1. Family: Poaceae Barnhart
    1. Themeda Forssk.

      1. This genus is accepted, and its native range is Tropical & Subtropical Old World to SW. Pacific.

    [GB]

    nonem

    Habit
    Annual (3), or perennial (24). Rhizomes absent (26), or elongated (1). Culms erect (20/23), or geniculately ascending (7/23), or decumbent (1/23); robust (9/11), or slender (2/11); 15-152.2-600 cm long; firm (26), or wiry (1); without nodal roots (1/3), or with prop roots (2/3), or rooting from lower nodes (1/3). Culm-internodes terete (2/3), or elliptical in section (1/3). Lateral branches lacking (1/5), or ample (4/5). Ligule an eciliate membrane (9), or a ciliolate membrane (17), or absent (1). Leaf-blade base without a false petiole (26), or with a brief petiole-like connection to sheath (1). Leaf-blades linear, or lanceolate (1); stiff (2), or firm (23), or flaccid (2). Leaf-blade midrib conspicuous (2/5), or widened (3/5).
    Inflorescences
    Synflorescence simple (1), or compound (26); scanty (4/26), or linear (3/26), or paniculate (10/26), or fasciculate (9/26). Inflorescence composed of racemes; terminal (1), or terminal and axillary (26); not deciduous as a whole (25), or deciduous as a whole (2); subtended by a spatheole; exserted (3), or embraced at base by subtending leaf (2), or enclosed (23). Spatheole linear (6), or lanceolate (24), or ovate (1); scarious (25/25). Racemes single; oblong (8), or ovate (1), or cuneate (18); bearing a triad of spikelets (2), or few fertile spikelets (25); bearing 1 fertile spikelets on each (14), or 2 fertile spikelets on each (17), or 3 fertile spikelets on each (3), or 4 fertile spikelets on each (2). Rhachis tough (2), or fragile at the nodes (25). Rhachis internodes indefinite (21), or linear (6). Spikelets in pairs (17), or in threes (16). Fertile spikelets sessile; 1 in the cluster (26), or 2-3 in the cluster (1). Companion sterile spikelets pedicelled; 1 in the cluster (18), or 2 in the cluster (16). Pedicels linear (1), or oblong (26); tip oblique (11/11).
    Spikelets
    Basal sterile spikelets represented by a single scale (1), or well-developed (26); forming an involucre about the fertile; persistent (25), or deciduous with the fertile (2). Companion sterile spikelets well-developed; deciduous with the fertile (3), or separately deciduous (24). Companion sterile spikelet callus indistinct (1), or oblong (4), or linear (22). Spikelets comprising 1 basal sterile florets; 1 fertile florets; without rhachilla extension. Spikelets lanceolate (1), or elliptic (23), or oblong (3); subterete (22), or dorsally compressed (5); 2.5-7.134-17 mm long; falling entire; deciduous with accessory branch structures. Spikelet callus brief (1), or square (1), or oblong (10), or cuneate (9), or linear (6); pubescent (4/24), or pilose (3/24), or bearded (17/24); base obtuse (9/26), or acute (5/26), or pungent (12/26); attached obliquely.
    Sterile
    Basal sterile spikelets represented by a single scale (1), or well-developed (26); forming an involucre about the fertile; persistent (25), or deciduous with the fertile (2). Companion sterile spikelets well-developed; deciduous with the fertile (3), or separately deciduous (24). Companion sterile spikelet callus indistinct (1), or oblong (4), or linear (22).
    Fertile
    Spikelets comprising 1 basal sterile florets; 1 fertile florets; without rhachilla extension. Spikelets lanceolate (1), or elliptic (23), or oblong (3); subterete (22), or dorsally compressed (5); 2.5-7.134-17 mm long; falling entire; deciduous with accessory branch structures. Spikelet callus brief (1), or square (1), or oblong (10), or cuneate (9), or linear (6); pubescent (4/24), or pilose (3/24), or bearded (17/24); base obtuse (9/26), or acute (5/26), or pungent (12/26); attached obliquely.
    Glume
    Glumes exceeding apex of florets; firmer than fertile lemma. Lower glume lanceolate (2), or oblong (24), or ovate (1); chartaceous (1), or cartilaginous (1), or coriaceous (25); without keels; 1 -veined (1/12), or 5 -veined (2/12), or 6 -veined (1/12), or 7 -veined (4/12), or 8 -veined (3/12), or 9 -veined (5/12), or 10 -veined (1/12), or 11 -veined (4/12). Lower glume lateral veins absent (1), or distinct (26). Lower glume surface convex (21), or flat (3), or concave (1), or with a longitudinal median groove (2); smooth (23), or asperulous (2), or scabrous (2); glabrous (9), or puberulous (5), or pubescent (10), or pilose (2), or hirsute (2), or villous (1), or hispidulous (1). Lower glume apex truncate (6/18), or obtuse (10/18), or acute (2/18). Upper glume lanceolate (2), or oblong (25); chartaceous (2/16), or cartilaginous (1/16), or coriaceous (13/16); with undifferentiated margins (26), or membranous margins (1); 2-keeled (1/1); 3 -veined (14/14), or 4-5 -veined (1/14). Upper glume primary vein eciliate (25), or ciliate (2). Upper glume surface glabrous (24), or pubescent (1), or pilose (1), or villous (1). Upper glume apex truncate (4/5), or acute (1/5).
    Florets
    Basal sterile florets barren; without significant palea. Lemma of lower sterile floret linear (1), or lanceolate (12), or elliptic (1), or oblong (11), or ovate (2); hyaline; 0 -veined (3/6), or 1 -veined (2/6), or 3-5 -veined (1/6); acute (1/1). Fertile florets bisexual (25), or female (2). Fertile lemma linear (21), or lanceolate (5), or oblong (1); hyaline; without keel; 1 -veined. Lemma apex acute (3/3); muticous (4), or awned (25); 1 -awned (25/25). Principal lemma awn straight (2/25), or geniculate (23/25), or bigeniculate (1/25). Column of lemma awn glabrous (2/23), or hispidulous (11/23), or puberulous (6/23), or pubescent (1/23), or hirtellous (2/23), or hirsute (1/23). Palea present (1), or absent or minute (26); hyaline (1/1).
    Flowers
    Lodicules 1 (1/2), or 2 (1/2). Anthers 3 (8/8).
    Fruits
    Caryopsis with adherent pericarp (1/1).
    Distribution
    Africa (3), or Temperate Asia (14), or Tropical Asia (22), or Australasia (5), or Pacific (6), or North America (1), or South America (2).
    [FTEA]

    Gramineae, W. D. Clayton, S. M. Phillips And S. A. Renvoize. Flora of Tropical East Africa. 1974

    Habit
    Annuals or perennials
    Leaves
    Leaf-blades linear; ligule very short, membranous
    Inflorescences
    Inflorescence composed of solitary racemes embraced by sheathing spatheoles, these single or in little bunches on flexuous peduncles, and gathered into a leafy false panicle; racemes comprising 2 homogamous pairs forming a sort of involucre, and 1–4 sessile spikelets with their pedicelled attendants; internodes linear
    Spikelets
    Homogamous spikelets all sessile, persistent. Sessile spikelet terete; callus obtuse to pungent; lower glume coriaceous, rarely grooved, obtuse; lower floret reduced to a hyaline lemma; upper lemma stipitiform and passing directly into a puberulous or pubescent awn, or hyaline and awnless Pedicelled spikelet ♂ or barren, narrowly lanceolate, awnless, with a long slender callus as long as or longer than the true pedicel (this often reduced to a little stump).
    Sessile
    Homogamous spikelets all sessile, persistent. Sessile spikelet terete; callus obtuse to pungent; lower glume coriaceous, rarely grooved, obtuse; lower floret reduced to a hyaline lemma; upper lemma stipitiform and passing directly into a puberulous or pubescent awn, or hyaline and awnless
    Fruits
    Caryopsis lanceolate, channelled on one side
    Pedicelled
    Pedicelled spikelet ♂ or barren, narrowly lanceolate, awnless, with a long slender callus as long as or longer than the true pedicel (this often reduced to a little stump).
    [FZ]

    Gramineae, T. A. Cope. Flora Zambesiaca 10:4. 2002

    Habit
    Annuals or perennials.
    Ligules
    Ligule very short, membranous; leaf laminas linear.
    Inflorescences
    Inflorescence composed of solitary racemes embraced by colourful sheathing spatheoles, the racemes single or more often densely packed in fan-shaped clusters on a flexuous peduncle and gathered into a leafy false compound panicle; racemes comprising 2 homogamous spikelet pairs forming a sort of involucre, and 1–4 sessile spikelets with their pedicelled attendants; internodes linear.
    Spikelets
    Sessile spikelet terete or dorsally compressed; callus obtuse to pungent; inferior glume coriaceous, not grooved, obtuse at the apex; inferior floret reduced to a hyaline lemma; superior lemma stipitiform and passing directly into a puberulous or pubescent awn, or hyaline and awnless. Homogamous spikelets all sessile, the pairs separated by a short internode, persistent. Pedicelled spikelet male or barren, narrowly lanceolate, awnless, with a long slender callus as long as or longer than the true pedicel (this often reduced to a little stump).
    Fruits
    Caryopsis lanceolate, channelled on one side.

    Images

    Distribution

    Native to:

    Afghanistan, Algeria, Andaman Is., Angola, Assam, Bangladesh, Bismarck Archipelago, Borneo, Botswana, Burkina, Burundi, Cambodia, Cameroon, Cape Provinces, Cape Verde, Caprivi Strip, Central African Repu, Chad, China North-Central, China South-Central, China Southeast, Djibouti, East Himalaya, Egypt, Eritrea, Ethiopia, Free State, Ghana, Guinea, Hainan, India, Ivory Coast, Japan, Jawa, Kenya, Korea, KwaZulu-Natal, Laos, Lebanon-Syria, Lesotho, Lesser Sunda Is., Madagascar, Malawi, Malaya, Mali, Maluku, Morocco, Mozambique, Myanmar, Namibia, Nansei-shoto, Nepal, New Caledonia, New Guinea, New South Wales, Nicobar Is., Nigeria, Northern Provinces, Northern Territory, Oman, Pakistan, Philippines, Queensland, Rwanda, Saudi Arabia, Senegal, Socotra, Solomon Is., Somalia, South Australia, South China Sea, Sri Lanka, Sudan, Sulawesi, Sumatera, Swaziland, Taiwan, Taiwan, Tanzania, Tasmania, Thailand, Tibet, Tunisia, Turkey, Uganda, Vanuatu, Victoria, Vietnam, West Himalaya, Western Australia, Yemen, Zambia, Zaïre, Zimbabwe

    Introduced into:

    Argentina Northeast, Argentina Northwest, Brazil South, California, Comoros, Cuba, Dominican Republic, Fiji, Florida, France, Haiti, Hawaii, Honduras, Iraq, Jamaica, Kansas, Leeward Is., Louisiana, Maryland, Mauritius, Mexico Central, New Zealand North, New Zealand South, Puerto Rico, Réunion, Seychelles, Virginia, Windward Is.

    Themeda Forssk. appears in other Kew resources:

    Date Reference Identified As Barcode Type Status
    Wallich, N. [Cat. no. 8764], Myanmar Anthistiria K001131580
    Wallich, N. [Cat. no. 8764], Myanmar Anthistiria K001131581
    Wallich, N. [Cat. no. 8764], Myanmar Anthistiria K001131582
    Wallich, N. [Cat. no. 8772], India Anthistiria K001131600
    Wallich, N. [Cat. no. 8772], Nepal Anthistiria K001131601
    Wallich, N. [Cat. no. 8772], Myanmar Anthistiria K001131602
    Wallich, N. [Cat. no. 8774], Nepal Anthistiria K001131604
    Wallich, N. [Cat. no. 8774], Myanmar Anthistiria K001131605
    Wallich, N. [Cat. no. 8775], Nepal Anthistiria K001131606
    Gomez, W. [Cat. no. 8764], Myanmar Anthistiria K001131583
    Gomez, W. [Cat. no. 8764], Myanmar Anthistiria K001131584
    De Silva, F. [Cat. no. 8776], India Anthistiria K001131607
    Singh, B. [Cat. no. 8764], Nepal Anthistiria K001131578
    Singh, B. [Cat. no. 8764], Nepal Anthistiria K001131579
    s.coll. [Cat. no. 8763] Anthistiria K001131562
    s.coll. [Cat. no. 8763] Anthistiria K001131563
    s.coll. [Cat. no. 8763], India Anthistiria K001131564
    s.coll. [Cat. no. 8763], India Anthistiria K001131565
    s.coll. [Cat. no. 8763], India Anthistiria K001131566
    s.coll. [Cat. no. 8763] Anthistiria K001131567
    s.coll. [Cat. no. 8763] Anthistiria K001131568
    s.coll. [Cat. no. 8763] Anthistiria K001131569
    s.coll. [Cat. no. 8763] Anthistiria K001131570
    s.coll. [Cat. no. 8764] Anthistiria K001131571
    s.coll. [Cat. no. 8764] Anthistiria K001131572
    s.coll. [Cat. no. 8764], Mauritius Anthistiria K001131573
    s.coll. [Cat. no. 8764] Anthistiria K001131574
    s.coll. [Cat. no. 8764], Mauritius Anthistiria K001131575
    s.coll. [Cat. no. 8764], India Anthistiria K001131576
    s.coll. [Cat. no. 8764], India Anthistiria K001131577
    s.coll. [Cat. no. 8765] Anthistiria K001131585
    s.coll. [Cat. no. 8766] Anthistiria K001131586
    s.coll. [Cat. no. 8766] Anthistiria K001131587
    s.coll. [Cat. no. 8767] Anthistiria K001131588
    s.coll. [Cat. no. 8767] Anthistiria K001131589
    s.coll. [Cat. no. 8767], India Anthistiria K001131590
    s.coll. [Cat. no. 8767] Anthistiria K001131591
    s.coll. [Cat. no. 8767] Anthistiria K001131592
    s.coll. [Cat. no. 8768] Anthistiria K001131593
    s.coll. [Cat. no. 8768] Anthistiria K001131594
    s.coll. [Cat. no. 8771], India Anthistiria K001131597
    s.coll. [Cat. no. 8771] Anthistiria K001131598
    s.coll. [Cat. no. 8771] Anthistiria K001131599
    s.coll. [Cat. no. 8773] Anthistiria K001131603
    s.coll. [Cat. no. 8776] Anthistiria K001131608
    Akkul, M. [Cat. no. 8769], Myanmar Anthistiria K001131595
    Akkul, M. [Cat. no. 8770], Myanmar Anthistiria K001131596

    First published in Fl. Aegypt.-Arab.: 178 (1775)

    Accepted by

    • Govaerts, R.H.A. (2011). World checklist of selected plant families published update Facilitated by the Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.

    Literature

    Flora of West Tropical Africa
    • F.T.A. 9: 415 (1919).
    • Fl. Aegypt.-Arab. 178 (1775)
    Flora Zambesiaca
    • Fl. Aegypt.-Arab.: 178 (1775).
    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    • Fl. Aegypt.-Arab.: 178 (1775)

    Sources

    Flora Zambesiaca
    Flora Zambesiaca
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    GrassBase - The Online World Grass Flora
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Herbarium Catalogue Specimens
    'The Herbarium Catalogue, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Published on the Internet http://www.kew.org/herbcat [accessed on Day Month Year]'. Please enter the date on which you consulted the system.
    Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/

    Kew Backbone Distributions
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2018. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

    Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2018. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0