1. Family: Poaceae Barnhart
    1. Tetrapogon Desf.

      1. This genus is accepted, and its native range is S. U.S.A. to Central America, Caribbean, Africa, Arabian Peninsula W. & Central Asia to Indian Subcontinent.

    [GB]

    nonem

    Habit
    Annual (2), or perennial. Rhizomes absent (3), or short (2). Culms erect (4), or geniculately ascending (4), or decumbent (1); 15-49.9-104 cm long. Ligule a ciliolate membrane. Leaf-blades filiform (1), or linear (4).
    Inflorescences
    Inflorescence composed of racemes; subtended by an unspecialized leaf-sheath (4), or an inflated leaf-sheath (1); exserted (4), or embraced at base by subtending leaf (1). Racemes single (2), or paired (4), or digitate (1); side by side (4), or appressed back to back (1); erect (1), or ascending (4); unilateral. Rhachis angular (4/4). Spikelet packing broadside to rhachis; 2 -rowed (4/4). Spikelets ascending (4/4); solitary. Fertile spikelets sessile.
    Spikelets
    Spikelets comprising 1 fertile florets (2), or 2 fertile florets (1), or 3 fertile florets (4), or 4-5 fertile florets (3), or 6-7 fertile florets (1); with diminished florets at the apex. Spikelets cuneate; laterally compressed; 2-5.1-12 mm long; breaking up at maturity; disarticulating below each fertile floret (1), or above glumes but not between florets (4). Floret callus pilose.
    Fertile
    Spikelets comprising 1 fertile florets (2), or 2 fertile florets (1), or 3 fertile florets (4), or 4-5 fertile florets (3), or 6-7 fertile florets (1); with diminished florets at the apex. Spikelets cuneate; laterally compressed; 2-5.1-12 mm long; breaking up at maturity; disarticulating below each fertile floret (1), or above glumes but not between florets (4). Floret callus pilose.
    Glume
    Glumes persistent; shorter than spikelet (2), or reaching apex of florets (1), or exceeding apex of florets (3); thinner than fertile lemma; gaping. Lower glume lanceolate; 0.6-0.731-0.8 length of upper glume; membranous; 1-keeled; 1 -veined. Lower glume lateral veins absent. Lower glume apex acute (1), or acuminate, or setaceously attenuate (2); muticous, or mucronate (1). Upper glume lanceolate (4), or ovate (1); 0.8-1.47-2 length of adjacent fertile lemma; membranous; 1-keeled; 1 -veined. Upper glume apex truncate (1), or obtuse (1), or acute (2), or acuminate (4), or setaceously attenuate (2); muticous (4), or mucronate (2).
    Florets
    Fertile lemma elliptic (1), or ovate (2), or obovate (1), or cuneate (1); laterally compressed (1/1); elliptic in profile (1/1); coriaceous; of similar consistency on margins (4), or much thinner on margins (1); keeled; wingless (4), or winged on margins (1); 3 -veined. Lemma midvein eciliate (2), or ciliate (3). Lemma surface glabrous (4), or pubescent (1); without hair tufts (4), or with conspicuous apical hairs (1). Lemma margins eciliate (2), or ciliolate (1), or ciliate (3). Lemma apex entire (4), or dentate (1); 2 -fid (1/1); obtuse (1/4), or acute (3/4); awned; 1 -awned. Principal lemma awn subapical. Palea 2 -veined (4/4). Palea keels eciliate (1), or ciliolate (4). Apical sterile florets 1 in number (2), or 2 in number (4), or 3 in number (3), or 4-6 in number (1); barren; separate (1), or in a clump (4); elliptic (1), or cuneate (4). Apical sterile lemmas muticous (1), or awned (4).
    Flowers
    Lodicules 2 (1/1); fleshy (1/1). Anthers 3 (1/1). Stigmas 2 (1/1).
    Fruits
    Caryopsis with adherent pericarp (1), or free soft pericarp (4); oblong (3/4), or obovoid (1/4); dorsally compressed (4/4); biconvex (4), or trigonous (1). Hilum punctiform (1/1).
    Distribution
    Africa, or Temperate Asia (3), or Tropical Asia (2).
    [FTEA]

    Gramineae, W. D. Clayton, S. M. Phillips And S. A. Renvoize. Flora of Tropical East Africa. 1974

    Habit
    Tufted annuals or perennials
    Leaves
    Leaf-blades linear, flat or folded, tapering, acute or obtuse; ligule membranous, less than 1 mm. long, ciliolate; sheaths glabrous, keeled and often flabellate
    Inflorescences
    Inflorescence terminal, solitary or a pair of dense, often ciliate or villous, spikes
    Spikelets
    Spikelets 4–9(–12)-flowered, subsessile, alternate in 2 rows on a tough rhachis; glumes persistent, usually similar, membranous, glabrous, 1-nerved, ovate-lanceolate or the upper elliptic-oblong, acute, acuminate or with an awn-point; lowest 1–5(–7) florets hermaphrodite; lemma coriaceous, laterally compressed and keeled, usually ciliate on the lateral nerves and keel, entire or 2-toothed at the apex with a subapical awn; callus acute, ciliate; palea ciliolate on the keels; upper (1–)2–4(–6) florets sterile and reduced to glabrous, rarely ciliate, clavate, awned or awnless lemmas
    Fruits
    Grain ovate, obovate or oblong, pericarp always loose.
    [FZ]

    Gramineae, T. Cope. Flora Zambesiaca 10:2. 1999

    Habit
    Inflorescence a terminal raceme, or a pair of racemes, often ciliate or villous.
    Spikelets
    Spikelets several-flowered, subsessile, alternate in 2 rows, disarticulating above the glumes but not between the florets, the lower 1–5(7) florets fertile, the remainder progressively smaller and sterile, ultimately reduced to clavate awned or awnless lemmas; glumes persistent, membranous, unequal or subequal, a little shorter than the lemmas; lemmas coriaceous, 3-nerved, laterally compressed and keeled, usually ciliate on the lateral nerves and keel, entire or 2-toothed at the apex and with a subapical awn.
    Fruits
    Caryopsis ovoid, obovoid or oblong, with loose pericarp.

    Images

    Distribution

    Native to:

    Afghanistan, Algeria, Angola, Arizona, Bangladesh, Botswana, Burkina, Canary Is., Cape Verde, Chad, Cuba, Djibouti, Dominican Republic, Egypt, Eritrea, Ethiopia, Guatemala, Gulf States, Haiti, Honduras, India, Iran, Kenya, KwaZulu-Natal, Lebanon-Syria, Libya, Madagascar, Malawi, Mali, Mauritania, Mexico Central, Mexico Gulf, Mexico Northeast, Mexico Northwest, Mexico Southeast, Mexico Southwest, Morocco, Mozambique, Myanmar, Namibia, Nicaragua, Niger, Northern Provinces, Oman, Pakistan, Palestine, Saudi Arabia, Senegal, Sinai, Socotra, Somalia, Sudan, Tanzania, Texas, Tunisia, Turkmenistan, Uganda, West Himalaya, Western Sahara, Yemen, Zaïre, Zimbabwe

    Tetrapogon Desf. appears in other Kew resources:

    First published in Fl. Atlant. 2: 388 (1799)

    Literature

    Flora of West Tropical Africa
    • Fl. Atlant. 2: 388, t. 255 (1799).
    Flora Zambesiaca
    • Fl. Atlant. 2: 388 (1799).
    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    • Fl. Atlant. 2: 388, t. 255 (1799)

    Sources

    Flora Zambesiaca
    Flora Zambesiaca
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    GrassBase - The Online World Grass Flora
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Kew Backbone Distributions
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2018. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

    Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2018. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0