1. Family: Solanaceae Juss.
    1. Genus: Physalis L.
      1. Physalis angulata L.

        This species is accepted, and its native range is Tropical & Subtropical America.

    [FZ]

    Flora Zambesiaca. Vol. 8, Part 4. Solanaceae. Gonçalves AE. 2005

    Type
    Type: Linnean specimen 247.9 (LINN, lectotype, IDC microfiche neg. 137.II.!) of a plant cultivated in the “Hortus Botanicus Upsaliensis”, Uppsala, Sweden, probably from Central America.
    General
    Erect to procumbent or prostrate, weak to ± robust, often diffusely much branched, sometimes dichotomously so, annual (or rarely ?short-lived perennial) herb, sometimes ± tinged purple, glabrous or sparsely clothed with simple, ± appressed, short and minute, usually eglandular hairs, more abundant especially on new growth, furnished also with ± sessile glands
    Branches
    Branches angular or angular-ribbed, striate, drying ± sulcate, glabrous or puberulous Branches angular or angular-ribbed, striate, drying ± sulcate, glabrous or puberulous.
    Leaves
    Leaves usually solitary; petiole (0.5)1–5(7) cm long; lamina (1. 5)2–8(10) × (0.5)1. 5–4.5(6) cm, ovate to lanceolate, sometimes elliptic or ± oblong, rarely subrotund, obovate or oblanceolate, base cuneate or attenuate, sometimes obtuse, rounded, truncate or subcordate, and often oblique or unequal-sided, ± decurrent into the petiole, apex acute or acutely acuminate, sometimes sub-acute or obtuse, deeply or coarsely dentate to entire, the teeth unequal, very acute to rather obtuse, the sinuses rounded, ± glabrous or sparsely puberulous on the nerves and sometimes also near the margins mainly beneath Leaves usually solitary; petiole (0.5)1–5(7) cm long; lamina (1.5)2–8(10) × (0.5)1.5–4.5(6) cm, ovate to lanceolate, sometimes elliptic or ± oblong, rarely subrotund, obovate or oblanceolate, base cuneate or attenuate, sometimes obtuse, rounded, truncate or subcordate, and often oblique or unequal-sided, ± decurrent into the petiole, apex acute or acutely acuminate, sometimes sub-acute or obtuse, deeply or coarsely dentate to entire, the teeth unequal, very acute to rather obtuse, the sinuses rounded, ± glabrous or sparsely puberulous on the nerves and sometimes also near the margins mainly beneath.
    Flowers
    Flowers solitary, axillary, erect to nodding. Flowers solitary, axillary, erect to nodding; pedicel greenish, violaceous or purplish, (5)6–12(16) mm long, glabrous or rarely with scattered, minute hairs, usually with ± sessile glands, in fruit elongating to 22(25) mm.
    Pedicel
    Pedicel greenish, violaceous or purplish, (5)6–12(16) mm long, glabrous or rarely with scattered, minute hairs, usually with ± sessile glands, in fruit elongating to 22(25) mm
    Calyx
    Calyx (2.5)3–5(7) mm long, (2)2.5–3.5(4) mm across at the base of the lobes, campanulate, sub-angled or ribbed, truncate or invaginated at the base, puberulous sometimes only along the nerves or subglabrous, usually with ± sessile glands more abundant towards the base, on the inside glabrous except for the lobes with ± dense, minute indumentum on the upper half or only near the apex and the margins; lobes unequal or subequal, (1. 2)1. 5–3(3.5) × 1–2 mm, ovate-triangular or deltoid to triangular-lanceolate, acute or acuminate, occasionally sub-acute or obtuse, ciliate; in fruit green to greenish-yellow, often darker veined, sometimes purple towards the base or also with purplish venation, 20–30(35) × 15–25(30) mm, ovoid or subglobose slightly 10-angled or 10-ribbed, sometimes ± terete, shortly acuminate or slightly apiculate at the summit, half to three-quarters filled by the fruit, ± glabrous, often scabrid near or at the margins and apex of the lobes, the lobes 3–7(8) × 2–4(5) mm Calyx (2.5)3–5(7) mm long, (2)2.5–3.5(4) mm across at the base of the lobes, campanulate, sub-angled or ribbed, truncate or invaginated at the base, puberulous sometimes only along the nerves or subglabrous, usually with ± sessile glands more abundant towards the base, on the inside glabrous except for the lobes with ± dense, minute indumentum on the upper half or only near the apex and the margins; lobes unequal or subequal, (1.2)1.5–3(3.5) × 1–2 mm, ovate-triangular or deltoid to triangular-lanceolate, acute or acuminate, occasionally sub-acute or obtuse, ciliate; in fruit green to greenish-yellow, often darker veined, sometimes purple towards the base or also with purplish venation, 20–30(35) × 15–25(30) mm, ovoid or subglobose slightly 10-angled or 10-ribbed, sometimes ± terete, shortly acuminate or slightly apiculate at the summit, half to three-quarters filled by the fruit, ± glabrous, often scabrid near or at the margins and apex of the lobes, the lobes 3–7(8) × 2–4(5) mm.
    Corolla
    Corolla yellow or greenish-yellow to whitish, usually unmarked, sometimes red-brown to greyish-brown or mauve at the mouth or also so towards the base, more rarely blotched with 5 fuscous or purplish markings slightly or not contrasting with the surrounding limb, (4)5–9(10) mm long, infundibular-rotate or tubular-campanulate; tube ± glabrous, with a few, sessile glands, on the inside somewhat hairy with minute hyaline hairs, also with ± sessile glands, with a ring of hyaline hairs at the mouth; limb (4)6–11(12) mm across, shortly 5-lobed, erect or spreading, occasionally reflexed when fully expanded, with dense, ± appressed, short hairs and also sessile glands on the parts not folded in bud, glabrous inside, ciliate Corolla yellow or greenish-yellow to whitish, usually unmarked, sometimes red-brown to greyish-brown or mauve at the mouth or also so towards the base, more rarely blotched with 5 fuscous or purplish markings slightly or not contrasting with the surrounding limb, (4)5–9(10) mm long, infundibular-rotate or tubular-campanulate; tube ± glabrous, with a few, sessile glands, on the inside somewhat hairy with minute hyaline hairs, also with ± sessile glands, with a ring of hyaline hairs at the mouth; limb (4)6–11(12) mm across, shortly 5-lobed, erect or spreading, occasionally reflexed when fully expanded, with dense, ± appressed, short hairs and also sessile glands on the parts not folded in bud, glabrous inside, ciliate.
    Stamens
    Stamens included or exserted, subequal or unequal, glabrous; filaments (1. 5)2–4(5) mm long, filiform, attached to the corolla tube near the base; anthers bluish or violaceous, sometimes fading yellowish, 1. 5–2.5 mm long, oblong or narrowly ovate-oblong in outline, straight after anthesis Stamens included or exserted, subequal or unequal, glabrous; filaments (1.5)2–4(5) mm long, filiform, attached to the corolla tube near the base; anthers bluish or violaceous, sometimes fading yellowish, 1.5–2.5 mm long, oblong or narrowly ovate-oblong in outline, straight after anthesis.
    Disc
    Disk 0.2–0.3 mm high, fleshy, glabrous Disk 0.2–0.3 mm high, fleshy, glabrous.
    Ovary
    Ovary 1. 2–2 × 1–1. 8 mm, subglobose or ± ovoid, glabrous.
    Style
    Style (3)3.5–5(6) mm long, filiform, straight or curved upwards
    Fruits
    Fruit green to yellow, sessile on the invaginated base of the pendulous calyx, (10)11–15(16) mm in diameter, ± globose, viscid Fruit green to yellow, sessile on the invaginated base of the pendulous calyx, (10)11–15(16) mm in diameter, ± globose, viscid.
    Seeds
    Seeds yellowish to pale brown or rufescent, 1. 3–1. 8 × 1–1. 5 mm, ovate, elliptic or ± orbicular in outline, sometimes reniform, reticulate-foveate Seeds yellowish to pale brown or rufescent, 1.3–1.8 × 1–1.5 mm, ovate, elliptic or ± orbicular in outline, sometimes reniform, reticulate-foveate.
    Note
    Chromosome number: 2n=48
    Distribution
    Native to tropical America (probably Central America), now extending northwards into Canada (Manitoba) and southwards throughout Central America and the Antilles to southern Argentina. Mozambique BOT N, ZAM W, ZAM S, ZIM N, ZIM W, ZIM S, MOZ Z, MOZ T, MOZ GI, MOZ M Zambia Zimbabwe Botswana.
    Habit
    Erect to procumbent or prostrate, weak to ± robust, often diffusely much branched, sometimes dichotomously so, annual (or rarely ?short-lived perennial) herb, sometimes ± tinged purple, glabrous or sparsely clothed with simple, ± appressed, short and minute, usually eglandular hairs, more abundant especially on new growth, furnished also with ± sessile glands.
    Pistil
    Ovary 1.2–2 × 1–1.8 mm, subglobose or ± ovoid, glabrous; style (3)3.5–5(6) mm long, filiform, straight or curved upwards.
    Cytology
    Chromosome number: 2n=48.
    [FWTA]

    Solanaceae, H. heine. Flora of West Tropical Africa 2. 1963

    Habit
    Erect glabrous annual up to 3 ft. high
    Flowers
    Flowers cream.
    [FTEA]

    Solanaceae, Jennifer M Edmonds. Oliganthes, Melongena & Monodolichopus, Maria S. Vorontsova & Sandra Knapp. Flora of Tropical East Africa. 2012

    Type
    Type: “Habitat in India utraque”, Herb. Linnaeus 247.9 (LINN!, lecto.) designated by Fernandes in Bol. Soc. Brot., Ser. 2, 44: 352 (1970) [rather than the different lectotype designated by D’Arcy in Woodson & Schery in Ann. Miss. Bot. Gard. 60: 662 (1974), fide Jarvis Order out of Chaos: 741 (2007)]
    Habit
    Annual herb up to 60 cm (rarely to 1 m) high.
    Stem
    Main stems erect, branched, greenish-brown or purple-tinged, sparsely pilose on young parts with short simple hairs, becoming glabrescent
    Leaves
    Leaves soft, dull green, alternate, ovate-lanceolate to ovate, rarely linear-lanceolate, 4.8–8.4 × 2.2–5.3 cm, bases cuneate, often oblique, sometimes decurrent, margins irregularly serrate with antrorse acute, often deep teeth, rarely sinuate or sinuate-dentate, apices acute, sparsely pilose, denser on veins, midribs and lower surfaces, becoming glabrescent; petioles 1.5–5 cm
    Flowers
    Flowers solitary, in leaf or branch axils; pedicels filiform, (4–)9–12 mm long, erect in flower, (7–)10–26 mm long, erect to recurved in fruit
    Calyx
    Calyx cupulate, 3–4.5 mm long, shortly pilose, with 5 narrowly triangular acute lobes 1.2–2.5 × 0.6–1.5 mm, margins ciliate, enlarged, persistent and glabrescent in fruit with lobes 3–6.5 × 2–2.2 mm
    Corolla
    Corolla yellow, sometimes with pale purple markings, campanulate, 0.6–1 × 0.5–1.2 cm diameter, unpleasantly aromatic, margin ciliate with five broadly triangular obtuse lobes 1–2 × 2.5–6 mm
    Stamens
    Stamens sometimes visible in corolla throat; filaments free for 2.6–3.5 mm; anthers purple or yellow and purple, oblong, bilobed, 1.2–2 × 0.4–0.7 mm
    Ovary
    Ovary brownish, ovoid, 1.5–2 × 1–2 mm, smooth, glabrous; disc ± 2 mm diameter; style sometimes exserted, 4.1–5 mm long; stigma 0.2–0.4 × 0.4–0.8 mm
    Fruits
    Fruit pale green to yellow, usually globose but distinctly 5-angled, 0.7–1.1 cm diameter, smooth, subsessile or on inverted gynobase of enlarged and inflated reticulately-veined, glabrescent, pale green, ovoid calyx, 2.2–3 × 1.8–1.9 cm, the mouth closed by connivent lobes
    Seeds
    Seeds yellow-orange, discoid to orbicular, 1.2–1.8 × 1.1–1.4 mm, compressed
    Figures
    Fig 15/12–15, p 72
    Ecology
    Ruderal of waste places, damp areas, swamp edges, riverine sand banks or weed of cultivated crops (e.g. rice); 90–1600 m
    Conservation
    Widespread; least concern (LC)
    Note
    This is often known as the “cut-leaved ground cherry”; the berries are eaten or made into preserves and pies and it is used as a vegetable in T 3. Specimens collected in Zanzibar ( Faulkner 2937 & 3129) were considered by Brenan & Meikle in 1965 to be the first African specimens of true P. minima – which is now considered to be a synonym of P. angulata. Agnew (1994) included P. minima as a distinct species, but in his first edition (1974) he mentioned that it might only be a variety of P. angulata, distinguishable by being more hairy and having smaller fruits. In his second edition he recorded that “ P. minima” occurred in K 3 5 up to 2170 m; the variation that he noted could be partly associated with higher altitude plants. No herbarium specimens of typical P. angulata from Kenya were seen during this revision.
    Distribution
    Flora districts: T3 T6 T8 Z Range: Native to tropical America, now a common weed of temperate and tropical areas, including most of Africa
    [FWTA]

    Solanaceae, H. heine. Flora of West Tropical Africa 2. 1963

    Habit
    A very variable annual, stems more or less prostrate or sometimes erect up to 3 ft. high
    Flowers
    Flowers cream
    Calyx
    Calyx in fruiting state bladder-like.

    Images

    Distribution

    Native to:

    Alabama, Argentina Northeast, Argentina Northwest, Arizona, Aruba, Bahamas, Belize, Bolivia, Brazil North, Brazil Northeast, Brazil South, Brazil Southeast, Brazil West-Central, California, Cayman Is., Colombia, Costa Rica, Cuba, Dominican Republic, Ecuador, El Salvador, French Guiana, Galápagos, Guatemala, Gulf States, Guyana, Haiti, Honduras, Jamaica, Kentucky, Leeward Is., Mexico Central, Mexico Gulf, Mexico Northeast, Mexico Northwest, Mexico Southeast, Mexico Southwest, Netherlands Antilles, New Mexico, Oman, Panamá, Paraguay, Peru, Puerto Rico, Southwest Caribbean, Suriname, Tennessee, Trinidad-Tobago, Uruguay, Venezuela, Windward Is.

    Introduced into:

    Afghanistan, Angola, Bangladesh, Belgium, Benin, Bermuda, Borneo, Botswana, Burkina, Cambodia, Cameroon, Cape Provinces, Cape Verde, Central African Repu, Chad, China South-Central, China Southeast, Comoros, Congo, Cook Is., Czechoslovakia, Djibouti, East Himalaya, Egypt, Equatorial Guinea, Ethiopia, Fiji, Free State, Gabon, Gambia, Ghana, Gilbert Is., Greece, Guinea, Guinea-Bissau, Gulf of Guinea Is., Hainan, Hawaii, Illinois, India, Ivory Coast, Japan, Jawa, Kazan-retto, Kirgizstan, Korea, KwaZulu-Natal, Laos, Lesotho, Lesser Sunda Is., Liberia, Madagascar, Mali, Maryland, Mauritania, Mauritius, Mozambique, Namibia, Nauru, Nepal, New Caledonia, New South Wales, Niger, Nigeria, Niue, Northern Provinces, Northern Territory, Pakistan, Palestine, Philippines, Phoenix Is., Queensland, Senegal, Seychelles, Society Is., Solomon Is., Somalia, Sri Lanka, Sudan, Swaziland, Tadzhikistan, Taiwan, Tanzania, Thailand, Togo, Tonga, Tuvalu, Uzbekistan, Vietnam, West Himalaya, Western Australia, Yemen, Yugoslavia, Zambia, Zimbabwe

    Physalis angulata L. appears in other Kew resources:

    Date Reference Identified As Barcode Type Status
    Feb 1, 2002 Pollard, B.J. [107], Cameroon K000109666
    Jan 1, 1997 Gardner, G. [s.n.], Brazil K001071950
    Jan 1, 1997 Burchell, W.J. [8518], Brazil K001071949
    Sep 1, 1994 Nascimento, M.S.B. [26], Brazil K001071942
    Jan 1, 1994 Barbosa da Silva, M. [3], Brazil K001071946
    Jan 1, 1994 Archer, W.A. [7773], Brazil K001071945
    Jan 1, 1994 Prance, G.T. [2550], Brazil K001071943
    Jan 1, 1994 Prance, G.T. [5271], Brazil K001071944
    Jan 1, 1994 Prance, G.T. [7718], Brazil K001071947
    Jan 1, 1992 Beck, H.T. [115], Brazil K001071938
    Jul 1, 1990 Agra, M.F. [1198], Brazil K001071939
    Jan 1, 1987 Nee, M. [34967A], Brazil K001071941
    Jan 1, 1987 Balée, W.L. [1994], Brazil K001071936
    Jan 1, 1985 Cid Ferreira, C.A. [4158], Brazil K001071937
    Jan 1, 1976 Harley, R.M. [17443], Brazil K001071935
    Jan 1, 1851 Spruce, R. [512], Brazil K001071952
    Trail, J.W.H. [514], Brazil K001071955
    Thomas, D.W. [3268], Cameroon K000028677
    Linden, J. [256], Mexico K000042253
    Hollrung, M. [892], Papua New Guinea K000759436
    Bolland, G. [17], Brazil K001071958
    Chagas e Silva, F. [75], Brazil K001071940
    Drouet, F. [2400], Brazil K001071957
    Palmer, E. [622], Mexico K000042252
    Palmer, E. [325], Mexico K000042256
    Burchell, W.J. [10070], Brazil K001071948
    Miller, J.S. [6167], Madagascar K000489018
    Thompson, S.A. [1373], Cameroon K000028678
    Kerr, J.G. [s.n.], Argentina K001071951
    González O., J. [7074], Mexico K000042254
    González O., J. [7074], Mexico K000042255
    Morton, C.V. [2556], Mexico K000042257
    Poiteau, P.A. [s.n.], French Guiana K001071954
    Glaziou, A.F.M. [13091], Brazil K001071956
    s.coll. [362], Jawa K000759435
    Spruce, R. [512], Brazil K001071953
    Jun 19, 2006 Tawadong [130948], Sabah Physalis minima K000224083
    Jan 1, 2004 Spruce, R. [6365], Ecuador Physalis minima K000201920
    s.coll. [Cat. no. 2633] Physalis minima K001116693
    Parker [s.n.], Guyana Physalis linkiana K001071960
    Gardner, G. [1083], Brazil Physalis linkiana K001071959
    Bourgeau, M. [1249], Mexico Physalis linkiana K000042322

    First published in Sp. Pl.: 183 (1753)

    Accepted by

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    Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/

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    Flora Zambesiaca
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

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    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

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    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Herbarium Catalogue Specimens
    'The Herbarium Catalogue, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Published on the Internet http://www.kew.org/herbcat [accessed on Day Month Year]'. Please enter the date on which you consulted the system.
    Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/

    Kew Backbone Distributions
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2018. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

    Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2018. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0