaziland, Tadzhikistan, Tanzania, Transcaucasus, Tunisia, Turkey, Turkmenistan, Uganda, Uzbekistan, West Himalaya, Western Sahara, Xinjiang, Yemen, Zaïre, Zimbabwe

    Stipagrostis Nees appears in other Kew resources:

    First published in Linnaea 7: 290 (1832)

    Literature

    Flora of West Tropical Africa
    • de Winter in Bothalia 8: 307 (1965).
    • in Linnaea 7: 290 (1832)
    Flora Zambesiaca
    • in Bothalia, 8: 307 (1965).
    • de Winter in Kirkia, 3: 133 (1963)
    • Fl. Afr. Austr.: 171 (1841).
    • in Linnaea, 7: 290 (1832)
    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    • de Winter in Bothalia 8: 307 (1965)
    • Henr. in Med. Rijks Herb. Leiden 58 (1929)
    • in Linnaea 7: 290 (1832)

    Sources

    Flora Zambesiaca
    Flora Zambesiaca
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    GrassBase - The Online World Grass Flora
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Kew Backbone Distributions
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2018. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

    Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2018. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

    Plants and People Africa
    Common Names from Plants and People Africa http://www.plantsandpeopleafrica.com/
    © Plants and People Africa http://www.plantsandpeopleafrica.com http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/