1. Family: Fabaceae Lindl.
    1. Angylocalyx Taub.

      1. This genus is accepted, and its native range is Tropical Africa.

    [LOWO]

    Legumes of the World. Edited by G. Lewis, B. Schrire, B. MacKinder & M. Lock. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. (2005)

    Note

    In Polhill’s (1994) treatment the following informal groups were recognised: the Myroxylon group (11 genera; 10 Neotropics, one Africa); Ormosia group (3 genera; Neotropics, Africa, Asia); Angylocalyx group (4 genera; Neotropics, Africa, Australia); Baphia group (6 genera; Africa to Asia); Dussia group (9 genera; Neotropics) and Sophora group (14 genera; Africa, Asia, Neotropics).

    The only formal change made to the classification of Sophoreae since Polhill (1994) is the transfer of Bowringia and Baphiastrum to Leucomphalos (Breteler, 1994b). In this account we maintain Bowringia and Baphiastrum, not because we disagree with Breteler (1994b), but in the spirit of this volume, to encourage future workers to verify the monophyly of Leucomphalos sens. lat. with new data. We also do not follow Polhill’s (1994) suggestion that Riedeliella, Etaballia and Inocarpus belong in Sophoreae. It has been generally accepted (e.g., Polhill, 1981b) that these belong in Dalbergieae, which is confirmed by the recent study of Lavin et al. (2001a) that places them in the Dalbergioid clade. They are therefore treated as Dalbergieae in this volume (see page 307).

    Cladistic analyses of overall morphology (Chappill, 1995; Herendeen, 1995) and pollen data (Ferguson et al., 1994) showed Sophoreae to be non-monophyletic because Swartzieae genera were mixed in the same monophyletic groups as Sophoreae. These results have been corroborated by molecular studies. Doyle et al. (1996) showed Sophoreae to be heterogeneous for a large inversion in the chloroplast genome. This suggests that Sophoreae is non-monophyletic if it is assumed that the inversion arose only once. Doyle et al.’s (1997) DNA sequencing study of the chloroplast gene rbcL included 18 genera of Sophoreae. Cladistic analysis showed these to be scattered widely across the papilionoid tree. More recently, these results have been corroborated by another chloroplast locus, the trnL intron (Pennington et al., 2001). This study sampled more putatively basal genera of Papilionoideae (26 of 41 Sophoreae; 14 of 15 Swartzieae and all Dalbergieae and Dipterygeae). The trnL tree (summarised in Fig. 29) is also largely congruent with other molecular studies that include some taxa of basal Papilionoideae (e.g., Hu et al., 2000; Ireland et al, 2000; Lavin et al., 2001a; Kajita et al., 2001; Wojciechowski et al., 2004). It clearly shows genera of Sophoreae to be members of disparate papilionoid clades.

    Diverse datasets now indicate Sophoreae to be non-monophyletic as Polhill (1981b; 1994) predicted. If the trnL results are corroborated, it seems likely that Sophoreae will be dismembered with its genera scattered across several tribes. This would entail extensive taxonomic changes. Yakovlev (1972b; 1991) split Sophoreae into five and nine tribes respectively. These classifications have not been widely accepted, and although they are not congruent with the most recent molecular topologies, they will need to be considered in any formalisation of new tribal names. In any new scheme, Sophoreae sens. strict. will comprise a group of genistoid clade genera from among Polhill’s (1994) Sophora group (Fig. 29), but published molecular phylogenetic studies have not yet sampled sufficient genera to suggest its delimitation.

    A new classification for Sophoreae requires sampling of the genera not included by Pennington et al. (2001; see Fig. 29) and other authors, in future molecular systematic studies. Some of the clades discovered by DNA sequence data (Fig. 29) are cryptic in that they are not marked by obvious macro-morphological features, and it is therefore perilous to attempt to determine the affinities of genera based upon macro-morphology alone. It may be that these clades are defined by anatomical or chemical characters. For example, quinolizidine alkaloid accumulation may be a synapomorphy for the Genistoid clade (Pennington et al., 2001; Kite & Pennington, 2003), and lack of these chemicals in Styphnolobium species supports the segregation of this genus from Sophora sens. strict. The presence of quinolizidine alkaloids in Calia, which is not placed amongst the genistoids, suggests that this genus is a strong candidate as sister group to the Genistoid clade, a relationship that might be resolved by more robust molecular phylogenies. Such phylogenies should incorporate information from nuclear genes (Lavin et al., 1998; Doyle & Doyle, 2000) which would be particularly useful to test hypotheses that are currently based solely upon evidence from chloroplast DNA. Careful integration of morphology, preferably as part of a simultaneous cladistic analysis, is also critical. Such morphological study may be best achieved by focusing on separate monophyletic groups because assessment of homology of morphological features across all Papilionoideae is difficult. The monophyletic groups discovered in the trnL analysis provide a framework for starting these future studies. In all 45 genera and (393) – 396 – (398) species are treated here (including c. 76 basally branching, c. 262 genistoid and c. 58 baphioid species of Sophoreae; Fig. 29).

    Closely related to Xanthocercis; see note thereunder
    Habit
    Trees and shrubs
    Ecology
    Tropical lowland rain forest and seasonally dry evergreen forest and thicket, often by rivers
    Distribution
    WC and W Africa (Liberia to Cameroon, Congo (Kinshasa) and Angola) and 1 sp. in Zanzibar-Inhambane E Africa (Kenya and Tanzania)
    [FTEA]

    Leguminosae, J. B. Gillett, R. M. Polhill & B. Verdcourt. Flora of Tropical East Africa. 1971

    Fruits
    Fruit torulose, beaked, indehiscent
    Seeds
    Seed: testa adhering to fruit wall; embryo detached and lying free within, oblong-ellipsoid or shortly cylindrical, with a very short straight radicle near one end.
    Habit
    Trees or shrubs
    Leaves
    Leaves imparipinnate; stipules small; stipels lacking; lateral leaflets few, alternate to subopposite, often acuminate
    Flowers
    Flowers in racemes, generally clustered on the old wood, sometimes amongst the leaves; bracts and bracteoles small; pedicels jointed
    Hypanthium
    Hypanthium conical, at least half as long as calyx, with ovary inserted near base on upper side, sometimes slightly gibbous
    Calyx
    Calyx continuing or at an angle to the fine of the hypanthium, tubular, very shortly and broadly lobed to subtruncate, usually torn to some extent as corolla opens, bearing petals and stamens on a rim at the base
    Corolla
    Petals subequal in length, glabrous except sometimes on standard outside; standard elliptic to orbicular with a well-developed claw; wings asymmetrically lanceolate, not or scarcely auriculate at base of blade, free or lightly adnate to keel; keel-petals similar but narrower, free or lightly adnate
    Stamens
    Stamens free; anthers subbasifixed
    Pistil
    Ovary stipitate, ± 8–20-ovulate; style relatively short, bent upwards, glabrous on upper part, with a small terminal stigma
    [LOWO]
    Use
    Used as medicine and for timber (construction and furniture)

    Images

    Distribution

    Native to:

    Angola, Benin, Cabinda, Cameroon, Central African Repu, Congo, Equatorial Guinea, Gabon, Ghana, Guinea, Ivory Coast, Kenya, Liberia, Nigeria, Tanzania, Zaïre

    Angylocalyx Taub. appears in other Kew resources:

    Date Reference Identified As Barcode Type Status
    Nov 1, 2005 Cheek, M. [11796], Cameroon K000338955

    First published in Bot. Jahrb. Syst. 23: 172 (1896)

    Accepted by

    • Povydysh, M.n., Goncharov, M.Yu & Yakovlev, G.P. (2010). Taxonomic revision and phylogeny of the tribe Angylocalyceae (Fabaceae) Botanicheskii Zhurnal. Moscow & Leningrad 95: 1135-1161.
    • Govaerts, R. (1995). World Checklist of Seed Plants 1(1, 2): 1-483, 529. MIM, Deurne.

    Literature

    Flora of West Tropical Africa
    • in Engl. Bot. Jahrb. 23: 172 (1896).
    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    • Yakovlev et al. in Adansonia 8: 317–335 (1968)
    • in E. & P. Pf., Nachtr. 1: 199 (1897)
    • in E.J. 23: 172 (1896)

    Sources

    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Herbarium Catalogue Specimens
    'The Herbarium Catalogue, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Published on the Internet http://www.kew.org/herbcat [accessed on Day Month Year]'. Please enter the date on which you consulted the system.

    Kew Backbone Distributions
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2018. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

    Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2018. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

    Legumes of the World Online
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0