1. Family: Fabaceae Lindl.
    1. Bituminaria Heist. ex Fabr.

      1. This genus is accepted, and its native range is Medit. to Caucasus, Arabian Peninsula.

    [LOWO]

    Legumes of the World. Edited by G. Lewis, B. Schrire, B. MacKinder & M. Lock. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. (2005)

    Note

    The tribe Psoraleeae as delimited by Stirton (1981a), comprised 6 genera and c. 135 species, and until very recently (see below) the tribe has been of uncertain lineage. Key revisionary studies since 1981 have been on Otholobium (Stirton, 1989), the New World members of Psoraleeae (Grimes, 1990), and Cullen (Grimes, 1997). Hallia was subsumed into Psoralea on the basis of data from inflorescence and flower morphology and leaf anatomy (Tucker & Stirton, 1991; Crow et al., 1997). Lectotypifications of infrageneric taxa in Psoraleeae were made by Grimes (1988). As treated here, the Psoraleeae comprise a monophyletic group of 9 genera and 185 species (Fig. 49). The only generic problems remaining to be resolved are a) the generic position of Bituminaria acaulis (Steven) C.H. Stirt. (Stirton, 1981b; Grimes, 1997) currently included in Bituminaria subgenus Christevenia Barneby ex C.H. Stirt.; and b) the status of eight species of South American Andean psoraleas included by Grimes (1990) in Otholobium, an otherwise southern and eastern African genus.

    Prior to 1977 (Stirton, 1981a), the Psoraleeae was considered closely related to Amorpheae. Evidence from a range of morphological, anatomical, floral development, phytochemical, nodulation and recently molecular studies, however, show that Amorpheae are basally branching in dalbergioid legumes (Lavin et al., 2001a; Wojciechowski et al., 2004), whereas Psoraleeae are nested within the Phaseoleae sens. lat.

    The Psoraleeae are sister to Phaseoleae subtribe Glycininae (see Figs. 47 & 49) in a well supported clade based on rbcL sequences of Otholobium and Bituminaria (Doyle et al., 1997). In addition Cullen (but cited as Psoralea) is part of a fully supported clade with other Phaseoleae based on trnK-matK data (Hu, 2000; Hu et al., 2000). Adams et al. (1999) and Doyle & Doyle (2000) indicate a similar result using data from the respiratory nucox-II gene (encoding subunit 2 of cytochrome oxidase). Psoraleeae are placed sister to Glycine with the basally branching Cullen sister to Otholobium, Psoralidium and Rupertia in the matK analysis of Wojciechowski et al. (2004). More sampling of Psoraleeae is needed in molecular analyses to ascertain if the basally-branching genera are the southern African Otholobium and Psoralea (as suggested by Grimes, 1990) or Cullen (e.g., in Wojciechowski et al., 2004).

    Habit
    Herbs
    Ecology
    Mediterranean lowland to subalpine woodland, shrubland and grassland, often in open disturbed areas or on rocky slopes
    Distribution
    Macaronesia, Mediterranean (S Europe, W Asia and N Africa), Turkey to Caucasus
    [LOWO]
    Use
    Used as ornamentals, forage and for medicine

    Distribution

    Native to:

    Albania, Algeria, Baleares, Bulgaria, Canary Is., Corse, Cyprus, East Aegean Is., France, Greece, Italy, Kriti, Krym, Lebanon-Syria, Libya, Madeira, Morocco, North Caucasus, Palestine, Portugal, Romania, Sardegna, Saudi Arabia, Sicilia, Sinai, Spain, Transcaucasus, Tunisia, Turkey, Turkey-in-Europe, Yugoslavia

    Introduced into:

    Eritrea, India, South Australia

    Bituminaria Heist. ex Fabr. appears in other Kew resources:

    First published in Enum.: 165 (1759)

    Accepted by

    • Govaerts, R. (1996). World Checklist of Seed Plants 2(1, 2): 1-492. MIM, Deurne.

    Sources

    Kew Backbone Distributions
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2018. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

    Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2018. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

    Legumes of the World Online
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0