1. Family: Lauraceae Juss.
    1. Cassytha L.

      1. This genus is accepted, and its native range is Tropics & Subtropics.

    [FZ]

    Lauraceae, B.L. Stannard. Flora Zambesiaca 9:2. 1997

    Habit
    Twining, parasitic herbs; stems filiform with small uniseriate haustoria.
    Leaves
    Leaves reduced to minute ovate or lanceolate spirally arranged scales.
    Inflorescences
    Inflorescences racemose, spicate or capitate, few-flowered.
    Flowers
    Flowers hermaphrodite, sessile or subsessile in axils of small bracts and subtended by 2 bracteoles.
    Receptacle
    Receptacle cup-shaped, shallow, accrescent, completely enclosing the fruit.
    Tepal
    Tepals 6, in 2 whorls, persistent, unequal, the outer 3 very small and bract-like, the inner 3 larger, valvate.
    Stamens
    Stamens 9 in 3 whorls; the first and second whorls (outer whorls) with anthers dehiscing introrsely, the second whorl occasionally staminodal, the third whorl with anthers dehiscing extrorsely and with 2 glands attached to either side of the filament base, the fourth (innermost) whorl staminodal; all the anthers 2-celled, splitting longitudinally into 2 valves.
    Ovary
    Ovary ± sunken within the receptacle.
    Fruits
    Fruit drupaceous, completely enclosed within the accrescent fleshy receptacle, and usually crowned by the persistent tepals.
    Seeds
    Seed 1, with a coriaceous testa; cotyledons fleshy, distinct when young, later confluent; embryo with a vertical axis.
    [FTEA]

    Lauraceae, Bernard Verdcourt. Flora of Tropical East Africa. 1996

    Habit
    Parasitic plants with extensively twining slender stems attached to the host by haustoria; some chlorophyll present
    Scale leaves
    Leaves minute, scale-like
    Flowers
    Flowers hermaphrodite, sometimes dimorphic, in spikes, heads, panicles or racemes; flowers supported by scale-like bracts and pair of bracteoles
    Calyx
    Calyx-tube (receptacle) short; tepals in 2 rows of 3, the outer (sepaloid) much smaller
    Stamens
    Perfect stamens (6-)9, those of the first and second whorls without glands and with introrse 2-thecous anthers or second whorl reduced to staminodes; third whorl with subsessile glands on each side at base of filaments and anthers extrorse; a fourth whorl of subsessile or stipitate staminodes present
    Pistil
    Ovary at first scarcely covered by calyx-tube but later completely so; stigma small, capitate, subsessile
    Fruits
    Fruit subglobose, tightly enclosed in the accrescent calyx-tube, forming a false drupe, often crowned by the persistent limb
    Seeds
    Seed subglobose; testa thin but endocarp woody.

    Images

    Distribution

    Native to:

    Aldabra, Andaman Is., Angola, Bahamas, Bangladesh, Belize, Benin, Bolivia, Borneo, Botswana, Brazil North, Brazil Northeast, Brazil South, Brazil Southeast, Brazil West-Central, Burkina, Burundi, Cambodia, Cameroon, Cape Provinces, Caroline Is., Cayman Is., Central African Repu, Chad, Chagos Archipelago, China Southeast, Cocos (Keeling) Is., Colombia, Congo, Cook Is., Costa Rica, Cuba, Dominican Republic, Ethiopia, Fiji, Florida, French Guiana, Gabon, Gambia, Ghana, Gilbert Is., Guatemala, Guinea, Guinea-Bissau, Guyana, Haiti, Hawaii, Honduras, India, Ivory Coast, Jamaica, Japan, Jawa, Kazan-retto, Kenya, KwaZulu-Natal, Laccadive Is., Leeward Is., Lesser Sunda Is., Liberia, Line Is., Madagascar, Malawi, Malaya, Maldives, Mali, Maluku, Marianas, Marquesas, Marshall Is., Mauritius, Mozambique, Mozambique Channel I, Myanmar, Namibia, Nansei-shoto, Nauru, Netherlands Antilles, New Caledonia, New Guinea, New South Wales, New Zealand North, Nicaragua, Nicobar Is., Nigeria, Niue, Northern Provinces, Northern Territory, Ogasawara-shoto, Panamá, Philippines, Phoenix Is., Pitcairn Is., Puerto Rico, Queensland, Rodrigues, Rwanda, Réunion, Samoa, Senegal, Seychelles, Sierra Leone, Society Is., Solomon Is., Somalia, South Australia, South China Sea, Sri Lanka, Sulawesi, Suriname, Swaziland, Taiwan, Tanzania, Tasmania, Thailand, Togo, Tokelau-Manihiki, Tonga, Trinidad-Tobago, Tuamotu, Tubuai Is., Turks-Caicos Is., Tuvalu, Uganda, Vanuatu, Venezuela, Victoria, Wallis-Futuna Is., Western Australia, Windward Is., Zambia, Zaïre, Zimbabwe

    Cassytha L. appears in other Kew resources:

    Date Reference Identified As Barcode Type Status
    Verdcourt, B. [4852], Australia 38357.000
    Harley, R.M. [22227], Brazil 72769.000
    Milne-Redhead, E. [4627], Angola 73050.000
    Edwards, P.J. [4013], New Guinea 70595.000
    Christenhusz, M. J. M., Fay, M., Chas [6324], Australia K000696215

    First published in Sp. Pl.: 35 (1753)

    Accepted by

    • Govaerts, R. (1999). World Checklist of Seed Plants 3(1, 2a & 2b): 1-1532. MIM, Deurne.

    Literature

    Flora of West Tropical Africa
    • —F.T.A. 6, 1: 188.
    Flora Zambesiaca
    • Weber in J. Adelaide Bot. Gard. 3: 187–262 (1981).
    • Gen. Pl., ed. 5: 22 (1754).
    • Sp. Pl. 1: 35 (1753)
    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    • Rohwer in Kubitzki et al., Fam. Gen. Vasc. Pl. 2: 386 (1993)
    • Weber in Journ. Adelaide Bot. Gard. 3: 187-262 (1981)
    • Corner, Seeds of Dicotyledons 1: 158 (1976)
    • Kosterm. in Reinwardtia 4: 245 (1957)
    • L., Gen. Pl., ed. 5: 22 (1754)
    • sp Pl.: 35 (1753)

    Sources

    Art and Illustrations in Digifolia
    Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/

    Flora Zambesiaca
    Flora Zambesiaca
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Herbarium Catalogue Specimens
    'The Herbarium Catalogue, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Published on the Internet http://www.kew.org/herbcat [accessed on Day Month Year]'. Please enter the date on which you consulted the system.

    Kew Backbone Distributions
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2018. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

    Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2018. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0