1. Family: Fabaceae Lindl.
    1. Aganope Miq.

      1. This genus is accepted, and its native range is Tropical & S. Africa, Tropical Asia.

    [LOWO]

    Legumes of the World. Edited by G. Lewis, B. Schrire, B. MacKinder & M. Lock. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. (2005)

    Note

    Relationships among genera of Millettieae have been notoriously difficult to unravel based on traditional morphological evidence and this is exemplified by the alphabetical arrangement of genera in the tribal treatments of Geesink (1981; 1984) and Polhill (1994). Geesink (1981) recognised 44 genera and c. 870 species in tribe Millettieae (as ‘Tephrosieae’) while 43 genera were accounted for in Geesink (1984) and Polhill (1994). The genera recognised, however, varied considerably with only 33 genera in common to both treatments of Geesink, while the list of Polhill (1994) combined elements of Geesink (1981, 1984) with new data accumulated since then. Tephrosia has traditionally comprised some 400 species but this is re-estimated at c. 350 species here.

    The traditional circumscription of the predominantly pantropical and subtropical tribe Millettieae is followed here (Fig. 45), with 45 genera and (904)–909–(914) species being recognised, (i.e. excluding the two genera and 11 species transferred to Brongniartieae, see Table 8), although the concept of what comprises Millettieae sens. strict. is changing rapidly based on evidence from molecular phylogenies. Sequence data for millettioid genera comes from the plastid rbcL gene (Doyle et al., 1997; 2000; Kajita et al., 2001; Hu & Chang, 2003), phytochrome nucleotide genes (Lavin et al., 1998), the plastid trnK-matK region (Hu et al., 2000) and the nuclear ITS region (Hu, 2000; Hu et al., 2002). Molecular data, together with reinterpreted evidence based on chemistry (Evans et al., 1985) and wood anatomy (Gasson et al., 2004), have been the basis for recognising a number of informal suprageneric groupings and for transferring Cyclolobium and Poecilanthe to tribe Brongniartieae (Table 8; Fig. 45).

     The most far-reaching result of the above molecular analyses was that a substantial part of the traditionally circumscribed tribe Phaseoleae is more closely allied to the core-Millettieae than to the Phaseoleae sens. lat. clade (see page 393). Circumscription of a revised tribe Millettieae is not possible at present until genera are more comprehensively sampled; however, a Millettioid sens. strict. group might be expected to include some genera in the basal millettioid and phaseoloid group, Phaseoleae subtribes Diocleinae, Ophrestiinae and in small part the Erythrininae, tribe Abreae and the core-Millettieae (Fig. 45). The basal millettioid and phaseoloid group comprises 17 genera (94 species) that may belong either in the Millettioids sens. strict. or Phaseoleae sens. lat., or to a clade sister to both these groups (e.g., Kajita et al., 2001). The core-Millettieae clade comprises c. 22 genera and c. 777 spp., with some additional generic segregates being necessary within the ‘canavanine group’ (Evans et al., 1985), to accommodate species of Millettia sens. lat. and Fordia sens. lat., which on the basis of molecular and chemical evidence are excluded from Millettia and Fordia sens. strict.

    Relationships between the major groups of genera centred on Lonchocarpus, Derris, Millettia and Tephrosia remain obscure, and still reflect a geographical bias in segregating them, i.e. distributions are limited largely to the New World in the Lonchocarpus group, and the Old World in the other groups. The suggestion that the Andean South American genus Apurimacia might be sister to the largely Old World Tephrosia rather than to Lonchocarpus (e.g., Kajita et al., 2001) is possibly indicative of other Old World–New World sister groups yet to be found. Further molecular evidence will probably result in an overall reduction in the number of genera recognised, particularly in the Tephrosia and Lonchocarpus groups where various small or monotypic ‘one-organ’ genera may be better placed within larger genera. Ptycholobium, Requienia and Paratephrosia, for example, are difficult to distinguish from Tephrosia, but for the emphasis traditionally placed on their atypical pods.

    Placed among a basal millettioid and phaseoloid group of genera
    Habit
    Lianas or scandent shrubs to small trees
    Ecology
    Tropical rain forest, mangrove or thicket
    Distribution
    WC Africa (4-5 spp.); Asia (S China, Indian subcontinent, Indo-China, Malesia and Papuasia, 2 spp.)
    [LOWO]

    Legumes of the World. Edited by G. Lewis, B. Schrire, B. MacKinder & M. Lock. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. (2005)

    Note

    Relationships among genera of Millettieae have been notoriously difficult to unravel based on traditional morphological evidence and this is exemplified by the alphabetical arrangement of genera in the tribal treatments of Geesink (1981; 1984) and Polhill (1994). Geesink (1981) recognised 44 genera and c. 870 species in tribe Millettieae (as ‘Tephrosieae’) while 43 genera were accounted for in Geesink (1984) and Polhill (1994). The genera recognised, however, varied considerably with only 33 genera in common to both treatments of Geesink, while the list of Polhill (1994) combined elements of Geesink (1981, 1984) with new data accumulated since then. Tephrosia has traditionally comprised some 400 species but this is re-estimated at c. 350 species here.

    The traditional circumscription of the predominantly pantropical and subtropical tribe Millettieae is followed here (Fig. 45), with 45 genera and (904)–909–(914) species being recognised, (i.e. excluding the two genera and 11 species transferred to Brongniartieae, see Table 8), although the concept of what comprises Millettieae sens. strict. is changing rapidly based on evidence from molecular phylogenies. Sequence data for millettioid genera comes from the plastid rbcL gene (Doyle et al., 1997; 2000; Kajita et al., 2001; Hu & Chang, 2003), phytochrome nucleotide genes (Lavin et al., 1998), the plastid trnK-matK region (Hu et al., 2000) and the nuclear ITS region (Hu, 2000; Hu et al., 2002). Molecular data, together with reinterpreted evidence based on chemistry (Evans et al., 1985) and wood anatomy (Gasson et al., 2004), have been the basis for recognising a number of informal suprageneric groupings and for transferring Cyclolobium and Poecilanthe to tribe Brongniartieae (Table 8; Fig. 45).

     The most far-reaching result of the above molecular analyses was that a substantial part of the traditionally circumscribed tribe Phaseoleae is more closely allied to the core-Millettieae than to the Phaseoleae sens. lat. clade (see page 393). Circumscription of a revised tribe Millettieae is not possible at present until genera are more comprehensively sampled; however, a Millettioid sens. strict. group might be expected to include some genera in the basal millettioid and phaseoloid group, Phaseoleae subtribes Diocleinae, Ophrestiinae and in small part the Erythrininae, tribe Abreae and the core-Millettieae (Fig. 45). The basal millettioid and phaseoloid group comprises 17 genera (94 species) that may belong either in the Millettioids sens. strict. or Phaseoleae sens. lat., or to a clade sister to both these groups (e.g., Kajita et al., 2001). The core-Millettieae clade comprises c. 22 genera and c. 777 spp., with some additional generic segregates being necessary within the ‘canavanine group’ (Evans et al., 1985), to accommodate species of Millettia sens. lat. and Fordia sens. lat., which on the basis of molecular and chemical evidence are excluded from Millettia and Fordia sens. strict.

    Relationships between the major groups of genera centred on Lonchocarpus, Derris, Millettia and Tephrosia remain obscure, and still reflect a geographical bias in segregating them, i.e. distributions are limited largely to the New World in the Lonchocarpus group, and the Old World in the other groups. The suggestion that the Andean South American genus Apurimacia might be sister to the largely Old World Tephrosia rather than to Lonchocarpus (e.g., Kajita et al., 2001) is possibly indicative of other Old World–New World sister groups yet to be found. Further molecular evidence will probably result in an overall reduction in the number of genera recognised, particularly in the Tephrosia and Lonchocarpus groups where various small or monotypic ‘one-organ’ genera may be better placed within larger genera. Ptycholobium, Requienia and Paratephrosia, for example, are difficult to distinguish from Tephrosia, but for the emphasis traditionally placed on their atypical pods.

    Placed in the basal millettioid and phaseoloid group of genera (Hu et al., 2000) and close to Aganope (Hu et al., 2002)
    Habit
    Trees
    Ecology
    Tropical seasonally dry woodland and bushland
    Distribution
    Africa (Sudanian and Zambezian regions)
    [FTEA]

    Leguminosae, J. B. Gillett, R. M. Polhill & B. Verdcourt. Flora of Tropical East Africa. 1971

    Habit
    Deciduous tree; slash producing blood-red resinous exudate
    Leaves
    Leaves alternate, imparipinnate; stipules present, caducous; stipels almost always absent; lateral leaflets subopposite
    Flowers
    Flowers in precocious lateral spreading panicles, a number together from young shoots which grow out into leafy branches; bracts and bracteoles small and caducous
    Calyx
    Calyx broadly campanulate, with 5 very short lobes, the upper 2 obscure
    Corolla
    Corolla white; standard with short claw and broadly expanded blade, suborbicular to oblate, with 2 prominent thickenings at the base of the blade inside; wings oblong-obovate, ± same length as the other petals; keel-petals with elliptic-falcate blades lightly coherent along the lower side
    Stamens
    Vexillary stamen free; anthers dorsifixed
    Pistil
    Ovary sessile, few-ovulate; style curved, attenuate, with a small incurved pale-coloured stigma
    Fruits
    Fruit compressed, indehiscent, linear-oblong, sessile with thin relatively narrow wings down either side and a venose medial part hardened over the 1–several seed-cavities
    Seeds
    Seeds ± oblong-reniform, but with a rather small eccentric hilar-sinus, smooth, red-brown; radicle appressed to the cotyledons.
    [FZ]

    Flora Zambesiaca Leguminosae subfamily Papillionoideae by J.M. Lock*

    Habit
    Deciduous tree. Deciduous tree.
    Leaves
    Leaves imparipinnate, stipulate; leaflets opposite or subopposite, exstipellate. Leaves imparipinnate, stipulate; leaflets opposite or subopposite, exstipellate.
    Inflorescences
    Inflorescences of lateral panicles borne on new shoots before the leaves. Inflorescences of lateral panicles borne on new shoots before the leaves.
    Flowers
    Flowers white. Flowers white.
    Calyx
    Calyx campanulate, shortly denticulate. Calyx campanulate, shortly denticulate.
    Corolla
    Standard suborbicular, abruptly reflexed at the base; wings and keel petals equalling the standard. Standard suborbicular, abruptly reflexed at the base; wings and keel petals equalling the standard.
    Stamens
    Stamens in 2 bundles; anthers dorsifixed. Stamens in 2 bundles; anthers dorsifixed.
    Disc
    Disk intrastaminal, lobulate. Disk intrastaminal, lobulate.
    Ovary
    Ovary few-ovulate, subsessile. Ovary few-ovulate, subsessile.
    Fruits
    Pod linear, flat, winged on both margins, indehiscent. Pod linear, flat, winged on both margins, indehiscent.
    Seeds
    Seed oblong, radicle inflexed. Seed oblong, radicle inflexed.
    [LOWO]
    Use
    Used as timber, fibre, medicine, food additives (ground seed meal) and for tanning and fodder

    Images

    Distribution

    Native to:

    Andaman Is., Angola, Assam, Bangladesh, Benin, Bismarck Archipelago, Borneo, Botswana, Burkina, Burundi, Cambodia, Cameroon, Caprivi Strip, Central African Repu, China South-Central, China Southeast, Congo, East Himalaya, Equatorial Guinea, Gabon, Gambia, Ghana, Guinea, Guinea-Bissau, Gulf of Guinea Is., Hainan, India, Ivory Coast, Jawa, Kenya, Laos, Liberia, Malawi, Malaya, Mali, Maluku, Mozambique, Myanmar, New Guinea, Nicobar Is., Nigeria, Northern Provinces, Philippines, Senegal, Sierra Leone, Solomon Is., Sri Lanka, Sulawesi, Sumatera, Swaziland, Tanzania, Thailand, Togo, Vietnam, Zambia, Zaïre, Zimbabwe

    Aganope Miq. appears in other Kew resources:

    First published in Fl. Ned. Ind. 1(1): 151 (1855)

    Accepted by

    • Govaerts, R. (1995). World Checklist of Seed Plants 1(1, 2): 1-483, 529. MIM, Deurne.

    Sources

    Flora Zambesiaca
    Flora Zambesiaca
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Kew Backbone Distributions
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2018. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

    Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2018. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

    Legumes of the World Online
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0