1. Family: Poaceae Barnhart
    1. Trichoneura Andersson

      1. This genus is accepted, and its native range is Tropical & S. Africa, Egypt to Arabian Peninsula, Texas to NE. Mexico, Galápagos, Peru to N. Chile.

    [FZ]

    Gramineae, T. Cope. Flora Zambesiaca 10:2. 1999

    Inflorescences
    Inflorescence open or contracted, composed of numerous racemes scattered along a central axis; racemes often stiff, the spikelets subsessile or shortly pedicelled, biseriate, overlapping or distant.
    Spikelets
    Spikelets cuneate, laterally compressed, several-flowered with the florets loosely imbricate, disarticulating above the glumes and between the florets; glumes 1-nerved, membranous, subequal, very narrow and tapering to a mucro or awn, always exceeding the lowermost lemma and often as long as the spikelet, persistent; lemmas 3-nerved, membranous, dorsally rounded or lightly keeled, often pilose on the back, conspicuously ciliate along the lateral nerves, bluntly 2-toothed at the apex and with a fine straight awn arising from the sinus; palea ± equalling the lemma, often capitate-pilose between the keels.
    Fruits
    Caryopsis narrow, dorsally flattened, shallowly concavo-convex.
    [FTEA]

    Gramineae, W. D. Clayton, S. M. Phillips And S. A. Renvoize. Flora of Tropical East Africa. 1974

    Habit
    Tufted annuals or perennials, with leafy often branching culms
    Leaves
    Leaf-blades linear, usually flat, pointed; ligule membranous, truncate
    Inflorescences
    Inflorescence open or contracted, composed of a number of racemes scattered along a central axis; racemes often stiff, the spikelets subsessile or shortly pedicelled, biseriate, overlapping or distant
    Spikelets
    Spikelets wedge-shaped, several-flowered, with the florets loosely imbricate, disarticulating between the florets; glumes 1-nerved, very narrow and tapering to a mucro or awn, membranous, subequal, usually as long as the spikelet and always clearly exceeding the lower lemmas, persistent; lemmas 3-nerved, membranous, rounded or lightly keeled, often pilose, conspicuously ciliate along the lateral nerves, bluntly 2-toothed with a fine straight awn arising from the sinus; palea ± equalling the lemma, often capitate-pilose between the keels
    Fruits
    Caryopsis narrow, dorso-ventrally flattened, shallowly concavo-convex or plano-convex in cross-section.
    [GB]

    nonem

    Habit
    Annual (6), or perennial (2). Culms erect (2/7), or geniculately ascending (6/7), or decumbent (5/7); 3-41-110 cm long; rooting from lower nodes (1/1). Ligule an eciliate membrane. Leaf-blades persistent (7), or deciduous at the ligule (1); stiff (1), or firm (7).
    Inflorescences
    Inflorescence composed of racemes; not deciduous as a whole (7), or deciduous as a whole (1). Peduncle persistent (7), or fracturing (1). Racemes borne along a central axis; appressed (1), or ascending (6), or spreading (3); unilateral; bearing 8-9 fertile spikelets on each (1/1). Rhachis persistent (6), or deciduous from axis (2); angular. Spikelet packing broadside to rhachis; contiguous (7), or distant (1). Spikelets appressed (7/7); solitary. Fertile spikelets sessile (3), or pedicelled (5). Pedicels oblong (4/4).
    Spikelets
    Spikelets comprising 4 fertile florets (4), or 5-6 fertile florets, or 7-8 fertile florets (4), or 9 fertile florets (2); with diminished florets at the apex. Spikelets cuneate; laterally compressed; 4-6.887-14 mm long; falling entire (2), or breaking up at maturity (6); deciduous with accessory branch structures (2/2); disarticulating below each fertile floret (6/6). Rhachilla internodes glabrous (5), or pilose (3). Floret callus pubescent (6/7), or pilose (1/7).
    Fertile
    Spikelets comprising 4 fertile florets (4), or 5-6 fertile florets, or 7-8 fertile florets (4), or 9 fertile florets (2); with diminished florets at the apex. Spikelets cuneate; laterally compressed; 4-6.887-14 mm long; falling entire (2), or breaking up at maturity (6); deciduous with accessory branch structures (2/2); disarticulating below each fertile floret (6/6). Rhachilla internodes glabrous (5), or pilose (3). Floret callus pubescent (6/7), or pilose (1/7).
    Glume
    Glumes persistent (6/6); shorter than spikelet (5), or reaching apex of florets (4), or exceeding apex of florets (1); gaping. Lower glume linear (2), or lanceolate (7), or oblong (1); 0.75-0.9125-1.2 length of upper glume; membranous; without keels (2), or 1-keeled (6); 1 -veined. Lower glume lateral veins absent. Lower glume surface smooth (3), or asperulous (2), or scabrous (3). Lower glume apex acute (1), or acuminate (1), or attenuate (5), or setaceously attenuate (1); muticous (5), or awned (3). Upper glume linear (1), or lanceolate (6), or elliptic (1), or oblong (1); 1.25-1.778-2.3 length of adjacent fertile lemma; membranous; without keels (2), or 1-keeled (6); 1 -veined. Upper glume surface smooth (3), or asperulous (2), or scabrous (3). Upper glume apex acute (1), or acuminate (1), or attenuate (5), or setaceously attenuate (1); muticous (5), or awned (3); 1 -awned (3/3).
    Florets
    Fertile lemma elliptic (1), or oblong; membranous; without keel (2), or keeled; 3 -veined. Lemma midvein without distinctive roughness (7), or scaberulous (1). Lemma surface glabrous (4), or puberulous (1), or pilose (3). Lemma margins ciliate. Lemma apex dentate; 2 -fid; obtuse (3/3); mucronate (1), or awned (7); 1 -awned (7/7). Principal lemma awn apical (1), or from a sinus (7). Palea 1 length of lemma; 2 -veined. Palea surface glabrous (7), or pubescent (3). Apical sterile florets resembling fertile though underdeveloped.
    Flowers
    Anthers 3 (7/7).
    Fruits
    Caryopsis with adherent pericarp (3/3); linear (1/3), or lanceolate (1/3), or ellipsoid (2/3), or oblong (2/3); dorsally compressed (3/3); plano-convex (3/3), or concavo-convex (3/3).
    Distribution
    Africa (5), or Temperate Asia (1), or North America (1), or South America (2).

    Images

    Distribution

    Native to:

    Angola, Botswana, Burkina, Cape Provinces, Caprivi Strip, Chad, Chile North, Egypt, Eritrea, Ethiopia, Free State, Galápagos, Kenya, KwaZulu-Natal, Lesotho, Mali, Mauritania, Mexico Northeast, Mozambique, Namibia, Niger, Nigeria, Northern Provinces, Oman, Peru, Saudi Arabia, Senegal, Socotra, Somalia, Sudan, Swaziland, Tanzania, Texas, Zambia, Zimbabwe

    Trichoneura Andersson appears in other Kew resources:

    First published in Kongl. Svenska Vetensk. Acad. Handl. 1853: 148 (1855)

    Literature

    Flora of West Tropical Africa
    • Ekman in Ark. Bot. 11, 9: 1 (1912).
    • in Vet. Akad. Handl. Stockh. 1853: 148 (1855)
    Flora Zambesiaca
    • Ekman in Ark. Bot. 11 (9): 1–19 (1912).
    • in Kongl. Vetensk. Acad. Handl. 1853: 148 (1855).
    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    • in Kongl. Vet. Akad. Handl. 1853: 148 (1855)

    Sources

    Flora Zambesiaca
    Flora Zambesiaca
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    GrassBase - The Online World Grass Flora
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Kew Backbone Distributions
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2018. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

    Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2018. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0