1. Family: Solanaceae Juss.
    1. Genus: Physalis L.
      1. Physalis peruviana L.

        This species is accepted, and its native range is Bolivia to W. Brazil.

    [FZ]

    Flora Zambesiaca. Vol. 8, Part 4. Solanaceae. Gonçalves AE. 2005

    Type
    Type: Linnean specimen 247.7 (LINN, holotype, IDC microfiche neg. 137.I.4!) of a plant cultivated in the “Hortus Botanicus Upsaliensis”, Uppsala (Sweden), raised from seeds carried (or obtained) by Alströmer from Lima (Peru).
    General
    Erect or ascending, occasionally trailing or straggling, often ± robust and diffusely ± branched, suffruticose or herbaceous with perennial base, 0.3–2.5 m high, arising from a stout, woody, sometimes creeping rootstock, unpleasantly scented, sometimes tinged purple or mauve, ± densely clothed all over with simple, fine, multicellular, white or greyish to brownish, patent to appressed, often long, usually eglandular hairs
    Pedicel
    Pedicel (5)6–18 mm long, densely clothed with ± patent hairs, in fruit elongating to 23 mm
    Ovary
    Ovary 2–2.5 × 1. 5–2 mm, ovoid or ± globose, glabrous.
    Style
    Style purple, 6–8 mm long, filiform, straight or slightly curved upwards
    Note
    Chromosome number: 2n=48 Cultivated mainly for its edible fruits, often occurring as an escape or as a weed of cultivation and in disturbed ground. Common name: “Cape Gooseberry”.
    Distribution
    BOT SE, ZAM N, ZAM W, ZAM C, ZAM S, ZIM N, ZIM C, ZIM E, ZIM S, MAL N, MAL C, MAL S, MOZ N, MOZ T, MOZ MS, MOZ M Native to tropical South America, now widely naturalized in the tropics and subtropics. Malawi Mozambique Zambia Zimbabwe Botswana.
    Habit
    Erect or ascending, occasionally trailing or straggling, often ± robust and diffusely ± branched, suffruticose or herbaceous with perennial base, 0.3–2.5 m high, arising from a stout, woody, sometimes creeping rootstock, unpleasantly scented, sometimes tinged purple or mauve, ± densely clothed all over with simple, fine, multicellular, white or greyish to brownish, patent to appressed, often long, usually eglandular hairs.
    Branches
    Branches obsoletely angular to angular-ribbed, striate, drying sulcate. Branches obsoletely angular to angular-ribbed, striate, drying sulcate
    Leaves
    Leaves solitary or geminate; petiole 0.5–5.5 cm long, rather sheathing at the base; lamina membranous or papyraceous, (2)3–16 × (1.5)2–11 cm, ovate-cordiform or ovate, often broadly so, occasionally subrotund, ± deltate or rhombic, base ± cordate to broadly cuneate, sometimes rounded or truncate, and often oblique or unequal-sided, apex acuminate or acute, ± entire to coarsely sinuate-dentate or dentate, the few teeth unequal, ± triangular, obtuse or acute, the sinuses rounded, ± densely clothed with somewhat appressed hairs, more abundant beneath and along the nerves and margins, densely ciliate. Leaves solitary or geminate; petiole 0.5–5.5 cm long, rather sheathing at the base; lamina membranous or papyraceous, (2)3–16 × (1. 5)2–11 cm, ovate-cordiform or ovate, often broadly so, occasionally subrotund, ± deltate or rhombic, base ± cordate to broadly cuneate, sometimes rounded or truncate, and often oblique or unequal-sided, apex acuminate or acute, ± entire to coarsely sinuate-dentate or dentate, the few teeth unequal, ± triangular, obtuse or acute, the sinuses rounded, ± densely clothed with somewhat appressed hairs, more abundant beneath and along the nerves and margins, densely ciliate
    Flowers
    Flowers solitary, axillary, erect to nodding; pedicel (5)6–18 mm long, densely clothed with ± patent hairs, in fruit elongating to 23 mm. Flowers solitary, axillary, erect to nodding.
    Calyx
    Calyx 6–9(10) mm long, 4–6(7) mm across at the base of the lobes, cylindric to campanulate, sub-angled, truncate or invaginated at the base, densely villous, on the inside glabrous except for the lobes with ± dense, short indumentum towards the apex, near the margins and along the midrib; lobes subequal or unequal, 4–6 × 2–4.5 mm, ovate-triangular to lanceolate, acute or acuminate; in fruit dark yellow when ripe, sometimes with purplish base and venation, 30–40(50) × (20)25–30 mm, ovoid, 10-ribbed or slightly 10-angled, acuminate, half filled by the fruit, persistently hairy, the lobes up to 7–10 × 4–7 mm. Calyx 6–9(10) mm long, 4–6(7) mm across at the base of the lobes, cylindric to campanulate, sub-angled, truncate or invaginated at the base, densely villous, on the inside glabrous except for the lobes with ± dense, short indumentum towards the apex, near the margins and along the midrib; lobes subequal or unequal, 4–6 × 2–4.5 mm, ovate-triangular to lanceolate, acute or acuminate; in fruit dark yellow when ripe, sometimes with purplish base and venation, 30–40(50) × (20)25–30 mm, ovoid, 10-ribbed or slightly 10-angled, acuminate, half filled by the fruit, persistently hairy, the lobes up to 7–10 × 4–7 mm
    Corolla
    Corolla pale yellow or yellow, blotched with 5 ± dark violet, purplish or brownish markings strongly contrasting with the surrounding limb, sometimes continued by veins along the lobes, (9)10–15 mm long, sub-campanulate-rotate or campanulate, occasionally infundibular; tube subglabrous, on the inside with dense felted indumentum from near the insertion of the stamens to the mouth; limb (10)12–19(20) mm across, sublobed, widely spreading, on the outside with sparse, relatively long hairs on the parts not folded in bud, more dense and short at the apex and near the margins of the lobes, glabrous or subglabrous inside, densely ciliate. Corolla pale yellow or yellow, blotched with 5 ± dark violet, purplish or brownish markings strongly contrasting with the surrounding limb, sometimes continued by veins along the lobes, (9)10–15 mm long, sub-campanulate-rotate or campanulate, occasionally infundibular; tube subglabrous, on the inside with dense felted indumentum from near the insertion of the stamens to the mouth; limb (10)12–19(20) mm across, sublobed, widely spreading, on the outside with sparse, relatively long hairs on the parts not folded in bud, more dense and short at the apex and near the margins of the lobes, glabrous or subglabrous inside, densely ciliate
    Stamens
    Stamens included or slightly exserted, subequal; filaments purple, (2)3–4(4.5) mm long, filiform, attached to the corolla tube near the base, furnished with a few hairs; anthers bluish to purple-red, 3–4 mm long, oblong in outline, straight after anthesis. Stamens included or slightly exserted, subequal; filaments purple, (2)3–4(4.5) mm long, filiform, attached to the corolla tube near the base, furnished with a few hairs; anthers bluish to purple-red, 3–4 mm long, oblong in outline, straight after anthesis
    Disc
    Disk 0.3–0.4 mm high, fleshy, glabrous. Disk 0.3–0.4 mm high, fleshy, glabrous
    Pistil
    Ovary 2–2.5 × 1.5–2 mm, ovoid or ± globose, glabrous; style purple, 6–8 mm long, filiform, straight or slightly curved upwards.
    Fruits
    Fruit green turning golden or yellow to orange when ripe, subsessile or with a gynobase up to c. 0.8 mm long on the invaginated base of the erect to pendulous calyx, 11–20 × 10–15 mm, ovoid, ellipsoid or ± globose. Fruit green turning golden or yellow to orange when ripe, subsessile or with a gynobase up to c.  0.8 mm long on the invaginated base of the erect to pendulous calyx, 11–20 × 10–15 mm, ovoid, ellipsoid or ± globose
    Seeds
    Seeds brownish, 2 × 1.5–1.8 mm, ovate to orbicular in outline, sometimes reniform, reticulate-foveate all over. Seeds brownish, 2 × 1. 5–1. 8 mm, ovate to orbicular in outline, sometimes reniform, reticulate-foveate all over
    Cytology
    Chromosome number: 2n=48.
    [FWTA]

    Solanaceae, H. heine. Flora of West Tropical Africa 2. 1963

    Habit
    Erect perennial up to 3 ft. high, densely hairy, from a creeping rootstock.
    [FTEA]

    Solanaceae, Jennifer M Edmonds. Oliganthes, Melongena & Monodolichopus, Maria S. Vorontsova & Sandra Knapp. Flora of Tropical East Africa. 2012

    Type
    Type: cultivated Hort. Uppsala, “Habitat Limae”. Alstoemer, Herb. Linnaeus 247.7 (LINN!, lecto.) designated by Fernandes in Garcia de Orta, 17(3): 8 (1969) [and not lectotype selected by Heine in Aubrevillé & Leroy, Fl. Nouv-Caled., 7: 132 (1976 cited as 1975) fide Jarvis, Order out of Chaos: 742 (2007)]
    Habit
    Perennial herbs to 1.6 m high, sometimes annual, occasionally shrubby and woody basally.
    Stem
    Main stems prostrate to erect and spreading, usually muchbranched, sometimes straggling or trailing, with thick woody tap root; stems light to brownish-green, sometimes angular; all vegetative parts densely villous/pubescent, often appearing light brownish yellow
    Leaves
    Leaves alternate, occasionally opposite, usually membranaceous, green to greyish-green, ovate to broadly ovate, 4.5–7(–11) × 3–5.5(–8) cm, bases cordate to sub-cordate, often oblique, margins entire to sinuate, sometimes sinuate-dentate with few shallow obtuse to acute lobes, apices acuminate to acute, pubescent, denser on veins, midribs and lower surfaces; petioles 1.2–5.2 cm
    Flowers
    Flowers solitary, axillary; pedicels 6–12 mm and erect, rarely curved apically, 7–16 mm long and usually recurved in fruit, villous
    Calyx
    Calyx light green, cupulate to campanulate, 5–10 mm long with five triangular acute lobes 3.5–6 × 1.3–3 mm, villous externally, enlarged and persistent in fruit, with lobes 5–10 × 2–5.5 mm
    Corolla
    Corolla yellow or greenish-yellow with black, grey, brown, crimson or purple dark basal spots or blotches and an internal ring of yellowish hairs in throat below anthers, broadly campanulate, 1–1.6 cm long and 0.9–1.9 cm diameter, shortly pubescent externally, margin undulating, ciliate and entire or with five broadly triangular obtuse lobes 0.7–2 × to 3 mm. Stamens often unequal, exserted; filaments free for 2.5–5 mm; anthers usually equal and tinged purple, oblong, bilobed, 3–3.8 × 1–1.7 mm, always exposed in throat of corolla
    Ovary
    Ovary smooth, brownish, 1.5–2 × 1.7–3 mm, ovoid, glabrous; disc 0.7–1 × 2.1–3.5 mm; style often exserted, 4.5–7 mm long; stigma 0.3–0.8 mm diameter, often shallowly bilobed
    Fruits
    Fruit a smooth greenish berry maturing to yellow, orange or red, globose or ovoid, 8–15 mm diameter, enclosed by enlarged and inflated pubescent, chartaceous, greenish-yellow, reticulately- and often purple-veined bladder-like urceolate 5–10-angled calyx, 3–4.4 × 2–3.5 cm, the mouth closed by connivent calyx lobes
    Seeds
    Seeds yellowish to brownish, orbicular to elliptic, 1.6–2 × 1.2–1.7 mm, compressed
    Figures
    Fig 15/16–23, p 72
    Ecology
    Naturalised and often common weed of shambas, waste and disturbed places, fallow land, plantation areas, river-banks, secondary bushland, forest margins and clearings; 900–2500 m
    Conservation
    Widespread; least concern (LC)
    Note
    Commonly known as the Cape Gooseberry (derived from its introduction from the Cape, where it became widely naturalised), ground cherry or jam berry, this species is now cultivated for its fruits throughout the world. In East Africa the fruits are widely eaten and sold in markets. It is also used as a herbal medicine by midwives in U 2.
    Distribution
    Flora districts: U1 U2 U4 K1 K2 K3 K4 K5 K6 T1 T2 T3 T4 T5 T6 T7 T8 Range: Native to South America but introduced throughout the world to warm and temperate regions, including throughout Africa from Sierre Leone to Ethiopia and S to South Africa Range: Often locally naturalised

    Images

    Distribution

    Native to:

    Bolivia, Brazil North, Brazil West-Central, Ecuador

    Introduced into:

    Angola, Ascension, Austria, Azores, Baleares, Bangladesh, Belgium, Bermuda, Botswana, Brazil South, Brazil Southeast, Cameroon, Canary Is., Cape Provinces, Cape Verde, Central African Repu, Chad, Chile Central, China South-Central, China Southeast, Colombia, Congo, Cook Is., Costa Rica, Czechoslovakia, Dominican Republic, East Himalaya, Equatorial Guinea, Eritrea, Ethiopia, Fiji, Galápagos, Ghana, Gilbert Is., Great Britain, Guinea, Gulf of Guinea Is., Haiti, Hawaii, India, Italy, Jamaica, Jawa, Juan Fernández Is., Kazan-retto, Kenya, KwaZulu-Natal, Lebanon-Syria, Lesotho, Lesser Sunda Is., Madagascar, Madeira, Malawi, Mauritius, Mexico Central, Mexico Gulf, Mexico Northeast, Mexico Northwest, Mexico Southeast, Mexico Southwest, Morocco, Mozambique, Myanmar, Namibia, Nepal, New Caledonia, New Guinea, New South Wales, Nigeria, Niue, Norfolk Is., Northern Provinces, Ogasawara-shoto, Pakistan, Palestine, Peru, Philippines, Portugal, Puerto Rico, Queensland, Rwanda, Réunion, Samoa, Seychelles, Sierra Leone, Society Is., Somalia, South Australia, Spain, Sri Lanka, St.Helena, Sudan, Swaziland, Tanzania, Tasmania, Thailand, Tonga, Trinidad-Tobago, Tristan da Cunha, Uganda, Venezuela, Victoria, Vietnam, West Himalaya, Western Australia, Zambia, Zimbabwe

    Common Names

    English
    Chinese gooseberry

    Physalis peruviana L. appears in other Kew resources:

    Date Reference Identified As Barcode Type Status
    Aug 1, 2010 Cook, C. [107], Irian Jaya K000612218
    Jan 1, 2008 Ekema, N. [508], Cameroon K000008827
    Mar 1, 2005 Tchiengue, B. [1969], Cameroon K000436205
    Oct 1, 2003 Pollard, B.J. [645], Cameroon K000212625
    Oct 1, 2003 Pollard, B.J. [523], Cameroon K000212627
    Oct 1, 2003 Biye, E. [113], Cameroon K000212626
    Feb 1, 2002 Pollard, B.J. [165], Cameroon K000109668
    Dec 1, 2000 Etuge, M. [4589], Cameroon K000339158
    Feb 1, 2000 Cheek, M. [8751], Cameroon K000339157
    Feb 1, 2000 Etuge, M. [3459], Cameroon K000339156
    Feb 1, 2000 Etuge, M. [2209], Cameroon K000339159
    Feb 1, 2000 Zapfack, L. [783], Cameroon K000339154
    Feb 1, 2000 Buzgo, M. [692], Cameroon K000339155
    Jan 1, 1993 Tchouto (Mbatchou), P. [331], Cameroon K000190191
    Jan 1, 1991 Zarucchi, J.L. [7534], Madagascar K000489019
    Jan 1, 1985 Thomas, D.W. [4624], Cameroon K000028669
    Jan 1, 1976 Croat, T.B. [28474], Madagascar K000489024
    Hinton, G.B. [3431], Mexico K000042193
    Hepper, F.N. [1966], Cameroon K000028673
    Hepper, F.N. [1966], Cameroon K000028674
    Forster [s.n.], South Africa K000405943
    Gentry, A. [11224], Madagascar K000489027
    Breteler, F.J. [198], Cameroon K000028668
    Pringle, C.G. [8275], Mexico K000042191
    Pringle, C.G. [11056], Mexico K000042192
    Dorr, L.J. [2861], Madagascar K000489025
    Wallich, N. [Cat. no. 2634], Nepal K001116700
    Wallich, N. [Cat. no. 2634], Nepal K001116701
    Tiyoy, L.M. [1334], Uganda K000449280
    De Silva, F. [Cat. no. 2634] K001116708
    Brunt, M.A. [695], Cameroon K000028670
    s.coll. [Cat. no. 2634] K001116694
    s.coll. [Cat. no. 2634] K001116695
    s.coll. [Cat. no. 2634] K001116696
    s.coll. [Cat. no. 2634] K001116697
    s.coll. [Cat. no. 2634] K001116698
    s.coll. [Cat. no. 2634] K001116702
    s.coll. [Cat. no. 2634], India K001116703
    s.coll. [Cat. no. 2634] K001116709
    s.coll. [Cat. no. 2634] K001116710
    s.coll. [Cat. no. 2634] K001116711
    s.coll. [Cat. no. 2634] K001116704
    s.coll. [Cat. no. 2634] K001116705
    s.coll. [Cat. no. 2634] K001116706
    s.coll. [Cat. no. 2634] K001116707

    First published in Sp. Pl. ed. 2: 1670 (1763)

    Accepted by

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    Literature

    Flora of West Tropical Africa
    • Baldwin & Speese in Bull. Torrey Bot. Club 78, 3: 255, 257 (1951)
    • F.T.A. 4, 2: 248
    • Sp. Pl. ed. 2, 1670 (1763)
    Flora Zambesiaca
    • Fl. Cabo Verde, fam. 71: 37 (2002).
    • Agnew, Upland Kenya Wild Fl., ed. 2: 244 (1994).
    • Moriarty, Wild Fl. Malawi: 81, t. 82.4 (1975).
    • Ann. Naturhist. Mus. Wien 77: 42 (1973).
    • Fanshawe, For. Res. Bull. 22: 33 (1973).
    • Ross, Fl. Natal: 308 (1972).
    • Garcia de Orta 17: 279 (1969).
    • Merxmüller, Prodr. Fl. SW. Afrika, fam. 124: 9 (1969).
    • Binns, First Check List Herb. Fl. Malawi: 98 (1968).
    • Rhodora 69: 113 (1967).
    • Ivens, East Afr. Weeds: 218, fig. 108 (1967).
    • Watt & Breyer-Brandwijk, Med. & Pois. Pl. S. & E. Africa, ed. 2: 989 (1962).
    • Kirkia 1: 62 (1961).
    • J. Williamson, Useful Pl. Nyasaland: 97 (1956).
    • Common Rhod. Weeds: fig. 87 (1955).
    • Wild, S. Rhod. Bot. Dict.: 112 (1953)
    • Bull. Torrey Bot. Club 78, 3: 254–257 (1951).
    • Marloth, Fl. S. Africa 3, 1: 117 (1932).
    • De Wildeman, Pl. Bequaert. 1: 412 (1922).
    • De Wildeman & Staner, Contr. Fl. Katanga: 182 (1921).
    • T. & H. Durand, Syll. Fl. Congol.: 395 (1909).
    • F.T.A. 4, 2: 248 (1906).
    • F.C. 4, 2: 106 (1904)
    • A. de Candolle, Prodr. 13, 1: 440 (1852).
    • Sp. Pl., ed. 2: 1670 (1763).
    Kew Backbone Distributions
    • Verloove, F. (2018-coninuously updated). Manual of the Alien Plants of Belgium http://alienplantsbelgium.be.
    • Jaramillo Díaz, P. & Guézou, A. (2017). CDF Checklist of Galapagos Vascular Plants - FCD Lista de especies de Plantas Vasculares de Galápagos http://www.darwinfoundation.org/datazone/checklists/vascular-plants/.
    • Parslow, R. & Bennallick, I. (2017). The new flora of the Isles of Scilly: 1-539. Parslow Press.
    • Forzza, R.C., Zappi, D. & Souza, V.C. (2016-continuously updated). Flora do Brasil 2020 em construção http://reflora.jbrj.gov.br/reflora/listaBrasil/ConsultaPublicaUC/ResultadoDaConsultaNovaConsulta.do.
    • Baksh-Comeau, Y., Maharaj, S.S., Adams, C.D., Harris, S.A., Filer, D.L. & Hawthorne, W.D. (2016). An annotated checklist of the vascular plants of Trinidad and Tobago with analysis of vegetation types and botanical 'hotspots' Phytotaxa 250: 1-431.
    • Villaseñor, J.L. (2016). Checklist of the native vascular plants of Mexico Revista Mexicana de Biodiversidad 87: 559-902.
    • Sykes, W.R. (2016). Flora of the Cook Islands: 1-973. National Tropical Botanical Garden, Hawaii.
    • Hammel, B.E., Grayum, M.H., Herrera, C. & Zamora, N. (eds.) (2015). Manual de Plantas de Costa Rica. Volumen VIII. Dicotyledóneas (Sabiaceae-Zygophyllaceae) Monographs in Systematic Botany from the Missouri Botanical Garden 131: 1-657. Missouri Botanical Garden.
    • Darbyshire, I., Kordofani, M., Farag, I., Candiga, R. & Pickering, H. (eds.) (2015). The Plants of Sudan and South Sudan: 1-400. Kew publishing, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Dobignard, A. & Chatelain, C. (2013). Index synonymique de la flore d'Afrique du nord 5: 1-451. Éditions des conservatoire et jardin botaniques, Genève.
    • Jørgensen, P.M., Nee, M.H. & Beck., S.G. (eds.) (2013). Catálogo de las plantas vasculares de Bolivia Monographs in Systematic Botany from the Missouri Botanical Garden 127: 1-1741. Missouri Botanical Garden.
    • Brundu, G. & Camarda, I. (2013). The Flora of Chad: a checklist and brief analysis PhytoKeys 23: 1-18.
    • Girmansyah, D. & al. (eds.) (2013). Flora of Bali an annotated checklist: 1-158. Herbarium Bogorensis, Indonesia.
    • Mostaph, M.K. & Uddin, S.B. (2013). Dictionary of plant names of Bangladesh, Vasc. Pl.: 1-434. Janokalyan Prokashani, Chittagong, Bangladesh.
    • Edmonds, J. (2012). Flora of Tropical East Africa Solanaceae: 1-239.
    • Acevedo-Rodríguez, P. & Strong, M.T. (2012). Catalogue of seed plants of the West Indies Smithsonian Contributions to Botany 98: 1-1192.
    • Castroviejo, S. (ed.) in Castroviejo, S. & al. (eds.) (2012). Flora Iberica 11: 1-672. Real Jardín Botánico, CSIC, Madrid.
    • Idárraga-Piedrahita, A., Ortiz, R.D.C., Callejas Posada, R. & Merello, M. (eds.) (2011). Flora de Antioquia: Catálogo de las Plantas Vasculares 2: 1-939. Universidad de Antioquia, Medellín.
    • Lisowski, S. (2009). Flore (Angiospermes) de la République de Guinée Scripta Botanica Belgica 41: 1-517.
    • Gremmen, N. & Halbertsma, R.L. Gremmen, N. & Halbertsma, R.L. (2009). Alien plants and their impact on Tristan da Cunha 2: 1-307. Overseas Territories Environment Programme (OTEP).
    • Zuloaga, F.O., Morrone, O. , Belgrano, M.J., Marticorena, C. & Marchesi, E. (eds.) (2008). Catálogo de las Plantas Vasculares del Cono Sur Monographs in Systematic Botany from the Missouri Botanical Garden 107: 1-3348. Missouri Botanical Garden.
    • Figueiredo, E. & Smith, G.F. (2008). Plants of Angola Strelitzia 22: 1-279. National Botanical Institute, Pretoria.
    • Hokche, O., Berry, P.E. & Huber, O. (eds.) (2008). Nuevo Catálogo de la Flora Vascular de Venezuela: 1-859. Fundación Instituto Botánico de Venezuela.
    • Hedberg, I., Kelbessa, E., Edwards, S., Demissew, S. & Persson, E. (eds.) (2006). Flora of Ethiopia and Eritrea 5: 1-690. The National Herbarium, Addis Ababa University, Ethiopia & The Department of Systematic Botany, Upps.
    • Thulin, M. (ed.) (2006). Flora of Somalia 3: 1-626. The Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Gonçalves, A.E. (2005). Flora Zambesiaca 8(4): 1-124. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Sita, P. & Moutsambote, J.-M. (2005). Catalogue des plantes vasculaires du Congo, ed. sept. 2005: 1-158. ORSTOM, Centre de Brazzaville.
    • Danin, A. (2004). Distribution Atlas of Plants in the Flora Palaestina area: 1-517. The Israel Academy of Sciences and Humanities, Jerusalem.
    • Fairhurst, W. (2004). Flowering Plants of Ascension island: 1-300. Higham Press, Shirland, Alfreton, England.
    • Germishuizen, G. & Meyer, N.L. (eds.) (2003). Plants of Southern Africa: an annotated checklist. Strelitzia 14.: i-vi, 1-1231. National Botanical Institute, Pretoria.
    • Kress, W.J. et al. (2003). Checklist of the Trees, Shrubs, Herbs, and Climbers of Myanmar: 1-590. National Museum of Natural History, Washington DC.
    • Grierson, A.J.C. & Long, D.G. (2001). Flora of Bhutan 2: 1-1675. Royal Botanic Gardens, Edinburgh.
    • Scott, A.J. (2000). Flore des Mascareignes 128: 1-41. IRD Éditions, MSIRI, RBG-Kew, Paris.
    • Press, J.R. et al. (2000). Annotated Checklist of the Flowering Plants of Nepal: i-x, 1-430. Natural History Museum, London.
    • Wagner, W.L., Herbst, D.R. & Sohmer, S.H. (1999). Manual of the Flowering Plants of Hawai'i, rev. ed., 2: 989-1918. University of Hawai'i Press, Bishop Museum Press.
    • Aedo, C., Tellería, M.T. & Velayos, M. (eds.) (1999). Bases Documentales para la Flora de Guinea Ecuatorial; Plantas vascularis y hongos: 1-414. CSIC, real jardín Botánico, Madrid.
    • Gaur, R.D. (1999). Flora of the district of Garhwal north west Himalaya: 1-811. Transmedia, Srinagar, India.
    • Welsh, S.L. (1998). Flora Societensis: 1-420. E.P.S. Inc. Utah.
    • D'Arcy, W.G. & Rakotozafy, A. (1994). Flore de Madagascar et des Comores (Plantes Vasculaires) 176: 1-146. Typographie Firmin-Didot et Cie., Paris.
    • Castle, G.E. (1994). Flore des Seychelles Dicotylédones: 1-663. Orstom Editions.
    • Wu, Z. & Raven, P.H. (eds.) in Flora of China Editorial Committee (1994). Flora of China 17: 1-378. Science Press (Beijing) & Missouri Botanical Garden Press (St. Louis).
    • Hansen, A. & Sunding, P. (1993). Flora of Macaronesia. Checklist of vascular plants. 4. revised edition Sommerfeltia 17: 1-295.
    • H?, P.-H. (1993). Câyc? Vi?tnam. An Illustrated flora of Vietnam 2(2): 611-1191. Pham-hoang Ho, Montréal.
    • Smith, A.C. (1991). Flora Vitiensis Nova. A new flora for Fiji (Spermatophytes only) 5: 1-626. Pacific Tropical Botanical Garden, Lawai.
    • Dassanayake (ed.) (1988). A Revised Handbook to the Flora of Ceylon 6: 1-424. Oxford & IBH Publishing Co. PVT. LTD., New Delhi, Calcutta.
    • Fosberg, F.R. & Sachet, M.-H. (1987). Flora of the Gilbert Island, Kiribati, Checklist Atoll Research Bulletin 295: 1-33.
    • Kobayashi, S. & Ono, M. (1987). A Revised List of Vascular Plants Indigenous and Introduced to the Bonin (Ogasawara) and the Volcano (Kazan) Islands Ogasawara Research 13: 1-55.
    • Nasir, Y.J. (1985). Flora of Pakistan 168: 1-61. Department of Botany, University of Karachi, Karachi.
    • Symon, D.E. (1985). The Solanaceae of New Guinea Journal of the Adelaide botanic gardens 8: 1-171.
    • Troupin, G. (ed.) (1985). Flora du Rwanda 3: 1-729. Musee Royal de l'Afrique Centrale.
    • Mouterde, P. (1983). Nouvelle flore du Liban se de la Syrie 3: 1-578. Dar El-Machreq Sarl, Beyrouth, Liban.
    • Purdie, R.W., Symon, D.E. & Haegi, L. (1982). Flora of Australia 29: 1-208. Australian Government Publishing Service, Canberra.
    • Brown, L.C. (1982). The Flora and Fauna of St Helena: 1-88. Land Resources Development Centre, Surbiton, England.
    • Boulvert, Y. (1977). Catalogue de la Flore de Centrafrique 2(1): 1-85. ORSTROM, Bangui.
    • Heine, H. (1976). Flore de la Nouvelle-Calédonie et Dépendances 7: 1-212. Muséum National d'Histoire Naturelle, Paris.
    • Tutin, T.G. & al. (eds.) (1972). Flora Europaea 3: 1-370. Cambridge University Press.
    • Sykes, W.R. (1970). Contributions to the flora of Niue Bulletin, New Zealand Department of Scientific and Industrial Research 200: 1-321.
    • Backer, C.A. & Bakhuizen van den Brink, R.C. in Backer, C.A. & Bakhuizen van den Brink, R. C. (1965). Flora of Java 2: 1-641. N.V.P. Noordhoff, Groningen, The Netherlands.
    • Hepper, F.N. (ed.) (1963). Flora of West Tropical Africa, ed. 2, 2: 1-544.
    • Yuncker, T.G. (1959). Plants of Tonga Bernice P. Bishop Museum Bulletin 220: 1-283.
    • Craib, W.G. (1954). Florae Siamensis enumeratio 3(2): 1-81. Siam society, Bangkok, Thailand.
    • Christopherson, E. (1935). Flowering Plants of Samoa Bernice P. Bishop Museum Bulletin 128: 1-221.
    • Merrill, E.D. (1923). An enumeration of Philippine flowering plants 3: 1-628. Bureau of Science, Manila.
    • Britton, N. (1918). Flora of Bermuda: 1-585. Charles Scribner's Sons, New York.
    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    • Fl. Eth. 5: 153 (2006).
    • Fl. Somalia 3: 202 (2006);
    • F.Z. 8(4): 47 (2005);
    • Fl. Egypt 6: 67 (1998);
    • U.K.W.F. 2nd ed.: 244 (1994);
    • E.P.A. 2: 859 (1963);
    • F.W.T.A. 2nd ed., 2: 329 (1963);
    • Rhodora 69: 141 (1958);
    • U.O.P.Z.: 411 (1949);
    • W.F.K.: 90 (1948)
    • F.P.N.A. 2: 205 (1947), as P. pubescens;
    • Durand & Durand, Syll. Fl. Cong.: 395 (1909);
    • F.T.A. 4, 2: 248 (1906);
    • Fl. Cap. 4(1): 106 (1904);
    • DC., Prodr. 13(1): 440 (1852)
    • Lamarck, Encycl. Méth. Bot. 2: 101 (1786)
    • Sp. Pl. ed. 2: 1670 (1763)

    Sources

    Flora Zambesiaca
    Flora Zambesiaca
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Flora of West Tropical Africa
    Flora of West Tropical Africa
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Herbarium Catalogue Specimens
    'The Herbarium Catalogue, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Published on the Internet http://www.kew.org/herbcat [accessed on Day Month Year]'. Please enter the date on which you consulted the system.
    Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/

    Kew Backbone Distributions
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2018. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

    Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2018. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

    Plants and People Africa
    Common Names from Plants and People Africa http://www.plantsandpeopleafrica.com/
    © Plants and People Africa http://www.plantsandpeopleafrica.com http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/