1. Family: Fabaceae Lindl.
    1. Calpurnia E.Mey.

      1. This genus is accepted, and its native range is E. Cape Prov., Afromontane, S. India.

    [FZ]

    Leguminosae, various authors. Flora Zambesiaca 3:7. 2003

    Habit
    Shrubs or small trees.
    Leaves
    Leaves imparipinnate, 3–15-jugate, each leaflet up to 4(5) cm long, ovate, elliptic or obovate, obtuse or retuse and often mucronate at the apex, glabrous or usually sparsely to densely hairy.
    Flowers
    Flowers in axillary, or rarely terminal, few–many-flowered racemes; bracteoles very small and caducous or apparently absent.
    Calyx
    Calyx ± campanulate, the hypanthium intrusive at the base, the two upper teeth largely fused.
    Corolla
    Petals yellow; standard with a strongly channelled claw and ± reflexed limb; wings with slightly developed sculpturing between the veins proximally; keel obtuse.
    Ovary
    Ovary stalked, with several to many ovules.
    Fruits
    Pod stalked, ± membranous, flattened, sometimes with a narrow wing on the upper side, with the remains of the style usually persistent, usually indehiscent.
    [FTEA]

    Leguminosae, J. B. Gillett, R. M. Polhill & B. Verdcourt. Flora of Tropical East Africa. 1971

    Habit
    Shrubs or small trees
    Leaves
    Leaves imparipinnate, 6–30-foliolate; stipules small; stipels absent; lateral leaflets mostly strictly opposite but on some leaves in C. aurea varying to subopposite or nearly alternate, up to 4(–5) cm. long
    Flowers
    Flowers in axillary, or rarely terminal, few–many-flowered racemes; bracts small; bracteoles minute or lacking; pedicels sometimes swollen or jointed at or near the top
    Hypanthium
    Hypanthium conical, with the ovary inserted basally
    Calyx
    Calyx ± campanulate, with the 2 upper teeth largely fused
    Corolla
    Petals yellow; standard with a strongly channelled claw and ± reflexed limb; wings falcate-oblong; keel-petals obtuse, lightly coherent on lower side
    Stamens
    Stamens free or more commonly shortly joined at the base; anthers dorsifixed
    Pistil
    Ovary stipitate, with several to numerous ovules; style curved upwards, glabrous above, tapered to a small terminal stigma
    Fruits
    Fruits stipitate, narrowly oblong, flat, ± membranous, sometimes with a narrow wing along the upper edge and with the remains of the style often persistent, usually indehiscent
    Seeds
    Seeds compressed, ovate-oblong, with the small hilum near the narrow end; radicle incurved.
    [LOWO]

    Legumes of the World. Edited by G. Lewis, B. Schrire, B. MacKinder & M. Lock. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. (2005)

    Habit
    Trees and shrubs
    Ecology
    Subtropical or tropical, lowland and montane, seasonally dry forest (mostly along margins), woodland, bushland, xerophytic shrubland and grassland, along rivers, or on sand or rocky outcrops
    Distribution
    Africa (Afromontane to Somalia-Masai regions) and India (mainly the eastern parts of southern Africa, with one species extending through eastern tropical Africa to S India)
    Note
    Calpurnia was transferred to Podalyrieae from Sophoreae by Van Wyk & Schutte (1995a); molecular data supports this as sister to Virgilia (Van der Bank et al., 2002)

    Schutte & Van Wyk (1998a) summarised recent changes to generic and tribal circumscriptions in the Podalyrieae and Liparieae. The Liparieae has been formally placed in synonymy under Podalyrieae, as was also suggested by Polhill (1981o: 396–397, 398) and Käss & Wink (1997), but the genus Hypocalyptus was excluded and given tribal status as the Hypocalypteae (Schutte & Van Wyk, 1998b). The genus Coelidium Vogel ex Walp. was subsequently reduced to synonymy within Amphithalea Eckl. & Zeyh. (Schutte, 1998). This treatment follows Van Wyk & Schutte (1995a) but reflects several more recent modifications and revisions (references given below). Species in the tribe are listed by Nkonki et al. (2003). As presently circumscribed, the tribe includes 8 genera and 125 species (Fig. 35).

    It is interesting to note that taxonomic modifications based on detailed analyses of morphology, cytology and chemistry (Schutte & Van Wyk, 1998a & b) have subsequently been supported by molecular evidence (e.g., Crisp et al., 2000; Van der Bank et al., 2002; Wink & Mohammed, 2003). Secondary metabolites have contributed substantially to the current generic and tribal concepts. These include, amongst others, the presence of unique quinolizidine and piperidyl alkaloids, the absence of canavanine, the absence of proanthocyanidins and the presence of esters of hydroxylated anthocyanins in purple-flowered taxa. A clear-cut dichotomy (sprouting versus non-sprouting) exists in the fire-survival strategy of many mediterranean shrubland legumes and this feature is particularly relevant in the Podalyrieae (Schutte et al., 1995).

    The Podalyrieae belongs to a monophyletic clade, the ‘core genistoids’ which includes Crotalarieae, Genisteae, Podalyrieae, Thermopsideae, Euchresteae and Sophoreae sens. strict. (Crisp et al., 2000; Pennington et al., 2001; Wojciechowski et al., 2004). In Crisp et al. (2000) and Wink & Mohamed (2003), Podalyrieae is sister to a clade comprising the Old World Crotalarieae and the Genisteae, the latter incorporating the ‘African Genisteae’, i.e. Argyrolobium, Dichilus, Melolobium and Polhillia (see Van Wyk & Schutte, 1995a). Cadia (in Sophoreae sens. lat.) is basally branching to Podalyrieae in the analysis of Kajita et al. (2001) and Wink & Mohamed (2003), and the Podalyrieae-Crotalarieae-Genisteae clade is sister to a Thermopsideae-Sophoreae sens. strict. clade.

    [LOWO]
    Use
    Used as ornamentals and shade plants, for timber and medicine

    Images

    Distribution

    Native to:

    Angola, Botswana, Cape Provinces, Central African Repu, Eritrea, Ethiopia, Free State, India, Kenya, KwaZulu-Natal, Lesotho, Mozambique, Northern Provinces, Somalia, Sudan, Swaziland, Tanzania, Uganda, Zambia, Zaïre, Zimbabwe

    Introduced into:

    Galápagos, Jawa, Sri Lanka, Yemen

    Calpurnia E.Mey. appears in other Kew resources:

    First published in Comm. Pl. Afr. Austr.: 2 (1836)

    Accepted by

    • Govaerts, R. (1999). World Checklist of Seed Plants 3(1, 2a & 2b): 1-1532. MIM, Deurne.

    Literature

    Flora Zambesiaca
    • Beaumont, Beckett, Edwards & Stirton in Bothalia 29: 5–23 (1999).
    • Comment. Pl. Afr. Austr.: 2 (1836).
    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    • Comm. Pl. Afr. Austr.: 2 (1836)

    Sources

    Flora Zambesiaca
    Flora Zambesiaca
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Kew Backbone Distributions
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2018. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

    Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2018. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

    Legumes of the World Online
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0