1. Family: Clusiaceae Lindl.
    1. Garcinia L.

      1. This genus is accepted, and its native range is Tropics & Subtropics.

    [FTEA]

    Guttiferae, P. Bamps, N. Robson & B. Verdcourt. Flora of Tropical East Africa. 1978

    Habit
    Trees or shrubs, rarely subshrubs, secreting a yellow latex when cut
    Leaves
    Leaves opposite or sometimes subopposite or whorled, petiolate, entire, coriaceous or chartaceous, the venation usually ± prominent, often with translucent glandular canals and brownish resin canals; petiole often with a ± prominent ligulate appendage
    Flowers
    Flowers terminal or axillary, solitary or in few–many-flowered cymes, fascicles, racemes or panicles, fewer flowered in ♀ or hermaphrodite plants Male flowers: androecium of varied structure, mostly composed of 4(–5) fascicles of numerous stamens, each with filaments free or partially or completely fused together, the fascicles usually free in African species but in some extra-African ones the stamens can be totally joined to form a cup-like androecium; anthers occasionally transversely septate; sometimes with a whorl of sterile stamen bundles (“ fasciclodes ”) alternating with the stamen-bundles or forming a cushion in which the stamens are inserted, often interpreted as a fleshy cup-shaped 4–5-lobed or entire disc; ovary rudiment sometimes present Female and hermaphrodite flowers: 4(–5) stamen-bundles or staminode-bundles similar to ♂ flowers but smaller and with few members and sometimes with fasciclodes, free or fused together in a ring at the base of the ovary; ovary globose, 2–5(–12)-locular, each locule with 1 apical ovule; style usually absent; stigma ± sessile, broad, 2–5-lobed or entire, sometimes quite large and inflated, sticky
    Calyx
    Sepals 4, decussate, or sometimes 5, quincuncial, or 3, free
    Corolla
    Petals 4–5(–8), greenish white to yellow
    Male
    Male flowers: androecium of varied structure, mostly composed of 4(–5) fascicles of numerous stamens, each with filaments free or partially or completely fused together, the fascicles usually free in African species but in some extra-African ones the stamens can be totally joined to form a cup-like androecium; anthers occasionally transversely septate; sometimes with a whorl of sterile stamen bundles (“ fasciclodes ”) alternating with the stamen-bundles or forming a cushion in which the stamens are inserted, often interpreted as a fleshy cup-shaped 4–5-lobed or entire disc; ovary rudiment sometimes present
    Female
    Female and hermaphrodite flowers: 4(–5) stamen-bundles or staminode-bundles similar to ♂ flowers but smaller and with few members and sometimes with fasciclodes, free or fused together in a ring at the base of the ovary; ovary globose, 2–5(–12)-locular, each locule with 1 apical ovule; style usually absent; stigma ± sessile, broad, 2–5-lobed or entire, sometimes quite large and inflated, sticky
    Fruits
    Fruit a 1–4-seeded ± fleshy smooth or verrucose glabrous or puberulous berry, with large seeds coated in pulpy tissue.
    [FZ]

    Guttiferae, N. K. B. Robson. Flora Zambesiaca 1:2. 1961

    Habit
    Trees or shrubs, rarely shrublets, secreting a yellow latex.
    Leaves
    Leaves opposite, or sometimes subopposite or whorled, petiolate, entire, coriaceous, with venation usually ± prominent, often with translucent glandular canals and brownish resin canals; petiole with a ± prominent ligulate appendage.
    Calyx
    Sepals 4, decussate (or occasionally 5, quincuncial, or 3), free.
    Corolla
    Petals 4 (5), greenish-white to yellow.
    Flowers
    Male flowers with androecium of 4 (5) fascicles of stamens, each with filaments free or partially or completely fused together, the fascicles usually free in African species, with anthers sometimes transversely septate; and sometimes with a whorl of sterile stamen-fascicles ("fasciclodes") alternating with the stamen-fascicles or forming a cushion in which the stamens are inserted; ovary-vestige sometimes present. Female usually with 4 (5) stamen- or staminode-fascicles, similar to those of the male flowers but smaller and with fewer members, and sometimes with fasciclodes, free or fused together in a ring at the base of the ovary; ovary globular, 2–5 (12)-locular; loculi 1-ovulate; styles absent; stigma sessile, broad, 2–5-lobed or entire, sticky. Bisexual flowers like female. Flowers terminal or axillary, solitary or in few- to many-flowered cymes, fewer in the female or bisexual plants, dioecious or polygamous, rarely bisexual.
    Fruits
    Fruit a 1–4-seeded ± fleshy berry, with tough epidermis.
    Seeds
    Seeds large, arillate.

    Images

    Distribution

    Native to:

    Andaman Is., Angola, Argentina Northeast, Assam, Bangladesh, Belize, Benin, Bolivia, Borneo, Botswana, Brazil North, Brazil Northeast, Brazil South, Brazil Southeast, Brazil West-Central, Burkina, Burundi, Cabinda, Cambodia, Cameroon, Cape Provinces, Caprivi Strip, Caroline Is., Central African Repu, Chad, China South-Central, China Southeast, Colombia, Comoros, Congo, Costa Rica, Cuba, Dominican Republic, East Himalaya, Ecuador, El Salvador, Equatorial Guinea, Ethiopia, Fiji, French Guiana, Gabon, Ghana, Guatemala, Guinea, Guinea-Bissau, Gulf of Guinea Is., Guyana, Hainan, Haiti, Honduras, India, Ivory Coast, Jamaica, Jawa, Kenya, KwaZulu-Natal, Laos, Leeward Is., Lesser Sunda Is., Liberia, Madagascar, Malawi, Malaya, Mali, Maluku, Mexico Central, Mexico Gulf, Mexico Southeast, Mexico Southwest, Mozambique, Myanmar, Namibia, Nansei-shoto, Nepal, New Caledonia, New Guinea, Nicaragua, Nicobar Is., Niger, Nigeria, Northern Provinces, Northern Territory, Panamá, Paraguay, Peru, Philippines, Puerto Rico, Queensland, Rwanda, Samoa, Santa Cruz Is., Senegal, Sierra Leone, Solomon Is., Somalia, Sri Lanka, Sudan, Sulawesi, Sumatera, Suriname, Swaziland, Taiwan, Tanzania, Thailand, Tibet, Togo, Tonga, Trinidad-Tobago, Uganda, Vanuatu, Venezuela, Vietnam, Windward Is., Zambia, Zaïre, Zimbabwe

    Introduced into:

    Society Is.

    Garcinia L. appears in other Kew resources:

    Date Reference Identified As Barcode Type Status
    Nov 1, 2003 Onana, J.-M. [1864], Cameroon K000197859
    Nov 1, 2003 Onana, J.-M. [1865], Cameroon K000197861
    Jul 1, 2002 Nwaga, D. [19], Cameroon K000026958
    Jan 1, 1990 Thomas, D.W. [3306], Cameroon K000105263
    Jan 1, 1990 Thomas, D.W. [2674], Cameroon K000105264
    Thailand 46647.000
    Brenan, J.P.M. [8428], Nigeria 22125.000
    Ash [441], Ethiopia 6049.362
    Thomas, D.W. [2675], Cameroon K000105265
    Johns, R.J. [8765], Indonesia 72670.000
    Milliken, W. [880], Indonesia 62753.000
    Cheek, M. [9084], Cameroon 61668.000
    Harris, D.J. [2370], Central African Republic 60051.000
    Coode, M.J.E. [6907], Brunei 61309.000
    Coode [6019], Indonesia 55477.000
    Letouzey, R. [14052], Cameroon K000105262
    DuPuy, B. [MB 393], Madagascar 63558.000
    Davis, A.P. [1085], Madagascar 72949.000
    Frodin, D.G. [2491], New Guinea 60075.000
    Frodin, D.G. [2362A], New Guinea 63177.000
    Etuge, M. [1657], Cameroon 63805.000
    Utteridge, T.M.A. [315], Indonesia 70000.097
    Walker, J.S. [DB046], Sulawesi 73336.000
    Burgt, X.M. van der [664], Cameroon K000023275
    Burgt, X.M. van der [912], Cameroon K000460346
    s.coll. [Cat. no. s.n.], Assam K001132292
    s.coll. [Cat. no. s.n.], China K001132819
    Pennington, R.T. [10], Bolivia Rheedia 57633.000
    Pennington, T.D. [13229], Bolivia Rheedia 57453.000
    Baron, R. [6994], Madagascar Rheedia K000380197

    First published in Sp. Pl.: 443 (1753)

    Accepted by

    • Sosef, M.S.M. & Dauby, G. (2012). Contribution to the taxonomy of Garcinia (Clusiaceae) in Africa, including two new species from Gabon and a key to the Lower Guinean species PhytoKeys 17: 41-62.
    • Govaerts, R. (2003). World Checklist of Seed Plants Database in ACCESS G: 1-40325.

    Literature

    Flora of West Tropical Africa
    • —F.T.A. 1: 164.
    Flora Zambesiaca
    • Gen. Pl. ed. 5: 202 (1754).
    • Sp. Pl. 1: 443 (1753)
    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    • Pierre, Fl. Forest, Cochinchin. 1: Enum. Espèces du Genre Garcina I-XL, t. 54–83 (1882–83)
    • L., Gen. Pl., ed. 5: 202 (1754)
    • Sp. Pl.: 443 (1753)

    Sources

    Art and Illustrations in Digifolia
    Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/

    Flora Zambesiaca
    Flora Zambesiaca
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Herbarium Catalogue Specimens
    'The Herbarium Catalogue, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Published on the Internet http://www.kew.org/herbcat [accessed on Day Month Year]'. Please enter the date on which you consulted the system.
    Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/

    Interactive Key to Seed Plants of Malesia and Indo-China
    The Malesian Key Group (2010) Interactive Key to Seed Plants of Malesia and Indo-China (Version 2.0, 28 Jul 2010) The Nationaal Herbarium Nederland Leiden and The Royal Botanic Gardens Kew

    Kew Backbone Distributions
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2018. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

    Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2018. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0