1. Family: Fabaceae Lindl.
    1. Baphia Afzel. ex G.Lodd.

      1. This genus is accepted, and its native range is Tropical Africa.

    [LOWO]

    Legumes of the World. Edited by G. Lewis, B. Schrire, B. MacKinder & M. Lock. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. (2005)

    Habit
    Trees, shrubs and lianas
    Ecology
    Tropical lowland rain forest and seasonally dry forest, woodland, wooded grassland, bushland and thicket
    Distribution
    tropical Africa (most spp. in WC Africa), E South Africa (1 sp.), W Madagascar (2 spp., one of which is disjunct to W Africa)
    Note
    This genus is not monophyletic (Pennington et al., 2001) and requires revision. Analysis of DNA sequence data places Baphia in a clade with Dalhousiea, Airyantha and Leucomphalos (Sophoreae) and Baphiopsis (Swartzieae) (Pennington et al., 2001); this clade is placed well apart from the genistoids, sister and possibly basally branching to the predominantly Old World clade comprising the mirbelioids, millettioids, phaseoloids and Halogalegina (Pennington et al., 2001; Wojciechowski et al., 2004); this relationship is supported by pollen (Ferguson et al., 1994) and morphology, since all members of this group have unifoliolate leaves. Yakovlev (1991) recognised this group of genera as a distinct tribe Baphieae (excluding Baphiopsis)

    In Polhill’s (1994) treatment the following informal groups were recognised: the Myroxylon group (11 genera; 10 Neotropics, one Africa); Ormosia group (3 genera; Neotropics, Africa, Asia); Angylocalyx group (4 genera; Neotropics, Africa, Australia); Baphia group (6 genera; Africa to Asia); Dussia group (9 genera; Neotropics) and Sophora group (14 genera; Africa, Asia, Neotropics).

    The only formal change made to the classification of Sophoreae since Polhill (1994) is the transfer of Bowringia and Baphiastrum to Leucomphalos (Breteler, 1994b). In this account we maintain Bowringia and Baphiastrum, not because we disagree with Breteler (1994b), but in the spirit of this volume, to encourage future workers to verify the monophyly of Leucomphalos sens. lat. with new data. We also do not follow Polhill’s (1994) suggestion that Riedeliella, Etaballia and Inocarpus belong in Sophoreae. It has been generally accepted (e.g., Polhill, 1981b) that these belong in Dalbergieae, which is confirmed by the recent study of Lavin et al. (2001a) that places them in the Dalbergioid clade. They are therefore treated as Dalbergieae in this volume (see page 307).

    Cladistic analyses of overall morphology (Chappill, 1995; Herendeen, 1995) and pollen data (Ferguson et al., 1994) showed Sophoreae to be non-monophyletic because Swartzieae genera were mixed in the same monophyletic groups as Sophoreae. These results have been corroborated by molecular studies. Doyle et al. (1996) showed Sophoreae to be heterogeneous for a large inversion in the chloroplast genome. This suggests that Sophoreae is non-monophyletic if it is assumed that the inversion arose only once. Doyle et al.’s (1997) DNA sequencing study of the chloroplast gene rbcL included 18 genera of Sophoreae. Cladistic analysis showed these to be scattered widely across the papilionoid tree. More recently, these results have been corroborated by another chloroplast locus, the trnL intron (Pennington et al., 2001). This study sampled more putatively basal genera of Papilionoideae (26 of 41 Sophoreae; 14 of 15 Swartzieae and all Dalbergieae and Dipterygeae). The trnL tree (summarised in Fig. 29) is also largely congruent with other molecular studies that include some taxa of basal Papilionoideae (e.g., Hu et al., 2000; Ireland et al, 2000; Lavin et al., 2001a; Kajita et al., 2001; Wojciechowski et al., 2004). It clearly shows genera of Sophoreae to be members of disparate papilionoid clades.

    Diverse datasets now indicate Sophoreae to be non-monophyletic as Polhill (1981b; 1994) predicted. If the trnL results are corroborated, it seems likely that Sophoreae will be dismembered with its genera scattered across several tribes. This would entail extensive taxonomic changes. Yakovlev (1972b; 1991) split Sophoreae into five and nine tribes respectively. These classifications have not been widely accepted, and although they are not congruent with the most recent molecular topologies, they will need to be considered in any formalisation of new tribal names. In any new scheme, Sophoreae sens. strict. will comprise a group of genistoid clade genera from among Polhill’s (1994) Sophora group (Fig. 29), but published molecular phylogenetic studies have not yet sampled sufficient genera to suggest its delimitation.

    A new classification for Sophoreae requires sampling of the genera not included by Pennington et al. (2001; see Fig. 29) and other authors, in future molecular systematic studies. Some of the clades discovered by DNA sequence data (Fig. 29) are cryptic in that they are not marked by obvious macro-morphological features, and it is therefore perilous to attempt to determine the affinities of genera based upon macro-morphology alone. It may be that these clades are defined by anatomical or chemical characters. For example, quinolizidine alkaloid accumulation may be a synapomorphy for the Genistoid clade (Pennington et al., 2001; Kite & Pennington, 2003), and lack of these chemicals in Styphnolobium species supports the segregation of this genus from Sophora sens. strict. The presence of quinolizidine alkaloids in Calia, which is not placed amongst the genistoids, suggests that this genus is a strong candidate as sister group to the Genistoid clade, a relationship that might be resolved by more robust molecular phylogenies. Such phylogenies should incorporate information from nuclear genes (Lavin et al., 1998; Doyle & Doyle, 2000) which would be particularly useful to test hypotheses that are currently based solely upon evidence from chloroplast DNA. Careful integration of morphology, preferably as part of a simultaneous cladistic analysis, is also critical. Such morphological study may be best achieved by focusing on separate monophyletic groups because assessment of homology of morphological features across all Papilionoideae is difficult. The monophyletic groups discovered in the trnL analysis provide a framework for starting these future studies. In all 45 genera and (393) – 396 – (398) species are treated here (including c. 76 basally branching, c. 262 genistoid and c. 58 baphioid species of Sophoreae; Fig. 29).

    [FTEA]

    Leguminosae, J. B. Gillett, R. M. Polhill & B. Verdcourt. Flora of Tropical East Africa. 1971

    Habit
    Shrubs, sometimes scrambling or climbing, or trees up to 20(–25) m. high
    Leaves
    Leaves unifoliolate; stipules quickly caducous and seldom seen in herbarium specimens but up to 15 × 4 mm. in B. kirkii; petioles with upper and lower pulvini, these sometimes contiguous (i.e. without an intervening inter-pulvinary part) and so appearing as one; lamina entire, often coriaceous
    Flowers
    Flowers in axillary or subterminal bracteate racemes, sometimes grouped into pseudopanicles, or more often contracted into an axillary fascicle which may be reduced to a solitary flower; bracteoles linear to suborbicular, immediately beneath the flower or distant from it, sometimes both on one side of the pedicel and fused at the base or not
    Calyx
    Calyx at anthesis splitting to the base either down one side only and so appearing spathaceous, or down both sides and so into 2 separate pieces, usually showing 2–5 distinct but short teeth at the apex, the whole persistent or caducous, sometimes shed by means of a horizontal split just above the base so that a small ring remains
    Corolla
    Petals white, yellowish or purplish-pink, with a yellow or orange blotch at the base of the standard; standard broadly ovate to suborbicular or reniform, a claw very short or absent; wings and keel-petals with a claw, the keel-petals incompletely fused along their lower margins
    Stamens
    Stamens free, the filaments glabrous or occasionally hairy
    Ovary
    Ovary subsessile, glabrous to velutinous (sometimes the surfaces glabrous and the margins hairy), with a longish curved style
    Fruits
    Pods linear-oblong to oblanceolate, usually curved upwards towards the apex, laterally compressed, often slightly woody, greyish or straw-coloured to purplish-black, sometimes pubescent, dehiscing along both margins into 2 valves
    Seeds
    Seeds few, often only 1 developing, usually ± lenticular, the hilum on one edge with the rim-aril very small and scarcely noticeable.
    [FZ]

    Flora Zambesiaca Leguminosae subfamily Papillionoideae by R.K. Brummitt

    Stamens
    Stamens 10, free; filaments glabrous or occasionally hairy; anthers dorsifixed. Stamens 10, free; filaments glabrous or occasionally hairy; anthers dorsifixed.
    Ovary
    Ovary subsessile, glabrous to velutinous, with a long curved style. Ovary subsessile, glabrous to velutinous, with a long curved style.
    Fruits
    Pods linear-oblong to oblanceolate, often strongly curved near the apex, laterally compressed, greyish or straw-coloured to purplish or black, sometimes pubescent. Pods linear-oblong to oblanceolate, often strongly curved near the apex, laterally compressed, greyish or straw-coloured to purplish or black, sometimes pubescent.
    Seeds
    Seeds reddish or blackish, ± laterally compressed, with a small hilum. Seeds reddish or blackish, ± laterally compressed, with a small hilum.
    Habit
    Shrubs, sometimes scrambling or climbing, or trees up to 20(25) m high. Shrubs, sometimes scrambling or climbing, or trees up to 20(25) m high.
    Leaves
    Leaves unifoliolate; leaflet with entire margin, rarely cordate at base; petiole with upper and lower pulvini, these occasionally contiguous and so appearing as one; stipules caducous. Leaves unifoliolate; leaflet with entire margin, rarely cordate at base; petiole with upper and lower pulvini, these occasionally contiguous and so appearing as one; stipules caducous.
    Inflorescences
    Inflorescence a lax terminal or axillary raceme, or this often condensed to an axillary fascicle which may be reduced to a solitary, apparently axillary, flower; bracts small (up to c.5 mm) but distinct in lax inflorescences, or sometimes clearly replaced by 2 separate or fused stipules, or not obvious in fasciculate inflorescences; bracteoles linear to suborbicular, immediately beneath the flower or distant from it, sometimes both on one side of the pedicel and fused at the base or not. Inflorescence a lax terminal or axillary raceme, or this often condensed to an axillary fascicle which may be reduced to a solitary, apparently axillary, flower; bracts small (up to c.5 mm) but distinct in lax inflorescences, or sometimes clearly replaced by 2 separate or fused stipules, or not obvious in fasciculate inflorescences; bracteoles linear to suborbicular, immediately beneath the flower or distant from it, sometimes both on one side of the pedicel and fused at the base or not.
    Calyx
    Calyx at anthesis splitting to the base either down one side only (spathaceous) or down both sides (i.e. splitting into 2) and usually splitting at the apex into 2–5 teeth, the whole persistent or caducous, sometimes shed by means of a horizontal split just above the base so that a small ring remains. Calyx at anthesis splitting to the base either down one side only (spathaceous) or down both sides (i.e. splitting into 2) and usually splitting at the apex into 2–5 teeth, the whole persistent or caducous, sometimes shed by means of a horizontal split just above the base so that a small ring remains.
    Corolla
    Petals white or purplish-pink, with a yellow blotch at the base of the standard; standard broadly ovate to suborbicular or reniform, with the claw very short or absent, apex emarginate; wings with a claw, oblong to narrowly obovate; keel petals with a claw, incompletely fused along their dorsal margins. Petals white or purplish-pink, with a yellow blotch at the base of the standard; standard broadly ovate to suborbicular or reniform, with the claw very short or absent, apex emarginate; wings with a claw, oblong to narrowly obovate; keel petals with a claw, incompletely fused along their dorsal margins.
    [LOWO]
    Use
    Used as ornamentals (shade or street trees), for medicine, timber (e.g., construction, boat building, turnery, cabinetry and tool handles), a dye (e.g., B. nitida Lodd., camwood ) is sometimes used in cosmetics, firewood, charcoal and forage

    Images

    Distribution

    Native to:

    Angola, Benin, Botswana, Burundi, Cabinda, Cameroon, Cape Provinces, Caprivi Strip, Central African Repu, Congo, Equatorial Guinea, Ethiopia, Gabon, Ghana, Guinea, Gulf of Guinea Is., Ivory Coast, Kenya, KwaZulu-Natal, Liberia, Madagascar, Mozambique, Namibia, Netherlands, Niger, Nigeria, Northern Provinces, Rwanda, Senegal, Sierra Leone, Sudan, Tanzania, Tanzania, Togo, Uganda, Zambia, Zaïre, Zimbabwe

    Introduced into:

    Malaya, Sri Lanka

    Baphia Afzel. ex G.Lodd. appears in other Kew resources:

    Date Reference Identified As Barcode Type Status
    Jan 1, 1998 Cheek, M. [8855], Cameroon K000936067
    Jun 1, 1976 Letouzey, R. [15133], Cameroon K000092656
    Thomas, D.W. [6821], Cameroon K000092653

    First published in Bot. Cab. 4: t. 367 (1820)

    Accepted by

    • Goncharov, M.Y., Povydysh, M.N. & Yakovlev, G.P. (2011). Taxonomic revision of the genus Baphia (Baphieae, Fabaceae) Botanicheskii Zhurnal. Moscow & Leningrad 96: 917-953.
    • Govaerts, R. (1996). World Checklist of Seed Plants 2(1, 2): 1-492. MIM, Deurne.

    Literature

    Flora of West Tropical Africa
    • Lester-Garland in J. Linn. Soc. 45: 221 (1921).
    • —F.T.A. 2: 247
    Flora Zambesiaca
    • Soladoye in Kew Bull. 40: 291–386 (1985).
    • —Soladoye in Kew Bull. 40: 291–386 (1985).
    • Bot. Cab.: t.367 (1825).
    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    • Brummitt in K.B. 22: 513 (1968)
    • Bot. Cab., t. 367 (1825)

    Sources

    Flora Zambesiaca
    Flora Zambesiaca
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Herbarium Catalogue Specimens
    'The Herbarium Catalogue, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Published on the Internet http://www.kew.org/herbcat [accessed on Day Month Year]'. Please enter the date on which you consulted the system.

    Kew Backbone Distributions
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2018. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

    Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2018. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

    Legumes of the World Online
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0