1. Family: Solanaceae Juss.
    1. Genus: Physalis L.
      1. Physalis pubescens L.

        This species is accepted, and its native range is Tropical & Subtropical America.

    [FZ]

    Flora Zambesiaca. Vol. 8, Part 4. Solanaceae. Gonçalves AE. 2005

    General
    Erect to procumbent or prostrate, usually slender and diffusely much branched, annual herb, said to reach 2 m, probably much less in the Flora Zambesiaca area, sometimes tinged purple, ± viscid, ± densely clothed with simple, fine, usually multicellular, greyish, whitish or hyaline, spreading, eglandular hairs, sometimes also glandular hairs of varying size, rarely subglabrous, furnished with ± sessile glands too
    Pedicel
    Pedicel 3–4(5) mm long, densely pubescent-villous, in fruit elongated to 7(8) mm
    Disc
    Disk 0.3–0.4 mm high, fleshy, glabrous Disk 0.3–0.4 mm high, fleshy, glabrous.
    Ovary
    Ovary 1. 5 × 1 mm, ellipsoid, glabrous.
    Style
    Style 3 mm long, filiform, straight
    Fruits
    Fruit yellow or orange when ripe, with a gynobase 0.4–0.5 mm long on the invaginated base of the drooping to pendulous calyx, 7–8 mm in diameter, ± globose, often capitate-glandular Fruit yellow or orange when ripe, with a gynobase 0.4–0.5 mm long on the invaginated base of the drooping to pendulous calyx, 7–8 mm in diameter, ± globose, often capitate-glandular.
    Seeds
    Seeds yellowish, 1. 8 mm across, ± orbicular in outline, reticulate-foveate Seeds yellowish, 1.8 mm across, ± orbicular in outline, reticulate-foveate.
    Note
    Chromosome number: 2n=24 The specimen Descamps s.n., from Malawi (S: Blantyre), referred to P. pubescens by C.H. Wright, loc. cit. (1906), and by Binns, loc. cit. (1968), was not seen by me. Now widely naturalized in the tropical and subtropical regions. A weed of cultivation and disturbed ground, sometimes cultivated for its edible fruits. Common name: “Strawberry Tomato”.
    Distribution
    MOZ M Native to tropical America, now extending northwards to California and Massachusetts and southwards through Central America and the Antilles to Chile and Argentina. Mozambique
    Habit
    Erect to procumbent or prostrate, usually slender and diffusely much branched, annual herb, said to reach 2 m, probably much less in the Flora Zambesiaca area, sometimes tinged purple, ± viscid, ± densely clothed with simple, fine, usually multicellular, greyish, whitish or hyaline, spreading, eglandular hairs, sometimes also glandular hairs of varying size, rarely subglabrous, furnished with ± sessile glands too.
    Branches
    Branches subterete-angular, striate, densely pubescent-villous and slightly glandular-viscid, and also with short hairs, sometimes dense, on young parts, in one to several longitudinal lines, occasionally subglabrous on some parts. Branches subterete-angular, striate, densely pubescent-villous and slightly glandular-viscid, and also with short hairs, sometimes dense, on young parts, in one to several longitudinal lines, occasionally subglabrous on some parts
    Leaves
    Leaves solitary; petiole 0.2–2 cm long, rather sheathing at the base; lamina membranous or papyraceous, 0.8–3.5 × 0.7–3 cm, ovate, sometimes elliptic or deltate, base rounded, ± truncate or sub-cordate, occasionally cuneate, and often ± oblique or unequal-sided, apex obtuse, sub-acute or bluntly sub-acuminate, coarsely sinuate-dentate, the few teeth often unequal, ± triangular, obtuse or sub-acute, the sinuses rounded, lower ones occasionally subentire towards the proximal end, varyingly pubescent-villous and glandular-viscid, with multicellular, spreading or ± appressed hairs, more abundant along the nerves beneath, sometimes subglabrous. Leaves solitary; petiole 0.2–2 cm long, rather sheathing at the base; lamina membranous or papyraceous, 0.8–3.5 × 0.7–3 cm, ovate, sometimes elliptic or deltate, base rounded, ± truncate or sub-cordate, occasionally cuneate, and often ± oblique or unequal-sided, apex obtuse, sub-acute or bluntly sub-acuminate, coarsely sinuate-dentate, the few teeth often unequal, ± triangular, obtuse or sub-acute, the sinuses rounded, lower ones occasionally subentire towards the proximal end, varyingly pubescent-villous and glandular-viscid, with multicellular, spreading or ± appressed hairs, more abundant along the nerves beneath, sometimes subglabrous
    Flowers
    Flowers solitary, axillary, erect to pendulous; pedicel 3–4(5) mm long, densely pubescent-villous, in fruit elongated to 7(8) mm. Flowers solitary, axillary, erect to pendulous.
    Calyx
    Calyx 3–4 mm long, 2–2.5 mm across at the base of the lobes, campanulate, ± angled, truncate or invaginated at the base, mostly densely pubescent-villous with ± spreading, occasionally glandular hairs, on the inside ± glabrous; lobes subequal, 1.2–2 × 0.8–1.2 mm, ± lanceolate to ovate-triangular, acute or long-acuminate, densely ciliate; in fruit greenish to whitish, 17–22 × 11–16 mm, ovoid, usually sharply 5-angled and occasionally indented at the base, abruptly acute or long-acuminate towards the summit, half filled by the fruit, varyingly subglabrous to pubescent-villous and occasionally glandular-viscid, mainly along the ribs, sometimes with gland-tipped hairs near the base inside, the lobes up to 4–5 × 2–3 mm. Calyx 3–4 mm long, 2–2.5 mm across at the base of the lobes, campanulate, ± angled, truncate or invaginated at the base, mostly densely pubescent-villous with ± spreading, occasionally glandular hairs, on the inside ± glabrous; lobes subequal, 1. 2–2 × 0.8–1. 2 mm, ± lanceolate to ovate-triangular, acute or long-acuminate, densely ciliate; in fruit greenish to whitish, 17–22 × 11–16 mm, ovoid, usually sharply 5-angled and occasionally indented at the base, abruptly acute or long-acuminate towards the summit, half filled by the fruit, varyingly subglabrous to pubescent-villous and occasionally glandular-viscid, mainly along the ribs, sometimes with gland-tipped hairs near the base inside, the lobes up to 4–5 × 2–3 mm
    Corolla
    Corolla yellowish or dull yellow, blotched with 5 dark purplish-brown markings strongly contrasting with the surrounding limb, 6–7(8) mm long, campanulate; tube glabrous except along the ribs with a few short hairs, on the inside somewhat hairy with long, hyaline hairs especially near the insertion of the stamens and ± matted-hairy below the markings; limb 5–10 mm across, 5-angled to subentire, erect or spreading, on the outside with sparse, short hairs, more dense at the apex and near the margins of the angles, glabrous inside, ciliate. Corolla yellowish or dull yellow, blotched with 5 dark purplish-brown markings strongly contrasting with the surrounding limb, 6–7(8) mm long, campanulate; tube glabrous except along the ribs with a few short hairs, on the inside somewhat hairy with long, hyaline hairs especially near the insertion of the stamens and ± matted-hairy below the markings; limb 5–10 mm across, 5-angled to subentire, erect or spreading, on the outside with sparse, short hairs, more dense at the apex and near the margins of the angles, glabrous inside, ciliate
    Stamens
    Stamens included, unequal, glabrous; filaments 1.5–2.5 mm long, filiform, attached to the corolla tube near the base; anthers bluish to purple, 1.2–1.5 mm long, ovate or elliptic in outline, straight after anthesis. Stamens included, unequal, glabrous; filaments 1. 5–2.5 mm long, filiform, attached to the corolla tube near the base; anthers bluish to purple, 1. 2–1. 5 mm long, ovate or elliptic in outline, straight after anthesis
    Pistil
    Ovary 1.5 × 1 mm, ellipsoid, glabrous; style 3 mm long, filiform, straight.
    Cytology
    Chromosome number: 2n=24.
    [FWTA]

    Solanaceae, H. heine. Flora of West Tropical Africa 2. 1963

    Habit
    An annual herb about 2 ft. high
    Flowers
    Flowers yellow with brown centre.

    Images

    Distribution

    Native to:

    Alabama, Argentina Northeast, Argentina Northwest, Arizona, Aruba, Bahamas, Belize, Bolivia, Brazil North, Brazil Northeast, Brazil South, Brazil Southeast, Brazil West-Central, Colombia, Costa Rica, Cuba, Dominican Republic, El Salvador, French Guiana, Galápagos, Guatemala, Guyana, Haiti, Honduras, Jamaica, Kentucky, Leeward Is., Mexico Central, Mexico Gulf, Mexico Northeast, Mexico Northwest, Mexico Southeast, Mexico Southwest, Netherlands Antilles, New Mexico, Nicaragua, Panamá, Paraguay, Peru, Puerto Rico, Suriname, Tennessee, Trinidad-Tobago, Uruguay, Venezuela, Windward Is.

    Introduced into:

    Benin, Bermuda, Central European Rus, Christmas I., Czechoslovakia, East Himalaya, Gabon, Gambia, Ghana, Illinois, India, Italy, Ivory Coast, Morocco, Mozambique, Primorye, Romania, Ukraine, Victoria, Western Australia

    Physalis pubescens L. appears in other Kew resources:

    Date Reference Identified As Barcode Type Status
    Jan 1, 2004 Spruce, R. [4917], Peru K000201918
    Jan 1, 2004 Spruce, R. [4917], Peru K000201919
    Jan 1, 1994 Martius [624], Brazil K000585854
    Jan 1, 1994 Smith, H.H. [1171], Colombia K000585862 Unknown type material
    Jan 1, 1994 Irwin, H.S. [18747], Brazil K001071968
    Jan 1, 1994 Gardner, G. [s.n.], Brazil K001071965
    Jan 1, 1994 Gardner, G. [1791], Brazil K001071969
    Jan 1, 1994 Gardner, G. [1791], Brazil K001071970
    Jan 1, 1994 Cavalerie, J. [3800], Yunnan K000759437
    Jan 1, 1994 Burchell, W.J. [973], Brazil K001071964
    Jan 1, 1994 Burchell, W.J. [7666], Brazil K001071971
    Jan 1, 1994 Prance, G.T. [7725], Brazil K001071966
    Jan 1, 1994 Prance, G.T. [10244], Brazil K001071967
    Jan 1, 1994 Frank, B. [s.n.], Ohio K000759428 isotype
    Jan 1, 1994 Spruce, R. [s.n.], Brazil K001071962
    Jan 1, 1994 Spruce, R. [s.n.], Brazil K001071963
    Jan 1, 1989 Cavalcante, P.B. [2502], Brazil K001071974
    Jan 1, 1949 Carter, A. [2073], Mexico K000042314
    Harley, R.M. [11107], Brazil K001071975
    Hinton, G.B. [11541], Mexico K000042316
    Trail, J.W.H. [593], Brazil K001071961
    Pringle, C.G. [1344], Mexico K000042296 Unknown type material
    Palmer, E. [140], Mexico K000042315
    Sellow [273], Brazil K001071972
    Moran, R.V. [6932], Mexico K000042317
    Botteri, M. [850], Mexico K000042383
    Glaziou, A.F.M. [14182], Brazil K001071973
    Vasconcellos-Neto, J. [21579], Brazil K001071976

    First published in Sp. Pl.: 183 (1753)

    Accepted by

    • Jaramillo Díaz, P. & Guézou, A. (2017). CDF Checklist of Galapagos Vascular Plants - FCD Lista de especies de Plantas Vasculares de Galápagos http://www.darwinfoundation.org/datazone/checklists/vascular-plants/.
    • Villaseñor, J.L. (2016). Checklist of the native vascular plants of Mexico Revista Mexicana de Biodiversidad 87: 559-902.
    • Hammel, B.E., Grayum, M.H., Herrera, C. & Zamora, N. (eds.) (2015). Manual de Plantas de Costa Rica. Volumen VIII. Dicotyledóneas (Sabiaceae-Zygophyllaceae) Monographs in Systematic Botany from the Missouri Botanical Garden 131: 1-657. Missouri Botanical Garden.
    • Bailey, C. & al. (2015). Guide to the Vascular Plants of Tennessee: 1-813. University of Tennessee press.
    • Mohlenbrock, R.H. (2014). Vascular Flora of Illinois. A Field Guide, ed. 4: 1-536. Southern Illinois University Press, Carbondale.
    • Dobignard, A. & Chatelain, C. (2013). Index synonymique de la flore d'Afrique du nord 5: 1-451. Éditions des conservatoire et jardin botaniques, Genève.
    • Jørgensen, P.M., Nee, M.H. & Beck., S.G. (eds.) (2013). Catálogo de las plantas vasculares de Bolivia Monographs in Systematic Botany from the Missouri Botanical Garden 127: 1-1741. Missouri Botanical Garden.
    • Pérez-Farrera, M.Á., Martínez-Camilo, R., Martínez-Meléndez, N., Farrera-Sarmiento, O. & Maza-Villalobos, S. (2012). Listado florístico del Cerro Quetzal (Polígono III) de la reserva de la biosfera El Triunfo, Chiapas, México Botanical Sciences 90: 113-142.
    • Danihelka, J. Chrtek, J. & Kaplan, Z. (2012). Checklist of vascular plants of the Czech Republic Preslia. Casopsi Ceské Botanické Spolecnosti 84: 647-811.
    • Acevedo-Rodríguez, P. & Strong, M.T. (2012). Catalogue of seed plants of the West Indies Smithsonian Contributions to Botany 98: 1-1192.
    • Garcia-Mendoza, A.J. & Meave, J.A. (eds.) (2012). Diversidad florística de Oaxaca: de musgos a angiospermas (colecciones y listas de especies), ed. 2: 1-351. Instituto de Biología, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México.
    • van Proosdij, A.S.J. (2012). Arnoldo's Zakflora, ed. 4: 1-318. Walburg Pers, Zutphen.
    • Idárraga-Piedrahita, A., Ortiz, R.D.C., Callejas Posada, R. & Merello, M. (eds.) (2011). Flora de Antioquia: Catálogo de las Plantas Vasculares 2: 1-939. Universidad de Antioquia, Medellín.
    • Kral, R., Diamond, A.R., Ginzbarg, S.L., Hansen, C.J., Haynes, R.R., Keener, B.R., Lelong, M.G., Spaulding, D.D. & Woods, M. (2011). Annotated checklist of the vascular plants of Alabama: 1-112. Botanical reseach institute of Texas.
    • Zuloaga, F.O., Morrone, O. , Belgrano, M.J., Marticorena, C. & Marchesi, E. (eds.) (2008). Catálogo de las Plantas Vasculares del Cono Sur Monographs in Systematic Botany from the Missouri Botanical Garden 107: 1-3348. Missouri Botanical Garden.
    • Hokche, O., Berry, P.E. & Huber, O. (eds.) (2008). Nuevo Catálogo de la Flora Vascular de Venezuela: 1-859. Fundación Instituto Botánico de Venezuela.
    • Nelson Sutherland, C.H. (2008). Catálogo de las plantes vasculares de Honduras. Espermatofitas: 1-1576. SERNA/Guaymuras, Tegucigalpa, Honduras.
    • Sosef, M.S.M. & al. (2006). Check-list des plantes vasculaires du Gabon Scripta Botanica Belgica 35: 1-438.
    • Akoègninou, A., van der Burg, W.J. & van der Maesen, L.J.G. (eds.) (2006). Flore Analytique du Bénin: 1-1034. Backhuys Publishers.
    • Gonçalves, A.E. (2005). Flora Zambesiaca 8(4): 1-124. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Jones, R.L. (2005). Plant life of Kentucky. An illustrated guide to the vascular flora: 1-833. The universitry press of Kentucky.
    • Correa A., Mireya D. Galdames, Carmen Correa A., M. D., C. Galdames & M. S. de Stapf (2004). Catálogo de las Plantas Vasculares de Panamá: 1-599. Smithsonian Tropical Research Institute.
    • Aké Assi, L. (2002). Flore de la Côte-d'Ivoire: catalogue systématique, biogéographie et écologie. II Boissiera 58: 1-401.
    • Grierson, A.J.C. & Long, D.G. (2001). Flora of Bhutan 2: 1-1675. Royal Botanic Gardens, Edinburgh.
    • Stevens, W.D., Ulloa U., C., Pool, A. & Montiel, O.M. (2001). Flora de Nicaragua Monographs in Systematic Botany from the Missouri Botanical Garden 85: i-xlii, 1-2666. Missouri Botanical Garden.
    • Balick, M. J., M. H. Nee & D.E. Atha (2000). Checklist of the vascular plants of Belize Memoirs of the New York Botanical Garden 85: 1-246.
    • Boggan, J. Funck, V. & Kelloff, C. (1997). Checklist of the Plants of the Guianas (Guyana, Surinam, Franch Guiana) ed. 2: 1-238. University of Guyana, Georgetown.
    • George, A.S., Orchard, A.E. & Hewson, H.J. (eds.) (1993). Oceanic islands 2 Flora of Australia 50: 1-606. Australian Government Publishing Service, Canberra.
    • Brako, L. & Zarucchi, J.L. (1993). Catalogue of the Flowering Plants and Gymnosperms of Peru Monographs in Systematic Botany from the Missouri Botanical Garden 45: i-xl, 1-1286. Missouri Botanical Garden.
    • Barkalov, V.Y. (ed.) (1991). Plantae Vasculares Orientalis Extremi Sovietici 5: 1-388. Nauka, Leningrad.
    • Purdie, R.W., Symon, D.E. & Haegi, L. (1982). Flora of Australia 29: 1-208. Australian Government Publishing Service, Canberra.
    • Tutin, T.G. & al. (eds.) (1972). Flora Europaea 3: 1-370. Cambridge University Press.
    • Hutchinson, J., Dalziel, J.M. & Keay, R.W.J. (1954-1958). Flora of West Tropical Africa, ed. 2, 1: 1-828.

    Literature

    Flora of West Tropical Africa
    • Waterfall in Rhodora 60: 164, for discussion.
    • O. E. Schulz in Urban, Symb. Antill. 6: 143 (1909)
    • Sp. Pl. 183 (1753)
    Flora Zambesiaca
    • Garcia de Orta 17: 281, 282 (1969).
    • Binns, First Check List Herb. Fl. Malawi: 98 (1968).
    • Rhodora 69: 323 (1967).
    • Robyns, Fl. Sperm. Parc Nat. Alb. 2: 205 (1947).
    • T. & H. Durand, Syll. Fl. Congol.: 396 (1909) pro parte saltem excl. syn. P. barbadensis Jacq.
    • F.T.A. 4, 2: 247 (1906) pro parte saltem excl. syn. P. barbadensis Jacq.
    • A. de Candolle, Prodr. 13, 1: 446 (1852).
    • ed. 2: 262 (1762).
    • Sp. Pl.: 183 (1753)
    Kew Backbone Distributions
    • Jaramillo Díaz, P. & Guézou, A. (2017). CDF Checklist of Galapagos Vascular Plants - FCD Lista de especies de Plantas Vasculares de Galápagos http://www.darwinfoundation.org/datazone/checklists/vascular-plants/.
    • Forzza, R.C., Zappi, D. & Souza, V.C. (2016-continuously updated). Flora do Brasil 2020 em construção http://reflora.jbrj.gov.br/reflora/listaBrasil/ConsultaPublicaUC/ResultadoDaConsultaNovaConsulta.do.
    • Villaseñor, J.L. (2016). Checklist of the native vascular plants of Mexico Revista Mexicana de Biodiversidad 87: 559-902.
    • Hammel, B.E., Grayum, M.H., Herrera, C. & Zamora, N. (eds.) (2015). Manual de Plantas de Costa Rica. Volumen VIII. Dicotyledóneas (Sabiaceae-Zygophyllaceae) Monographs in Systematic Botany from the Missouri Botanical Garden 131: 1-657. Missouri Botanical Garden.
    • Bailey, C. & al. (2015). Guide to the Vascular Plants of Tennessee: 1-813. University of Tennessee press.
    • Mohlenbrock, R.H. (2014). Vascular Flora of Illinois. A Field Guide, ed. 4: 1-536. Southern Illinois University Press, Carbondale.
    • Dobignard, A. & Chatelain, C. (2013). Index synonymique de la flore d'Afrique du nord 5: 1-451. Éditions des conservatoire et jardin botaniques, Genève.
    • Jørgensen, P.M., Nee, M.H. & Beck., S.G. (eds.) (2013). Catálogo de las plantas vasculares de Bolivia Monographs in Systematic Botany from the Missouri Botanical Garden 127: 1-1741. Missouri Botanical Garden.
    • Pérez-Farrera, M.Á., Martínez-Camilo, R., Martínez-Meléndez, N., Farrera-Sarmiento, O. & Maza-Villalobos, S. (2012). Listado florístico del Cerro Quetzal (Polígono III) de la reserva de la biosfera El Triunfo, Chiapas, México Botanical Sciences 90: 113-142.
    • Danihelka, J. Chrtek, J. & Kaplan, Z. (2012). Checklist of vascular plants of the Czech Republic Preslia. Casopsi Ceské Botanické Spolecnosti 84: 647-811.
    • Acevedo-Rodríguez, P. & Strong, M.T. (2012). Catalogue of seed plants of the West Indies Smithsonian Contributions to Botany 98: 1-1192.
    • Garcia-Mendoza, A.J. & Meave, J.A. (eds.) (2012). Diversidad florística de Oaxaca: de musgos a angiospermas (colecciones y listas de especies), ed. 2: 1-351. Instituto de Biología, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México.
    • van Proosdij, A.S.J. (2012). Arnoldo's Zakflora, ed. 4: 1-318. Walburg Pers, Zutphen.
    • Idárraga-Piedrahita, A., Ortiz, R.D.C., Callejas Posada, R. & Merello, M. (eds.) (2011). Flora de Antioquia: Catálogo de las Plantas Vasculares 2: 1-939. Universidad de Antioquia, Medellín.
    • Kral, R., Diamond, A.R., Ginzbarg, S.L., Hansen, C.J., Haynes, R.R., Keener, B.R., Lelong, M.G., Spaulding, D.D. & Woods, M. (2011). Annotated checklist of the vascular plants of Alabama: 1-112. Botanical reseach institute of Texas.
    • GBIF (2008-continuously updated). Global Biodiversity Information Facility http://www.gbif.org/.
    • Zuloaga, F.O., Morrone, O. , Belgrano, M.J., Marticorena, C. & Marchesi, E. (eds.) (2008). Catálogo de las Plantas Vasculares del Cono Sur Monographs in Systematic Botany from the Missouri Botanical Garden 107: 1-3348. Missouri Botanical Garden.
    • Hokche, O., Berry, P.E. & Huber, O. (eds.) (2008). Nuevo Catálogo de la Flora Vascular de Venezuela: 1-859. Fundación Instituto Botánico de Venezuela.
    • Nelson Sutherland, C.H. (2008). Catálogo de las plantes vasculares de Honduras. Espermatofitas: 1-1576. SERNA/Guaymuras, Tegucigalpa, Honduras.
    • Sosef, M.S.M. & al. (2006). Check-list des plantes vasculaires du Gabon Scripta Botanica Belgica 35: 1-438.
    • Akoègninou, A., van der Burg, W.J. & van der Maesen, L.J.G. (eds.) (2006). Flore Analytique du Bénin: 1-1034. Backhuys Publishers.
    • Gonçalves, A.E. (2005). Flora Zambesiaca 8(4): 1-124. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Jones, R.L. (2005). Plant life of Kentucky. An illustrated guide to the vascular flora: 1-833. The universitry press of Kentucky.
    • Correa A., Mireya D. Galdames, Carmen Correa A., M. D., C. Galdames & M. S. de Stapf (2004). Catálogo de las Plantas Vasculares de Panamá: 1-599. Smithsonian Tropical Research Institute.
    • Aké Assi, L. (2002). Flore de la Côte-d'Ivoire: catalogue systématique, biogéographie et écologie. II Boissiera 58: 1-401.
    • Grierson, A.J.C. & Long, D.G. (2001). Flora of Bhutan 2: 1-1675. Royal Botanic Gardens, Edinburgh.
    • Stevens, W.D., Ulloa U., C., Pool, A. & Montiel, O.M. (2001). Flora de Nicaragua Monographs in Systematic Botany from the Missouri Botanical Garden 85: i-xlii, 1-2666. Missouri Botanical Garden.
    • Balick, M. J., M. H. Nee & D.E. Atha (2000). Checklist of the vascular plants of Belize Memoirs of the New York Botanical Garden 85: 1-246.
    • Boggan, J. Funck, V. & Kelloff, C. (1997). Checklist of the Plants of the Guianas (Guyana, Surinam, Franch Guiana) ed. 2: 1-238. University of Guyana, Georgetown.
    • George, A.S., Orchard, A.E. & Hewson, H.J. (eds.) (1993). Oceanic islands 2 Flora of Australia 50: 1-606. Australian Government Publishing Service, Canberra.
    • Brako, L. & Zarucchi, J.L. (1993). Catalogue of the Flowering Plants and Gymnosperms of Peru Monographs in Systematic Botany from the Missouri Botanical Garden 45: i-xl, 1-1286. Missouri Botanical Garden.
    • Barkalov, V.Y. (ed.) (1991). Plantae Vasculares Orientalis Extremi Sovietici 5: 1-388. Nauka, Leningrad.
    • Purdie, R.W., Symon, D.E. & Haegi, L. (1982). Flora of Australia 29: 1-208. Australian Government Publishing Service, Canberra.
    • Tutin, T.G. & al. (eds.) (1972). Flora Europaea 3: 1-370. Cambridge University Press.
    • Hepper, F.N. (ed.) (1963). Flora of West Tropical Africa, ed. 2, 2: 1-544.
    • Hutchinson, J., Dalziel, J.M. & Keay, R.W.J. (1954-1958). Flora of West Tropical Africa, ed. 2, 1: 1-828.
    • Britton, N. (1918). Flora of Bermuda: 1-585. Charles Scribner's Sons, New York.

    Sources

    Flora Zambesiaca
    Flora Zambesiaca
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Flora of West Tropical Africa
    Flora of West Tropical Africa
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Herbarium Catalogue Specimens
    'The Herbarium Catalogue, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Published on the Internet http://www.kew.org/herbcat [accessed on Day Month Year]'. Please enter the date on which you consulted the system.
    Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/

    Kew Backbone Distributions
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2018. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

    Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2018. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0