1. Family: Poaceae Barnhart
    1. Tribolium Desv.

      1. This genus is accepted, and its native range is S. Africa.

    [GB]

    nonem

    Habit
    Annual (5), or perennial (11). Rhizomes absent (14), or short (2). Stolons absent (13), or present (4). Culms erect (6/11), or geniculately ascending (5/11), or decumbent (5/11); 2-22.43-70 cm long. Ligule a fringe of hairs. Leaf-blades aciculate (1), or filiform (3), or linear (12); herbaceous (15), or coriaceous (1); stiff (2), or firm (13), or flaccid (1).
    Inflorescences
    Inflorescence a panicle (12), or composed of racemes (4); not deciduous as a whole (15), or deciduous as a whole (1); subtended by an unspecialized leaf-sheath (15), or an inflated leaf-sheath (1); exserted (9), or embraced at base by subtending leaf (8). Peduncle persistent (15), or disarticulating (1). Panicle contracted (3/12), or spiciform (8/12), or capitate (1/12). Racemes single (4/4); linear (3/4), or oblong (1/4); unilateral (4/4). Rhachis angular (3/4), or semiterete (1/4). Spikelet packing broadside to rhachis (4/4); crowded (1/4), or contiguous (2/4), or lax (1/4); 2 -rowed (4/4). Spikelets appressed (2/2); solitary. Fertile spikelets sessile (12), or pedicelled (4). Pedicels linear (1/1).
    Spikelets
    Spikelets comprising 2 fertile florets (6), or 3 fertile florets (11), or 4-5 fertile florets (10), or 6 fertile florets (8), or 7 fertile florets (4), or 8 fertile florets (2), or 9-14 fertile florets (1); with diminished florets at the apex. Spikelets oblong (7), or ovate (5), or orbicular (2), or cuneate (3); laterally compressed; 2-4.687-10 mm long; falling entire (1), or breaking up at maturity (15); deciduous with accessory branch structures (1/1); disarticulating below each fertile floret (15/15). Floret callus brief (13), or evident (3); pubescent (1/4), or pilose (3/4).
    Fertile
    Spikelets comprising 2 fertile florets (6), or 3 fertile florets (11), or 4-5 fertile florets (10), or 6 fertile florets (8), or 7 fertile florets (4), or 8 fertile florets (2), or 9-14 fertile florets (1); with diminished florets at the apex. Spikelets oblong (7), or ovate (5), or orbicular (2), or cuneate (3); laterally compressed; 2-4.687-10 mm long; falling entire (1), or breaking up at maturity (15); deciduous with accessory branch structures (1/1); disarticulating below each fertile floret (15/15). Floret callus brief (13), or evident (3); pubescent (1/4), or pilose (3/4).
    Glume
    Glumes persistent (15/15); shorter than spikelet (8), or reaching apex of florets (4), or exceeding apex of florets (5); thinner than fertile lemma (3), or similar to fertile lemma in texture (12), or firmer than fertile lemma (1); parallel to lemmas (11), or recurved at apex (1), or gaping (4). Lower glume lanceolate (1), or elliptic (3), or ovate (12); 0.5-0.91-1 length of upper glume; membranous (6), or chartaceous (2), or herbaceous (1), or coriaceous (7); without keels (4), or 1-keeled (12); 3 -veined (3), or 5 -veined (13), or 6-7 -veined (1). Lower glume lateral veins without ribs (15), or ribbed (1). Lower glume surface glabrous (8), or pilose (4), or setose (4). Lower glume apex acute (10), or acuminate (7), or attenuate (1), or setaceously attenuate (2); muticous (15), or awned (1). Upper glume lanceolate (1), or elliptic (3), or ovate (12); 0.8-1.262-3 length of adjacent fertile lemma; membranous (7), or herbaceous (1), or coriaceous (8); with undifferentiated margins (15), or hyaline margins (1); without keels (4), or 1-keeled (12); 3 -veined (2), or 5 -veined (14), or 6-7 -veined (1). Upper glume lateral veins without ribs (13), or ribbed (3). Upper glume surface glabrous (8), or pilose (4), or setose (4); with tubercle-based hairs (8/8). Upper glume apex acute (9), or acuminate (6), or attenuate (1), or setaceously attenuate (3); muticous (15), or awned (1).
    Florets
    Fertile lemma elliptic (1), or oblong (4), or ovate (11); membranous (6), or chartaceous (3), or coriaceous (7); of similar consistency above (15), or much thinner above (1); of similar consistency on margins (11), or much thinner on margins (5); without keel; 5 -veined (1), or 7 -veined (11), or 8 -veined (2), or 9 -veined (6). Lemma midvein eciliate, or ciliate (2). Lemma lateral veins prominent (1/1). Lemma surface glabrous (9), or pubescent (5), or pilose (2); with simple hairs (2/7), or capitate hairs (1/7), or clavate hairs (4/7); without hair tufts (12), or with marginal hair tufts (2), or with a transverse row of hair tufts (2), or with 2 transverse rows of hair tufts (1). Lemma margins eciliate (8), or ciliate (7), or setose (1). Lemma apex entire (12), or dentate (1), or lobed (3); 2 -fid (4/4); incised 0.5 of lemma length; obtuse (6/14), or acute (7/14), or acuminate (1/14); muticous (11), or awned (5); 1 -awned (4/5), or 3 -awned (1/5). Principal lemma awn apical (1/5), or from a sinus (4/5); straight (1/5), or curved (1/5), or geniculate (3/5). Palea 1 length of lemma; 2 -veined (13/13). Palea keels wingless (13), or winged (3); smooth (14), or scaberulous (2); eciliate (10), or ciliolate (6). Palea surface glabrous (10), or pubescent (4), or pilose (2). Apical sterile florets resembling fertile though underdeveloped.
    Flowers
    Lodicules 2 (9/9); fleshy (9/9); glabrous (5/9), or ciliate (5/9); truncate (1/1). Anthers 3 (4/4). Ovary glabrous (1/1).
    Fruits
    Caryopsis with adherent pericarp (4/15), or tardily free pericarp (11/15); obovoid (2/2); concavo-convex (2/2). Embryo 0.33-0.415-0.5 length of caryopsis. Hilum elliptic (1/2), or linear (1/2); 0.25 length of caryopsis.
    Distribution
    Africa, or Australasia (4).

    Images

    Distribution

    Native to:

    Cape Provinces, Free State, KwaZulu-Natal, Lesotho

    Introduced into:

    Ascension, California, South Australia, St.Helena, Victoria, Western Australia

    Tribolium Desv. appears in other Kew resources:

    First published in Mém. Soc. Agric. Angers 1: 168 (1831)

    Accepted by

    • Govaerts, R.H.A. (2011). World checklist of selected plant families published update Facilitated by the Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.

    Sources

    GrassBase - The Online World Grass Flora
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Kew Backbone Distributions
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2018. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

    Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2018. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0