1. Family: Asteraceae Bercht. & J.Presl
    1. Genus: Elephantopus L.
      1. Elephantopus mollis Kunth

        This species is accepted, and its native range is Tropical & Subtropical America.

    [FZ]

    Compositae, G. V. Pope. Flora Zambesiaca 6:1. 1992

    Habit
    An erect hirsute perennial herb to c. 40 cm. tall, with annual stems from a small vertical woody rootstock.
    Stem
    Stems mostly solitary, shortly branched above, striate, leafy throughout but with leaves usually more crowded below, sparsely to densely hispid with patent hairs 1–2 mm. long, ± strigose on upper stem and branches.
    Leaves
    Leaves usually subsessile, mostly 7–15(26) x 2–5(7) cm., obovate-oblanceolate to oblong-oblanceolate, narrowly cuneate or sometimes the midrib narrowly winged and petiole-like, ± stem-clasping and ± stem-sheathing at the base, margins ± crenulate with callose-tipped teeth, scabridulous with scattered bristle-like hairs on both surfaces, the hairs usually most numerous on the prominent midrib and venation beneath, lamina somewhat chartaceous sometimes bullate in older leaves, minutely glandular beneath; upper cauline leaves grading into foliaceous bracts, bracts not conduplicate.
    Capitulum
    Capitula sessile, crowded in glomerules 1–2 cm. in diam.; glomerules terminal on few-many short synflorescence branches, or sometimes several glomerules ± scorpioidly arranged along a branch, glomerule-subtending bracts 2–4, ovate, leaf-like, ± equalling the glomerules in length.
    Florets
    Florets c. 4 per capitulum.
    Involucre
    Involucres to c. 10 x 2–3 mm., narrowly ovoid-cylindric; phyllaries few-seriate, ovate to oblong-lanceolate, chartaceous to ± cartilaginous with pungent apices, margins membranous, sparsely hispid in the upper part or glabrescent, the inner 4 phyllaries 7–9 mm. long and nearly twice as long as the outer.
    Corolla
    Corollas white, 5–6 mm. long, consisting of a slender tube and a short campanulate deeply-lobed limb, more deeply cleft on one side, glabrous.
    Fruits
    Achenes 3–4 mm. long, narrowly turbinate-cylindric, c. 10-ribbed, setulose; pappus elements usually 5, c. 4 mm. long, very shortly scale-like at the base and abruptly tapered into a long barbellate apical seta.
    [FTEA]

    Compositae, H. Beentje, C. Jeffrey & D.J.N. Hind. Flora of Tropical East Africa. 2005

    Habit
    Perennial herb with a few basal leaves and leafy annual stems, 40–85 cm high, from a small vertical woody rootstock; stems solitary, sparsely hispid with spreading and ascending hairs.
    Leaves
    Leaves subsessile, oblanceolate or broadly so, 6.5–15(–26) cm long, 2–5(–7) cm wide, cuneate to attenuate into a petioloid base, the very base clasping and ± sheathing the stem, crenate-serrate or serrulate, acute, sparsely scabridulous.
    Inflorescences
    Glomerules 1–2 cm in diameter, numerous in lax thysoid compound cymes; inflorescence branches slender, ascending, bearing elliptic reduced leaves at the nodes; outer bracts of glomerules 2–5, broadly ovate to lanceolate, acuminate, 0.7–1.2 cm long; involucre to 10 mm long; phyllaries 8, lanceolate, acute, 6.5–9.5 mm long.
    Flowers
    Corolla white, 5–6 mm long, glabrous.
    Fruits
    Achenes 3–4 mm long, 10-ribbed, finely ascending-pubescent; pappus of 5–6 setae expanded at the very base, 4–5 mm long.
    Habitat
    A native of the neotropics widely naturalised in Africa; no East African habitat data but presumably in ruderal or grassy places in the wooded grassland zone, or in forest margins.
    Distribution
    T6 U1 pantropical
    [FWTA]

    Compositae, C. D. Adams. Flora of West Tropical Africa 2. 1963

    Habit
    An erect branched coarsely hairy perennial herb with wrinkled leaves; usually 2-4 ft. high, but exceptionally up to 8 ft.
    Florets
    Florets small, white, in bracteate heads up to 3/4 in. across
    Ecology
    In open grassy places in woodlands, savanna, fringing forest, and sometimes cultivated land.

    Images

    Distribution

    Native to:

    Argentina Northeast, Argentina Northwest, Belize, Bolivia, Brazil North, Brazil Northeast, Brazil South, Brazil Southeast, Brazil West-Central, Colombia, Costa Rica, Cuba, Ecuador, French Guiana, Gulf of Guinea Is., Guyana, Jamaica, Leeward Is., Mexico Central, Mexico Gulf, Mexico Northeast, Mexico Northwest, Mexico Southeast, Mexico Southwest, Nicaragua, Panamá, Paraguay, Peru, Puerto Rico, Suriname, Trinidad-Tobago, Uruguay, Venezuela, Windward Is.

    Introduced into:

    Angola, Benin, Burkina, Cameroon, Caroline Is., Central African Repu, Congo, Ethiopia, Fiji, Gabon, Guinea-Bissau, Hawaii, Ivory Coast, Mali, Marianas, Marquesas, Nansei-shoto, New South Wales, Ogasawara-shoto, Queensland, Senegal, Society Is., Sudan, Togo, Tonga, Vietnam, Zambia

    Elephantopus mollis Kunth appears in other Kew resources:

    Date Reference Identified As Barcode Type Status
    Jul 1, 2012 Burchell [759], Brazil K000955297
    Jun 1, 2012 Riedel [453], Brazil K000955293
    Jun 1, 2012 Riedel [483], Brazil K000955294
    Jun 1, 2012 Burchell, W.J. [8695], Brazil K000955291
    Jun 1, 2012 Burchell, W.J. [1766], Brazil K000955295
    Jun 1, 2012 Burchell, W.J. [7942], Brazil K000955296
    Jun 1, 2012 Burchell, W.J. [4410], Brazil K000955298
    Jun 1, 2012 Burchell, W.J. [9261], Brazil K000955300
    Jun 1, 2012 Traill, J.W.H. [456], Brazil K000955299
    Apr 1, 2010 Gardner [3805], Goiás K000873816
    Apr 1, 2010 [Martius] [136], Brazil K000677901 syntype
    Apr 1, 2010 [Martius] [136], Brazil K000677902 isosyntype
    Apr 1, 2010 Gardner, G. [2209], Piauí K000054166 paratype
    Nov 1, 2008 Cheek, M. [13500], Cameroon K000008197
    Jan 1, 2004 Pollard, B.J. [604], Cameroon K000746101
    Jan 1, 2004 Ghogue, J.-P. [1063], Cameroon K000746102
    Jul 1, 2001 Cheek, M. [9079], Cameroon K000108649
    Jul 1, 2001 Ghogue, J.-P. [27], Cameroon K000108650
    Jul 1, 2001 Gosline, G. [168], Cameroon K000108648
    Jan 1, 2001 Philcox, D. [4034], Brazil K000989697
    Jan 1, 2001 Irwin, H.S. [16063], Brazil K000989704
    Dec 1, 1996 Hind, D.J.N. [PCD3105], Bahia K000069373
    Jul 1, 1996 Hind, D.J.N. [PCD3690], Bahia K000069372
    Sep 1, 1995 Ganev, W. [3239], Bahia K000069379
    Aug 1, 1992 Ganev, W. [75], Bahia K000069378
    Jan 1, 1983 Prance, G.T. [9893], Brazil K000989698
    Jan 1, 1982 Mori, S.A. [14326], Bahia K000069376
    Jan 1, 1978 Harley, R.M. [20188], Bahia K000069377
    Jan 1, 1976 Leeuwenberg, A.J.M. [8980], Cameroon K000050952
    Jan 1, 1971 Gardner [3805], Goiás K000497151 paratype
    Jan 1, 1971 Gardner, G. [1737], Ceará K000054159 isosyntype
    Jan 1, 1971 Gardner, G. [1737], Ceará K000054160
    Jan 1, 1971 Sintenis, P. [282], Puerto Rico K000634194
    Jan 1, 1971 Burchell, W.J. [9822], Brazil K000955301
    Jan 1, 1971 Poiteau [s.n.], French Guiana K000497152
    Jan 1, 1971 Samuels, J.A. [101], Surinam K000497144 paratype
    Jan 1, 1971 Godfrey [s.n.], Ceará K000497147 paratype
    Jan 1, 1971 Glaziou, A.F.M. [13984], Brazil K000989700
    Jan 1, 1971 Chevalier, A.J.B. [2817], Mali K000391805
    Jan 1, 1966 Irwin, H.S. [14737], Bahia K000069380
    Jan 1, 1960 Irwin, H.S. [48662], Brazil K000989699
    Jan 1, 1960 Reitz, R. [8264], Brazil K000989702
    Jan 1, 1939 Burchell, W.J. [2164], Brazil K000955290
    Jan 1, 1939 Nicholson [S.N.], Antigua & Barbuda K000634193 syntype
    Jan 1, 1939 Burchell, J. [3906], Brazil K000955292
    Jan 1, 1939 Burchell [7093], Brazil K000955302
    Sep 1, 1931 Krukoff, B.A. [1162], Brazil K000989703
    Olorunfemi, J. [30549], Cameroon K000050958
    Olorunfemi, J. [30549], Cameroon K000050959
    Philcox, D. [4337], Brazil K000989705
    Maitland, T.D. [249], Cameroon K000050953
    Maitland, T.D. [128], Cameroon K000050954
    Maitland, T.D. [61], Cameroon K000050955
    Trail, J.W.H. [456], Surinam K000497146 paratype
    Lindeman, J.C. [28], Brazil K000989696
    Salzmann, P. [s.n.], Bahia K000069374
    Salzmann, P. [s.n.], Bahia K000069381
    Martii [136], Brazil K000497148 Unknown type material
    Martii [136], Rio de Janeiro K000497150 Unknown type material
    Claussen, P. [s.n.], Brazil K000989693
    Sello [s.n.], Brazil K000989694
    Hostmann [875], Surinam K000497145 isotype
    Blanchet, J.S. [s.n.], Bahia K000069375
    Blanchet, J.S. [s.n.], Bahia K000054158
    Adebusuyi, J.K. [FHI 44029], Cameroon K000050957
    Imray [370], Dominica K000497159 isosyntype
    Hoehne, W. [s.n.], Brazil K000989701
    Winkler, H.J.P. [676], Cameroon K000050956
    Tweedie, J. [s.n.], Brazil K000989695
    Coll. Nat. d'Agric. de Dschang [1860], Cameroon K000050950

    First published in Nov. Gen. Sp. 4(14): 20 (ed. fol.) (1818)

    Accepted by

    • Roskov Y. & al. (eds.) (2018). Species 2000 & ITIS Catalogue of Life Naturalis, Leiden, the Netherlands.

    Literature

    Flora of West Tropical Africa
    • Philipson in J. Bot. 76: 303-304 (1938).
    • Nov. Gen. & Sp. Pl. 4: 26 (1820)
    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    • A.J. Scott in Fl. Masc. 109: 25, t. 5 (1993).
    • G.V. Pope in Flora Zambesiaca 6: 188 (1992).
    • Lisowski in Fragm. Flor. Geobot. 37: 281 (1992).
    • C. Jeffrey in Kew Bulletin 43: 273 (1988).
    • C.D. Adams in Flora of West Tropical Africa ed. 2, 2: 269, fig. 258 (1963).
    • Philipson in Journal of Botany 76: 303 (1938).
    • Kunth in Humb., Bonpl. & Kunth, Nov. Gen. Sp., ed. fol. 4: 20 (1818).

    Sources

    Flora Zambesiaca
    Flora Zambesiaca
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Flora of West Tropical Africa
    Flora of West Tropical Africa
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Herbarium Catalogue Specimens
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    Kew Backbone Distributions
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2018. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

    Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2018. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

    Kew Science Photographs
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