1. Family: Fabaceae Lindl.
    1. Antopetitia A.Rich.

      1. This genus is accepted, and its native range is Tropical Africa.

    [FZ]

    Leguminosae, various authors. Flora Zambesiaca 3:7. 2003

    Habit
    Annual herb.
    Leaves
    Leaves imparipinnate; petiole absent or very short; stipels absent or very short; stipules reduced to glands.
    Flowers
    Flowers in axillary pedunculate umbels; bracts and bracteoles minute, soon deciduous.
    Calyx
    Calyx tube and hypanthium obconic, the teeth subequal, narrowly triangular.
    Corolla
    Corolla glabrous, the petals with claws about equalling their blades.
    Stamens
    Stamens diadelphous, the vexillary one entirely free; free parts of filaments flattened; anthers uniform.
    Ovary
    Ovary stipitate, inserted laterally on the hypanthium.
    Fruits
    Fruit curved, made up of 2–5 spherical 1-seeded articles each of which splits into 2 valves; dorsal suture persistent.
    Seeds
    Seeds spherical, minutely warty; hilum circular, minute.
    Note
    A monotypic African genus closely allied to Ornithopus L. but differing in the fruit segments being dehiscent and in the dorsal suture being persistent.
    [FTEA]

    Leguminosae, J. B. Gillett, R. M. Polhill & B. Verdcourt. Flora of Tropical East Africa. 1971

    Habit
    Herbaceous
    Leaves
    Leaves imparipinnate, without stipels; stipules reduced to glands; petiole very short or nil
    Inflorescences
    Inflorescence an axillary pedunculate umbel; bracts and bracteoles minute, caducous
    Hypanthium
    Receptacle (hypanthium) obconical; calyx-teeth narrowly triangular, subequal
    Corolla
    Corolla glabrous, the petals with claws about as long as their blades
    Stamens
    Stamens 1 + (9), the vexillary one completely free; free parts of filaments flattened; anthers all alike
    Ovary
    Ovary stipitate, inserted on the side of the receptacle
    Fruits
    Pod curved, composed of spherical 1-seeded segments each splitting into 2 valves which separate from the persistent upper suture
    Seeds
    Seeds spherical, minutely warty; hilum circular, minute.
    [LOWO]

    Legumes of the World. Edited by G. Lewis, B. Schrire, B. MacKinder & M. Lock. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. (2005)

    Habit
    Herb
    Ecology
    Tropical montane grassland, often on shallow soil over rock
    Distribution
    Africa
    Note
    A distinct genus combining a basal inflorescence structure and specialised fruits with a dehiscence type unique in the tribe; Antopetitia has been merged with Ornithopus by several authors, but recent studies of pollen morphology and fruit anatomy do not support this; Antopetitia is the only genus of Loteae endemic to tropical regions

    The Loteae have been usually considered as the closest relatives of other temperate tribes, especially of the astragaloid part of Galegeae (e.g., Polhill, 1981k: 371–374), and the monospecific genus Podolotus was either allied with Lotus, or merged with Astragalus. Recent molecular data, however, have revealed that Galegeae, Cicereae, Hedysareae, Trifolieae, Fabeae and Millettieae (in small part) lack the chloroplast-DNA inverted repeat (IR) which is present in the majority of Leguminosae including Loteae (Liston, 1995). A study of the chloroplast gene rbcL also placed Loteae and other temperate tribes in different clades (Doyle et al., 1997), the Loteae being in a robinioid clade and the temperate tribes in an Inverted Repeat Lacking clade (IRLC). In recent supertrees of the Hologalegina alliance (Wojciechowski et al., 2000, 2004), Loteae sens. lat. are sister to Sesbania, and the combined Loteae-Sesbanieae clade is itself sister to the Robinieae.

    Loteae differ from Robinieae in a suite of characters which were listed by Dormer (1945) for his ‘epulvinate series’, i.e., often herbaceous habit and leaves mostly distichous, usually without a pulvinus. These characters are now of less phylogenetic importance since the ‘epulvinate series’ is no longer considered to be a monophyletic group. An obvious synapomorphy of Loteae, shared by all extant members of the tribe, is stamen filaments dilated upwards. This is an adaptation for secondary pollen presentation. Another apomorphy shared by almost all Loteae is the capitate or umbellate partial inflorescence, while Robinieae possesses racemes. A most unusual (and possibly synapomorphic) morphological character of many Loteae is the presence of a foliage leaf on the peduncle. This leaf is often described as a bract, but it has neither a flower nor other structures in its axil. True bracts in Loteae usually lack a blade and are membranous or glandular. Phylogenetic evidence suggests the presence or absence of the foliage leaf on the peduncle is homoplastic within Loteae.

    The circumscription of Loteae has recently been expanded to include genera formerly placed in Coronilleae (Polhill, 1981k & l; 1994). These two tribes were previously distinguished by the lomentaceous fruits and branched root nodules in Coronilleae (fruits non-lomentaceous and root nodules unbranched in Loteae sens. strict.). The Coronilleae were earlier placed in tribe Hedysareae (Bentham, 1865) because of their lomentaceous fruits.

    The merging of Loteae sens. strict. and Coronilleae is supported by both morphological (Polhill, 1981k; Lassen, 1989; Díez & Ferguson, 1990, 1994, 1996; Tikhomirov & Sokoloff, 1996a) and molecular data (Doyle, 1995; Liston, 1995; Doyle et al., 1997; Allan, 1998; Allan & Porter, 2000; Allan et al., 2003). These data indicate that lomentaceous fruits have arisen independently in Coronilleae and Hedysareae, and perhaps even in different genera of Coronilleae. Allan & Porter (2000: Fig. 2A) suggested, however, that lomentaceous fruits were a plesiomorphic condition for Loteae sens. lat. In our opinion, an ancestor of Loteae might have had dehiscent fruits divided into regular compartments by thin transverse septa (as in Sesbania and Lotus sens. lat.). The genera formerly placed in Coronilleae do not form a natural taxonomic unit at any level. Regarding fruit anatomy, lomentaceous fruits of Securigera and Coronilla are related to dehiscent fruits in the Lotus group, while lomentaceous fruits of Ornithopus and Antopetitia share important features of pericarp structure with the indehiscent non-lomentaceous fruits of Anthyllis and Dorycnopsis.

    Recent publications have led to the removal of some groups from Lotus sens. lat. (Lassen, 1986; Tikhomirov & Sokoloff, 1997; Sokoloff, 1999, 2000), Coronilla sens. lat. (Lassen, 1989) and Anthyllis sens. lat. (Lassen, 1986; Tikhomirov & Sokoloff, 1996a, 1997). Morphological and molecular data relevant to the relationships between Old World and New World Loteae have recently been published (Díez & Ferguson, 1990, 1994, 1996; Kramina & Sokoloff, 1997a; Allan, 1998; Allan & Porter, 2000; Allan et al., 2000, 2002, 2003; Degtjareva et al., 2003). The placement of Podolotus in Loteae is now well supported by morphological data. Allan & Porter (2000) and Allan et al. (2003), using nuclear ribosomal ITS, concluded that Old World and New World Lotus sens. lat. belong to distinct clades. In the latter analysis, Old World Lotus forms a moderately supported monophyletic group if Tetragonolobus and Dorycnium are included, while New World Lotus is paraphyletic, also containing the Old World Ornithopus (although with 1 sp. in the New World) and Kebirita among others. In this treatment Loteae is considered to comprise 22 genera and c. 282 species (Fig. 51).

    Images

    Distribution

    Native to:

    Burundi, Cameroon, Congo, Djibouti, Eritrea, Ethiopia, Kenya, Malawi, Mozambique, Nigeria, Rwanda, Sudan, Tanzania, Uganda, Zambia, Zaïre, Zimbabwe

    Antopetitia A.Rich. appears in other Kew resources:

    First published in Ann. Sci. Nat., Bot., sér. 2, 14: 261 (1840)

    Accepted by

    • Govaerts, R. (1995). World Checklist of Seed Plants 1(1, 2): 1-483, 529. MIM, Deurne.

    Literature

    Flora of West Tropical Africa
    • in Ann. Sci. Nat., sér. 2, 14: 261 (1840).
    Flora Zambesiaca
    • Verdcourt in Kirkia 9: 555 (1974).
    • in Ann. Sci. Nat., Bot., Sér. 2, 14: 261, t. 15, fig. 2 (1840).
    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    • in Ann. Sci. Nat., sér. 2, 14: 261, t. 15/2 (1840)

    Sources

    Flora Zambesiaca
    Flora Zambesiaca
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Kew Backbone Distributions
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2018. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

    Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2018. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

    Legumes of the World Online
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0