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This genus is accepted, and its native range is Tropical & Subtropical Old World.
A specimen from Kew's Herbarium

[LKGF]

Harley, R.M. et al. (2004). Labiatae, in The Families and Genera of Vascular Plants (K. Kubitzki, ed. in chief) VI: 167-275. Springer-Verlag, Berlin, Heidelberg, New York.

Morphology General Habit
Herbs or shrubs, aromatic
Morphology Leaves
Leaves simple
Morphology Reproductive morphology Inflorescences
Inflorescence thyrsoid, often condensed, elongate or capitulate, with cymes sessile, usually 5-10-flowered, condensed
Morphology Reproductive morphology Inflorescences Bracts
Bracts caducous or persistent, sometimes coloured at apex or membranous
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Calyx
Calyx tubular, ventrally gibbous, slightly compressed at throat, straight or curved slightly upwards, sometimes apically deflexed, strongly 2-lipped, 5-lobed (1/4), unequal, posterior lip oblong or lanceolate, not decurrent, deflexed at throat, sometimes
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Corolla
Corolla strongly 2-lipped, 5-lobed (4/1), blue or purplish, posterior lip ascending with median lobes exceeding lateral, anterior lip horizontal, cucullate; tube narrow, parallel-sided at base, curved or straight at the base, curved and dilating distally
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Androecium Stamens
Stamens 4, fused at base, held over or within lower lip
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Gynoecium Stigma
Stigma-lobes linear, often parallel
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Disc
Disc 4-lobed with anterior lobe much larger, exceeding ovaries
Morphology Reproductive morphology Fruits
Nutlets, ovoid, glabrous, flattened, mucilaginous.
Distribution
Five to six species in Western and Southern Tropical Africa.

[LKGF]

Harley, R.M. et al. (2004). Labiatae, in The Families and Genera of Vascular Plants (K. Kubitzki, ed. in chief) VI: 167-275. Springer-Verlag, Berlin, Heidelberg, New York.

Morphology General Habit
Annual or perennial, often succulent, aromatic subshrubs or herbs
Morphology Leaves
Leaves simple
Morphology Reproductive morphology Inflorescences
Inflorescence thyrsoid, often condensed, elongate or capitulate, with cymes sessile, usually 5-flowered, much condensed
Morphology Reproductive morphology Inflorescences Bracts
Bracts caducous, sometimes coloured at apex
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Calyx
Calyx tubular, ventrally gibbous, laterally compressed basally, often dorso-ventrally compressed at throat, straight or curved slightly upwards, sometimes apically deflexed, strongly 2-lipped, 5-lobed (1/4 or rarely apparently 5/0), lobes unequal, posteri
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Corolla
Corolla strongly 2-lipped, 5-lobed (4/1), white, blue or purplish, posterior lip ascending with median lobes exceeding lateral, more rarely truncate with lobes inconspicuous, anterior lip horizontal or slightly deflexed, concave or cucullate, corolla-tube
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Androecium Stamens
Stamens 4, free, held over or within lower lip, sometimes shortly exserted
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Gynoecium Stigma
Stigma lobes subulate, long and sometimes reflexed
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Disc
Disc 4-lobed with anterior lobe much larger, exceeding ovaries
Morphology Reproductive morphology Fruits
Nutlets ovoid, glabrous, slightly flattened, mucilaginous.
Note
2n = 28-34, 52.  About 15 to 20 species, mainly in India and Indochina
Ecology
Usually in rocky areas.
Distribution
Native to China, Indian Subcontinent, Indo-China and Malesia

[KBu]

Suddee, S., A. J. Paton, & Parnell, J. (2004). A Taxonomic Revision of Tribe Ocimeae Dumort. (Lamiaceae) in Continental South East Asia II. Plectranthinae. Kew Bulletin, 59(3), 379-414. doi:10.2307/4110950

Morphology General Habit
Erect herbs or undershrubs
Morphology Leaves
Leaves sessile, subsessile or petiolate, opposite or whorled, membranous or chartaceous, usually fleshy, entire, crenate, serrate or dentate
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Androecium Stamens
Stamens 4, didynamous, declinate, slightly exserted, not exceeding the anterior corolla lip, glabrous, inappendiculate, anterior pair slightly longer; posterior and anterior pairs attached on corolla throat at the base of anterior corolla lobe; filaments free; anther reniform, synthecous, back usually with sessile glands, often confluent
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Calyx
Calyx ovoid or tubular in flower, oblique-tubular in fruit, suberect, clearly bilabiate or obliquely 5-toothed; posterior lip 1- or 3-lobed, recurved, or deflexed and concealing throat after anthesis; anterior lip 2- or 4-lobed, short, sometimes appearing truncate, minutely toothed, or absent; tube oblique, usually constricted at throat and ventrally saccate around the middle, with 10 - 12 longitudinal veins, prominent inside, without spur at anterior base; throat glabrous
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Corolla
Corolla long-exserted from calyx tube; posterior lip shortly 3 - 4-lobed, equal or the median lobes larger; anterior lip entire, elongate, concave, longer than posterior; tube gradually dilated towards throat and decurved above around midpoint, or abruptly expanded around midpoint with narrow slender base, villous, pubescent or glabrous
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Disc
Disc lobed, anterior side well-developed, exceeding the ovary
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Gynoecium Ovary
Ovary glabrous
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Gynoecium Style
Style declinate, shortly bifid with subequal branches
Morphology Reproductive morphology Fruits
Nutlets orbicular, ovoid, ellipsoid, or oblong, smooth, shining, basal scar small, mature nutlets usually producing mucilage when wetted.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Inflorescences
Inflorescence terminal, simple, or opposite and decussately branched and paniculate; adjacent verticils arranged close together and forming a dense tetragonal or cylindrical spike- like inflorescence; cymes sessile, unbranched, few- to many-flowered; bracts arranged in 4 rows, caducous, often forming a coma on the top of the inflorescence; pedicels 0 (sessile)
Morphology Stem
Stems quadrangular or round-quadrangular, often fleshy, often with red or yellow sessile glands, branched or not
Note
Several floristic works state "type: not designated", but in the original publication, Bentham stated that 'Besides the Lavandula carnosa Linn. this genus comprehends two or three new East Indian species'. Lavandula carnosa therefore definitely belonged in the genus as defined by Bentham, and it should therefore be the type of that genus.
Type
Type species: Anisochilus carnosus (L. f.) Wall. ex Benth. [Lavandula carnosa L. f.].

[FTEA]

Lamiaceae (Labiatae), A.J. Paton, G. Bramley, O. Ryding, R.M. Polhill, Y.B. Harvey, M. Iwarsson, F. Willis, P.B. Phillipson, K. Balkwill, C.W. Lukhoba, D.F. Otieno, & R.M. Harley. Pycnostachys, G Bramleyshaped. Flora of Tropical East Africa. 2009

Morphology General Habit
Herbs or shrubs.
Morphology Stem
Stems erect, rarely scandent, quadrangular or roundedquadrangular where woody, most often pubescent and with red sessile glands
Morphology Leaves
Leaves simple, opposite or whorled in 3s or 4s
Morphology Reproductive morphology Inflorescences
Inflorescence thyrsoid, in flower narrowly conical, conical or ± capitate, becoming more cylindrical in fruit; flowers sessile in spirally arranged single-flowered cymes; bracts subtending entire inflorescence leaf-like, deflexed; bracts subtending single flowers persistent, conspicuous or inconspicuous, sometimes forming a coma at tip of inflorescence
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Calyx
Calyx tubular, accrescent in fruit, 5-lobed, lobes ± subequal, subulate, becoming rigid and spinescent in fruit, thick hair or five scales present on the inner surface of the tube between the calyx lobes; scales if present closing over the developing nutlets, folding back to allow dispersal upon maturation
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Corolla
Corolla blue to purple, pink or white; tube very narrow and parallel-sided then curving sharply downwards and broadening before opening into two lips; posterior lip shorter than the anterior, 4-lobed, the inner two lobes longer than the outer two; anterior lip boat
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Androecium Stamens
Stamens 4, declinate, connate along their basal part until the posterior pair curves upwards sharply, anterior pair longer and curving upwards more gradually; anthers dorsifixed, synthecous
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Disc
Disk with anterior lobe slightly longer than ovary, three posterior lobes shorter than ovary
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Gynoecium Ovary
Ovary deeply 4-lobed; style gynobasic, longer than stamens, strongly upcurved, minutely bifid at apex
Morphology Reproductive morphology Fruits
Nutlets black or dark brown, broadly elliptic and slightly flattened, darkly gland-dotted, mucilaginous when wet
Note
It is traditional and convenient to segregate the species at the first dichotomy of the key on whether the leaves are petiolate or not. In most cases this is obvious, but a few species, such as P. reticulata and P. ruandensis do have very short petioles particularly on the older leaves, and these should be classed with the sessile leaves and if sometimes more than 5 mm long, they have been allowed for under both leads. P. stuhlmannii occasionally has long attenuate leaf bases and likewise this species is catered for under both leads. The species with sessile leaves may have the bases attenuate, and if the blade does extend to the base these should be assessed as sessile even if there is the appearance of a false petiole. P. urticifolia has been found in cultivation in East Africa.

[LKGF]

Harley, R.M. et al. (2004). Labiatae, in The Families and Genera of Vascular Plants (K. Kubitzki, ed. in chief) VI: 167-275. Springer-Verlag, Berlin, Heidelberg, New York.

Morphology General Habit
Shrubs or herbs, annual or perennial, sometimes fleshy, weakly aromatic
Morphology Leaves
Leaves simple, opposite, rarely ternate or quadrate
Morphology Reproductive morphology Inflorescences
Inflorescence thyrsoid, usually condensed, capitulate, more rarely elongate, with cymes sessile, 1-flowered
Morphology Reproductive morphology Inflorescences Bracts
Bracts persistent, sometimes coloured
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Calyx
Calyx tubular, ventrally gibbous, often laterally compressed basally, sometimes dorso-ventrally compressed at throat or regularly constricted when immature, curved upwards at base, sometimes apically deflexed, zygomorphic, regular at mouth, 5-lobed, lobes
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Corolla
Corolla strongly 2-lipped, 5-lobed (4/1), blue or purplish, posterior lip ascending with median lobes exceeding lateral, anterior lip horizontal, cucullate, corolla-tube narrow, parallel-sided at base, curved upwards or straight at base, curved and dilati
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Androecium Stamens
Stamens 4, fused at base, usually held within lower lip, sometimes rarely exserted, contiguous at attachment to corolla throat
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Gynoecium Stigma
Stigma-lobes subulate or short and rounded
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Disc
Disc 4-lobed with anterior lobe much larger, exceeding ovaries
Morphology Reproductive morphology Fruits
Nutlets, ovoid, glabrous with faint dorsal vein, slightly flattened, mucilaginous.
Note
2n = 34, 68.  Around 40 species
Distribution
Africa, Madagascar.

Native to:

Angola, Assam, Bangladesh, Benin, Bismarck Archipelago, Borneo, Botswana, Burkina, Burundi, Cabinda, Cambodia, Cameroon, Cape Provinces, Caprivi Strip, Central African Repu, Chad, China South-Central, China Southeast, Congo, Cook Is., Djibouti, East Himalaya, Egypt, Equatorial Guinea, Eritrea, Ethiopia, Fiji, Free State, Gabon, Ghana, Guinea, Guinea-Bissau, Gulf of Guinea Is., Hawaii, India, Ivory Coast, Jawa, Kenya, KwaZulu-Natal, Laos, Lesser Sunda Is., Liberia, Madagascar, Malawi, Malaya, Maldives, Mali, Maluku, Mauritius, Mozambique, Myanmar, Namibia, Nansei-shoto, Nepal, New Caledonia, New Guinea, New South Wales, Niger, Nigeria, Northern Provinces, Northern Territory, Oman, Philippines, Queensland, Rwanda, Réunion, Saudi Arabia, Senegal, Sierra Leone, Socotra, Solomon Is., Somalia, South Australia, Sri Lanka, Sudan, Sulawesi, Sumatera, Swaziland, Taiwan, Tanzania, Thailand, Togo, Tonga, Tubuai Is., Uganda, Vanuatu, Victoria, Vietnam, West Himalaya, Western Australia, Yemen, Zambia, Zaïre, Zimbabwe

Extinct in:

Norfolk Is.

Introduced into:

Belize, Bolivia, Brazil Northeast, Colombia, Comoros, Costa Rica, Cuba, Dominican Republic, El Salvador, Florida, Galápagos, Gilbert Is., Guatemala, Haiti, Honduras, Jamaica, Leeward Is., Marquesas, Mexico Northeast, Mexico Southeast, Mexico Southwest, Nicaragua, Niue, Panamá, Puerto Rico, Samoa, Seychelles, Society Is., St.Helena, Tokelau-Manihiki, Trinidad-Tobago, Venezuela, Venezuelan Antilles, Wallis-Futuna Is., Windward Is.

Coleus Lour. appears in other Kew resources:

Date Reference Identified As Barcode Type Status
H. [6895], Kenya 60216.000
Milne-Redhead, E. [3976], Angola 73048.000
Buderus, J. [NGF20745], Papua New Guinea K000897950
Peckel, G. [8], Papua New Guinea K000897952
Bateson, G. [52], Papua New Guinea K000897953
Barker, W.R. [LAE67612], Papua New Guinea K000897958
Carr, C.E. [12041], Papua New Guinea K000897961
White, K.J. [NGF10183], Papua New Guinea K000897963
Brass, L.J. [29648], Papua New Guinea K000897965
McKee, H.S. [1513], Papua New Guinea K000897966
Henty, E.E. [NGF9853], Papua New Guinea K000897968
Brass, L.J. [30360], Papua New Guinea K000897960
Bulmer, R.N.H. [103677], Papua New Guinea K000897959
Wight, R. [Cat. no. s.n.], Tamil Nadu K001132515
Sigin, G. [107204], Malaysia K000897698
Frodin, D. [NGF28419], Papua New Guinea K000897972
Flenley, J.R. [ANU2074], Papua New Guinea K000897951
Brass, L.J. [32712], Papua New Guinea K000897964
Giulianetti, A. [s.n.], Papua New Guinea K000897969
Dagong bin Bakir [2745], Malaysia K000897701
Gebo, A. [1605], Papua New Guinea K000897970
Kostermans, A. [759], Indonesia K000897700
Bateson, G. [113], Papua New Guinea K000897954
Schodde, R. [2875], Papua New Guinea K000897962
Kostermans, A. [18636], Indonesia K000897699
Womersley, J.S. [6176], Papua New Guinea K000897955
Eyma, P.J. [3422], Indonesia K000897697
McKee, H.S. [1738], Indonesia K000897967
Kostermans, A. [567], Indonesia K000897957
Kanis, A. [1343], Papua New Guinea K000897971
Vandenberg, J. [NGF35005], Papua New Guinea K000897956
Wilde, J.J.F.E. de [8617], Cameroon Pycnostachys K000070632

First published in Fl. Cochinch.: 372 (1790)

Accepted by

  • Paton, A.J., Mwanyambo, M. Govaerts, R.H.A., Smitha, K., Suddee, S., Phillipson, P.B., Wilson, T.C., Forster, P.I. & Culham, A. (2019). Nomenclatural changes in Coleus and Plectranthus (Lamiaceae): A tale of more than two genera PhytoKeys 129: 1-158.

Not accepted by

  • Govaerts, R. (1999). World Checklist of Seed Plants 3(1, 2a & 2b): 1-1532. MIM, Deurne. [Cited as Plectranthus.]
  • Govaerts, R. (2003). World Checklist of Selected Plant Families Database in ACCESS: 1-216203. The Board of Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. [Cited as Plectranthus.]
  • Paton, A.J., Bramley, G., Ryding, O., Polhill, R., Harvey, Y., Iwarsson, M., Willis, F., Phillipson, P., Balkwill, K., Lukhoba, C., Otiend, D & Harley (2009). Lamiaceae (Labiatae) Flora of Tropical East Africa: 1-430. [Cited as Plectranthus.]
  • Paton, A.J., Bramley, G., Ryding, O., Polhill, R.M., Harvey, Y.B., Iwarsson, M., Otieno, D., Balkwill, K., Phillipson, P.B., Harley, R.M. & Willis, F. (2013). Flora Zambesiaca 8(8): 1-346. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. [Cited as Plectranthus.]
  • Thulin, M. (ed.) (2006). Flora of Somalia 3: 1-626. The Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. [Cited as Plectranthus.]

Flora of Tropical East Africa
Flora of Tropical East Africa
http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

Flora of West Tropical Africa
Flora of West Tropical Africa

Herbarium Catalogue Specimens
Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/

Kew Backbone Distributions
The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2021. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
© Copyright 2017 World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

Kew Bulletin
Kew Bulletin
http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone
The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2021. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
© Copyright 2017 International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

Lamiaceae Key Genus Fact Sheets
Nina Davies, Gemma Bramley and Don Kirkup, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew
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