1. Family: Poaceae Barnhart
    1. Yushania Keng f.

      1. This genus is accepted, and its native range is India to Central China and Philippines.

    [GB]

    nonem

    Habit
    Perennial. Rhizomes absent (3), or short (75), or elongated (3); leptomorph (1/77), or pachymorph (76/77). Culms erect (71/74), or geniculately ascending (2/74), or arching (2/74); 30-353.6-5850 cm long; woody; without nodal roots (3/5), or rooting from lower nodes (1/5), or with aerial roots from the nodes (1/5), or with root thorns from the nodes (1/5). Culm-internodes terete. Culm-nodes constricted (1/19), or flush with internodes (9/19), or swollen (10/19); without obvious supra-nodal ridge (3/8), or with distinct supra-nodal ridge (8/8). Lateral branches suffrutescent (11), or dendroid (69). Branch complement one (23/70), or two (13/70), or three (23/70), or several (46/70), or many (11/70); in a horizontal line (2/8), or in an irregular line (6/8); with subequal branches (8/11), or 1 branch dominant (3/11); as thick as stem (1/2), or thinner than stem (1/2). Culm-sheaths persistent (45/59), or tardily deciduous (10/59), or deciduous but leaving a persistent girdle (1/59), or deciduous (6/59); without auricles (45/67), or auriculate (22/67). Culm-sheath blade linear (57/69), or lanceolate (50/69), or triangular (7/69); narrower than sheath (4/4). Leaf-sheath auricles absent (62), or erect (5), or falcate (15). Ligule an eciliate membrane (70), or a ciliolate membrane (11). Leaf-blade base with a brief petiole-like connection to sheath. Leaf-blades persistent (63), or deciduous at the ligule (17); linear (13), or lanceolate (79), or oblong (5); herbaceous (32), or chartaceous (47), or coriaceous (1). Leaf-blade midrib indistinct (1/3), or evident (1/3), or conspicuous (1/3). Leaf-blade venation without cross veins (2), or with obscure cross veins (17), or with distinct cross veins (61). Leaf-blade margins cartilaginous (1/1).
    Inflorescences
    Inflorescence a panicle (22/24), or composed of racemes (1/24), or comprising only a few spikelets (1/24); terminal (22/24), or terminal and axillary (2/24); subtended by an unspecialized leaf-sheath (23/24), or a spatheole (1/24); exserted (22/24), or embraced at base by subtending leaf (2/24). Panicle open (18/20), or contracted (2/20). Racemes single (1/1); bearing 3-7 fertile spikelets on each (1/1). Spikelets solitary (24/24). Fertile spikelets sessile (1/24), or pedicelled (23/24). Pedicels filiform (2/2).
    Spikelets
    Spikelets comprising 2-6-14 fertile florets; with diminished florets at the apex (24/24). Spikelets linear (20/24), or lanceolate (4/24); laterally compressed (23/24), or subterete (1/24); 6-30.7-60 mm long; breaking up at maturity (24/24); disarticulating below each fertile floret (24/24). Spikelet callus pubescent (1/1). Rhachilla internodes glabrous (10/24), or pubescent (9/24), or pilose (5/24). Floret callus pubescent (2/3), or pilose (1/3).
    Fertile
    Spikelets comprising 2-6-14 fertile florets; with diminished florets at the apex (24/24). Spikelets linear (20/24), or lanceolate (4/24); laterally compressed (23/24), or subterete (1/24); 6-30.7-60 mm long; breaking up at maturity (24/24); disarticulating below each fertile floret (24/24). Spikelet callus pubescent (1/1). Rhachilla internodes glabrous (10/24), or pubescent (9/24), or pilose (5/24). Floret callus pubescent (2/3), or pilose (1/3).
    Glume
    Glumes persistent (24/24); shorter than spikelet (24/24). Lower glume linear (1/23), or lanceolate (8/23), or ovate (14/23); 0.8 length of upper glume; chartaceous (8/23), or herbaceous (15/23); without keels (21/22), or 1-keeled (1/22); 0-4-9 -veined. Lower glume lateral veins absent (3/24), or obscure (1/24), or distinct (21/24). Lower glume surface smooth (23/24), or scabrous (1/24); glabrous (21/24), or puberulous (2/24), or pilose (2/24). Lower glume apex obtuse (1/20), or acute (4/20), or acuminate (12/20), or attenuate (1/20), or setaceously attenuate (2/20); muticous (22/23), or mucronate (1/23). Upper glume lanceolate (10/23), or elliptic (2/23), or ovate (11/23); 0.75 length of adjacent fertile lemma; chartaceous (8/23), or herbaceous (15/23); without keels (20/22), or 1-keeled (2/22); 3 -veined (4/18), or 4 -veined (2/18), or 5 -veined (10/18), or 6 -veined (3/18), or 7 -veined (7/18), or 8 -veined (4/18), or 9 -veined (5/18), or 11 -veined (1/18). Upper glume primary vein eciliate (23/24), or ciliate (1/24). Upper glume lateral veins with cross-veins (1/1). Upper glume surface smooth (23/24), or scabrous (1/24); glabrous (21/24), or puberulous (1/24), or pilose (3/24). Upper glume apex obtuse (2/20), or acute (4/20), or acuminate (12/20), or setaceously attenuate (2/20); muticous (20/23), or mucronate (2/23), or awned (1/23); 1 -awned (1/1).
    Florets
    Fertile lemma lanceolate (7/24), or elliptic (1/24), or oblong (2/24), or ovate (16/24); chartaceous (7/22), or herbaceous (15/22); without keel (21/23), or keeled (2/23); 5-6 -veined (2/19), or 7 -veined (13/19), or 8 -veined (6/19), or 9 -veined (12/19), or 10-11 -veined (1/19). Lemma midvein without distinctive roughness (22/24), or scabrous (2/24). Lemma lateral veins obscure (1/2), or prominent (1/2). Lemma surface smooth (22/24), or asperulous (1/24), or scaberulous (1/24), or scabrous (1/24); glabrous (17/24), or puberulous (4/24), or pubescent (2/24), or pilose (2/24). Lemma margins eciliate (19/24), or ciliate (5/24), or pubescent (1/24). Lemma apex obtuse (1/23), or acute (6/23), or acuminate (14/23), or attenuate (2/23), or setaceously attenuate (2/23); muticous (21/24), or mucronate (2/24), or awned (1/24); 1 -awned (1/1). Palea 1 length of lemma; membranous (23/24), or chartaceous (1/24); 2 -veined (2/8), or 4 -veined (1/8), or 5 -veined (2/8), or 6 -veined (3/8), or 7 -veined (1/8), or 8 -veined (2/8), or 9 -veined (1/8). Palea keels smooth (22/24), or scaberulous (1/24), or scabrous (1/24); eciliate (6/24), or ciliolate (13/24), or ciliate (5/24). Palea surface glabrous (18/24), or puberulous (2/24), or pubescent (4/24). Palea apex dentate (9/9); muticous (23/24), or with excurrent keel veins (1/24). Apical sterile florets resembling fertile though underdeveloped (24/24).
    Flowers
    Lodicules 2 (1/24), or 3 (23/24); membranous (16/16); glabrous (9/24), or ciliate (15/24). Anthers 3 (23/23). Stigmas 2 (10/24), or 3 (16/24). Ovary glabrous (17/17).
    Fruits
    Caryopsis with adherent pericarp (23/23); linear (1/10), or fusiform (3/10), or ellipsoid (2/10), or oblong (4/10); trigonous (1/1); apex unappendaged (7/7). Embryo 0.2 length of caryopsis. Hilum linear (5/5).
    Distribution
    Europe (1), or Africa (4), or Temperate Asia (66), or Tropical Asia (12).

    Images

    Distribution

    Native to:

    Assam, Bangladesh, Borneo, China North-Central, China South-Central, China Southeast, East Himalaya, Laos, Myanmar, Nepal, Philippines, Taiwan, Tibet, Vietnam, West Himalaya

    Introduced into:

    France, Great Britain

    Yushania Keng f. appears in other Kew resources:

    First published in Acta Phytotax. Sin. 6: 355 (1957)

    Sources

    GrassBase - The Online World Grass Flora
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Kew Backbone Distributions
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2018. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

    Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2018. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0