1. Family: Fabaceae Lindl.
    1. Aphanocalyx Oliv.

      1. This genus is accepted, and its native range is Tropical Africa.

    [LOWO]

    Legumes of the World. Edited by G. Lewis, B. Schrire, B. MacKinder & M. Lock. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. (2005)

    Note

    The Detarieae sens. lat. are pantropical in distribution, with c. 58% of the genera confined to Africa (incl. Madagascar), c. 20% to the Neotropics, and c. 12% to tropical Asia. Only Copaifera, Crudia and Cynometra are pantropical (and all possibly non monophyletic) and Afzelia, Guibourtia, Hymenaea, Intsia and Sindora are native to at least two of these regions. The apparent high level of diversity in the African tropics may in part be an artefact of the (relatively) greater taxonomic effort that has been invested in the study of the African taxa. Characteristic of African Detarieae taxonomy has been the splitting off of disparate elements as segregate genera, while this has often not been the case in the Neotropics. Both regions, however, currently contain large paraphyletic assemblages requiring detailed species-level analysis. Eighty-two genera and from (729) – 747 – (765) species are treated here in Detarieae sens. lat. (Fig. 21). Of the 132 (extant) species so far assessed for IUCN red data status, 97 have categories of threat. Of these 73 are assessed as vulnerable, 13 are endangered and 11 are critically endangered.

    The remarkable range and complex patterns of floral modifications found in the Detarieae sens. lat. have proved a considerable challenge to the establishment of widely accepted and clearly circumscribed generic groupings. Based on the work of Léonard (1957) and Cowan & Polhill (1981a & b), ten informal groups of genera were proposed; the Cynometra, Hymenostegia, Hymenaea, Crudia, Detarium and Brownea groups in tribe Detarieae, and the Berlinia, Macrolobium, Amherstia and Brachystegia groups in tribe Amherstieae. Genera with imbricate bracteole aestivation were assigned to Detarieae whilst those with valvate bracteole aestivation were placed in Amherstieae. Polhill (1994) retained these generic groupings with a few additions to accommodate recently described genera, and merged the two tribes into a single broadly defined tribe, Detarieae sens. lat. Breteler (1995) proposed the recognition of two tribes within Detarieae sens. lat., separated according to the relative size and position of the paired bracteoles before anthesis. Essentially, this resulted in the reassignment of Cowan & Polhill’s Amherstia group genera (Amherstia, Tamarindus and Humboldtia) from Amherstieae to Detarieae with the remaining genera forming tribe Macrolobieae. In 1999, Breteler (pers. comm.) proposed a modified Breteler (1995) tribal system in which Macrolobieae was maintained, the circumscription of Detarieae was greatly narrowed and the genera newly excluded from Detarieae were together recognised as Cynometreae sens. strict.

    The first comprehensive studies of phylogenetic relationships in tribe Detarieae sens. lat., were the analyses of Bruneau et al. (2000; 2001), based on nucleotide sequence data from the chloroplast trnL intron. They found that tribes Detarieae and Macrolobieae formed a well supported monophyletic group, which included all genera placed previously in Detarieae sens. lat., except Umtiza. Bruneau et al. (2000) examined 71 genera, with the African taxa most widely sampled. The key results of the analysis were that none of the generic groupings proposed by Cowan and Polhill (1981a & b) and Polhill (1994) were supported as strictly monophyletic, and the majority of the members of tribe Macrolobieae (although not Macrolobium) were placed as a monophyletic group derived within Detarieae sens. lat. These analyses also repeatedly recognised a second group of related genera made up entirely of resin-producing taxa, with the exception of some species of Guibourtia. The resins can be seen as translucent gland dots in the leaflets and (sometimes) other organs. Within the resin producing taxa, the genus Prioria and several members of Cowan & Polhill’s Crudia group were consistently placed together (see taxonomic notes under individual genera in main text). Another subclade within the resin-producing Detarieae comprising six members of Polhill’s Detarium group was repeatedly recognised (Bruneau et al., 2000; 2001; Fougère-Danezan et al., 2003). In addition, in the trnL intron analysis, the five sampled members of Cowan and Polhill’s Brownea group were consistently placed together with Macrolobium, although this grouping was not upheld in a more recent molecular and combined molecular-morphological analysis (Herendeen et al., 2003a). Within the exclusively African Macrolobieae of Bruneau et al. (2001), a well supported subclade of six genera was recognised by Gervais & Bruneau (2002) and as the ‘babjit’ clade sensu Wieringa & Gervais (2003). Bruneau et al. (2000; 2001) confirmed the view of Polhill (1994) that the two tribes Detarieae and Macrolobieae (sensu Breteler, 1995) are best considered a single entity. Evidence from ontogenetic studies by Tucker (2000, 2001, 2002a) challenged the validity of bracteole aestivation as a criterion for subdividing Detarieae sens. lat. and identified a set of character states associated with two modes of floral development (Circular and Omega) whose distribution amongst detarioid genera does not support Polhill’s groups.

    The analyses of Herendeen et al. (2003a) united a morphological dataset with the chloroplast trnL intron dataset of Bruneau et al. (2001). The combined analysis provided mixed results within Detarieae sens. lat. compared with the molecular dataset alone. Near the base of the clade, and within some subclades, greater resolution was provided but as several groups were not well supported, it would be premature to emphasise the details of this greater resolution. Elsewhere the addition of morphological characters produced weaker resolution and a less robust phylogeny due either to conflicting phylogenetic signal or increased homoplasy in the morphological data or both. The order of taxa followed here (Fig. 21) represents a synthesis of the present understanding of putative relationships within this (perhaps most morphologically diverse) tribe in the Leguminosae. Unsampled genera in the combined analysis are inserted into this order where morphological evidence appears to suggest close relationships.

    Whilst significant progress has been made since Polhill (1994), further studies (particularly including the non-African members of the larger and less well understood genera) are needed before a new comprehensive classification of the Detarieae sens. lat., based on a synthesis of all available data, can be established.

    Generic affinities are with Tetraberlinia and Bikinia (Wieringa & Gervais, 2003); see taxonomic notes under Julbernardia. Wieringa (1999) transferred nine species from Monopetalanthus to Aphanocalyx and described two new species
    Vernacular
    andoung
    Habit
    Trees or shrubs
    Ecology
    Tropical lowland (sometimes periodically inundated) to submontane rain forest and riverine forest, often on nutrient poor sandy soils; or seasonally dry forest, woodland and wooded grassland, often along rivers; usually forming monodominant stands
    Distribution
    centred in WC Africa (11 spp. from Nigeria, Cameroon, Equatorial Guinea, Congo [Brazzaville], Gabon, Congo [Kinshasa] to C Angola); 1 sp. (and a subsp. of a WC taxon) in W Africa (Sierra Leone, Liberia and Ivory Coast); 2 spp. in Zambezian SC Africa.
    [FZ]

    Leguminosae, R.K. Brummitt, A.C. Chikuni, J.M. Lock & R.M. Polhill. Flora Zambesiaca 3:2. 2007

    Habit
    Shrubs or trees, evergreen.
    Leaves
    Leaves paripinnate, with 2–many leaflets; leaflets opposite, sessile, very asymmetric at the base, the distal half of each usually absent so that the midrib lies along the distal margin, usually with a few glands near the base; stipules intrapetiolar, completely fused, with numerous parallel veins.
    Inflorescences
    Inflorescence racemose, usually simple; bracts densely parallel-veined, caducous; bracteoles valvate, fused with the hypanthium.
    Hypanthium
    Hypanthium up to 5 mm long.
    Calyx
    Sepals 5, variously reduced.
    Corolla
    Petals 1–5 but only one fully developed, the rest much reduced or absent.
    Stamens
    Stamens 9–10, usually 9 united at the base and 1 free; anthers often with dorsal teeth.
    Pistil
    Ovary hairy, 1–6-ovulate; style elongate; stigma capitate or peltate.
    Fruits
    Pods oblong-obovate, compressed, dehiscent, with a lateral nerve; upper suture winged or not.
    Seeds
    Seeds with a thin testa.
    [FTEA]

    Leguminosae, J. B. Gillett, R. M. Polhill & B. Verdcourt. Flora of Tropical East Africa. 1971

    Habit
    Unarmed evergreen trees
    Leaves
    Leaves paripinnate, with leaflets in one to many pairs; stipules persistent or quickly falling off, united and intrapetiolar, sometimes auriculate at base; leaflets opposite, very asymmetric at base, with midrib marginal or sometimes ± central; translucent gland-dots absent
    Flowers
    Flowers in axillary dense racemes which are strobiliform (with imbricate bracts) when young; racemes sometimes aggregated into lateral or terminal panicles; bracteoles 2, well-developed, valvate, completely enclosing the flower buds, persistent
    Hypanthium
    Hypanthium very short indeed, hardly present
    Calyx
    Sepals very small or absent, 0–5
    Corolla
    Petals: 1 relatively large, well-developed; the other 4 absent or rudimentary
    Stamens
    Stamens (8–)9–10, fertile; filaments very shortly connate at base, or one of them free
    Pistil
    Ovary densely pubescent, very shortly stipitate; stipe free; ovules 2–3(–6, fide Pellegrin); style elongate, with an abruptly and peltately enlarged stigma
    Fruits
    Pods compressed, dehiscent, 2-valved; each valve with 1 (rarely 2) strong longitudinal nerve running from stipe to style
    Seeds
    Seeds compressed, apparently without areoles, borne on short funicles.
    [LOWO]
    Use
    Various species used for timber ( andoung ) for construction, carpentry, implements and veneers; also for bark (boxes), human food (seeds) and medicine

    Images

    Distribution

    Doubtfully present in:

    Guinea, Nigeria

    Native to:

    Angola, Cameroon, Congo, Equatorial Guinea, Gabon, Ivory Coast, Liberia, Sierra Leone, Tanzania, Zambia, Zaïre

    Aphanocalyx Oliv. appears in other Kew resources:

    Date Reference Identified As Barcode Type Status
    Oct 1, 2005 Cheek, M. [11240], Cameroon K000338945
    Jan 1, 1998 Thomas, D.W. [10057], Cameroon Monopetalanthus K000011925
    Jan 1, 1996 Tchouto (Mbatchou), P. [614], Cameroon Monopetalanthus K000086107

    First published in Hooker's Icon. Pl. 11: 53 (1870)

    Accepted by

    • Wieringa, J.J. (1999). Monopetalanthus exit. A systematic study of Aphanocalyx, Bikinia, Icuria, Michelsonia and Tetraberlinia (Leguminosae, Caesalpinioideae) Wageningen Agricultural University Papers 99-4: 1-320.
    • Govaerts, R. (1995). World Checklist of Seed Plants 1(1, 2): 1-483, 529. MIM, Deurne.

    Literature

    Flora Zambesiaca
    • Wieringa in Wageningen Agric. Univ. Papers 99(4): 115 (1999).
    • in Hooker's Icon. Pl. 11: 53, fig.1066 (1870).

    Sources

    Flora Zambesiaca
    Flora Zambesiaca
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Herbarium Catalogue Specimens
    'The Herbarium Catalogue, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Published on the Internet http://www.kew.org/herbcat [accessed on Day Month Year]'. Please enter the date on which you consulted the system.

    Kew Backbone Distributions
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2018. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

    Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2018. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

    Legumes of the World Online
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0