1. Family: Poaceae Barnhart
    1. Triraphis R.Br.

      1. This genus is accepted, and its native range is Dry Parts of Africa, Arabian Peninsula, Australia, Central Brazil.

    [GB]

    nonem

    Habit
    Annual (2), or perennial (6). Rhizomes absent (5), or short (1), or elongated (2). Culms erect (4/6), or geniculately ascending (1/6), or decumbent (2/6); slender (2/2); 3-46.43-120 cm long; firm (7), or woody (1). Culm-internodes terete (1/1). Lateral branches lacking (4/5), or ample (1/5). Ligule a fringe of hairs. Leaf-blades filiform (1), or linear (7).
    Inflorescences
    Inflorescence a panicle; exserted, or embraced at base by subtending leaf (1). Panicle open (4), or contracted (3), or spiciform (1), or glomerate (1). Spikelets solitary, or in pairs (1). Fertile spikelets pedicelled.
    Spikelets
    Spikelets comprising 4 fertile florets (3), or 5 fertile florets (6), or 6-8 fertile florets (7), or 9-10 fertile florets (5), or 11 fertile florets (4), or 12-15 fertile florets (3), or 16-19 fertile florets (2), or 20-24 fertile florets (1); with diminished florets at the apex. Spikelets lanceolate (1), or oblong (7); laterally compressed; 4-7.375-15 mm long; breaking up at maturity; disarticulating below each fertile floret. Rhachilla internodes glabrous (6), or pubescent (1), or pilose (1). Floret callus brief (4), or evident (3), or elongated (1); pubescent (7), or pilose (1); obtuse (7), or acute (1).
    Fertile
    Spikelets comprising 4 fertile florets (3), or 5 fertile florets (6), or 6-8 fertile florets (7), or 9-10 fertile florets (5), or 11 fertile florets (4), or 12-15 fertile florets (3), or 16-19 fertile florets (2), or 20-24 fertile florets (1); with diminished florets at the apex. Spikelets lanceolate (1), or oblong (7); laterally compressed; 4-7.375-15 mm long; breaking up at maturity; disarticulating below each fertile floret. Rhachilla internodes glabrous (6), or pubescent (1), or pilose (1). Floret callus brief (4), or evident (3), or elongated (1); pubescent (7), or pilose (1); obtuse (7), or acute (1).
    Glume
    Glumes persistent (7), or deciduous (1); shorter than spikelet. Lower glume lanceolate; 0.7-0.8125-1 length of upper glume; membranous; 1-keeled; 1 -veined. Lower glume lateral veins absent. Lower glume apex entire (5), or dentate (3); 2 -fid (3/3); acute (5/6), or acuminate (1/6); muticous (2), or mucronate (6), or awned (1). Upper glume lanceolate; 0.75-1.012-1.3 length of adjacent fertile lemma; membranous; 1-keeled; 1 -veined. Upper glume apex dentate; 2 -fid; muticous (2), or mucronate (3), or awned (4); 1 -awned (4/4).
    Florets
    Fertile lemma elliptic (7), or oblong (1); membranous; keeled; 3 -veined. Lemma midvein eciliate (7), or ciliate (1). Lemma surface glabrous (5), or pilose (3). Lemma margins eciliate (1), or ciliate (7). Lemma apex dentate; 2 -fid; incised 0.25 of lemma length; awned; 3 -awned. Principal lemma awn from a sinus. Lateral lemma awns longer than principal (1/6), or subequal to principal (1/6), or shorter than principal (4/6). Palea 0.75 length of lemma; hyaline (1), or membranous (7); 2 -veined. Palea keels smooth (1), or scaberulous (7). Palea apex dentate (1/1). Apical sterile florets resembling fertile though underdeveloped.
    Flowers
    Lodicules 2; fleshy. Anthers 3.
    Fruits
    Caryopsis with adherent pericarp; linear (6/7), or ellipsoid (1/7); trigonous (6/6). Embryo 0.5 length of caryopsis. Hilum linear (1/1); 0.25-0.29-0.33 length of caryopsis.
    Distribution
    Africa (6), or Temperate Asia (1), or Australasia (1), or South America (1).
    [FZ]

    Gramineae, T. Cope. Flora Zambesiaca 10:2. 1999

    Habit
    Inflorescence an open or contracted, rarely spiciform panicle.
    Spikelets
    Spikelets 4- or more flowered, the florets well exserted from the glumes, laterally compressed, disarticulating above the glumes and between the florets; glumes membranous, narrowly lanceolate, subequal, 1-nerved, mostly bidentate and aristulate; lemmas keeled, scarious-membranous, 3-nerved, hairy on the lateral nerves, 3-lobed and 3-awned at the apex, the central lobe 2-toothed and awned from the sinus, the laterals lobed on the inner side; awns slender, ± straight.
    Fruits
    Caryopsis linear, trigonous in section.
    [FTEA]

    Gramineae, W. D. Clayton, S. M. Phillips And S. A. Renvoize. Flora of Tropical East Africa. 1974

    Habit
    Annuals or perennials
    Leaves
    Leaf-blades narrow
    Inflorescences
    Inflorescence an open or contracted, rarely spiciform panicle
    Spikelets
    Spikelets 4- or more flowered, the florets well exserted from the glumes, laterally compressed; glumes narrowly lanceolate, subequal, 1-nerved, mostly bidentate and aristulate; lemmas rounded on the back, scarious-membranous, 3-nerved, hairy on the side nerves, 3-lobed and 3-awned, the central lobe 2-toothed and awned from the sinus, the laterals awned from the inner side; awn slender, straight; palea a little shorter than the lemma.

    Images

    Distribution

    Doubtfully present in:

    New Guinea

    Native to:

    Angola, Botswana, Brazil West-Central, Cape Provinces, Chad, Egypt, Ethiopia, Free State, Gulf States, KwaZulu-Natal, Lesotho, Mauritania, Morocco, Mozambique, Namibia, New South Wales, Niger, Northern Provinces, Northern Territory, Queensland, Saudi Arabia, South Australia, Sudan, Tanzania, Victoria, Western Australia, Yemen, Zambia, Zimbabwe

    Introduced into:

    Belgium, Brazil Southeast, Great Britain, New Guinea, Texas

    Triraphis R.Br. appears in other Kew resources:

    First published in Prodr. Fl. Nov. Holland.: 185 (1810)

    Literature

    Flora of West Tropical Africa
    • Prod. 185 (1810).
    Flora Zambesiaca
    • Prodr.: 185 (1810).
    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    • Prodr. Fl. Nov. Holl.: 185 (1810)

    Sources

    Flora Zambesiaca
    Flora Zambesiaca
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    GrassBase - The Online World Grass Flora
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Kew Backbone Distributions
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2018. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

    Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2018. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0