1. Family: Cactaceae Juss.
    1. Genus: Rhipsalis Gaertn.
      1. Rhipsalis baccifera (J.S.Muell.) Stearn

        This species is accepted, and its native range is Tropical & Subtropical America, Tropical Africa, Madagascar, Sri Lanka.

    [FZ]

    Cactaceae, M. L. Gonçalves. Flora Zambesiaca 4. 1978

    Seeds
    Seeds c. 1 mm. long, black, glossy, finely pitted, subpyriform.
    Habit
    Much-branched succulent unarmed epiphytic shrub up to 3 m. long, pendent; stems ± furrowed, green or pale green, with ± verticillate articulated branches up to 1 m. long, sometimes producing adventitious roots at branch apices; branches cylindrical, green, leafless; young plants with areoles subtended by minute triangular scales with 1(2) deciduous tufted setae.
    Flowers
    Flowers up to 10 mm. in diameter, white or greenish-white, often numerous along the branches.
    Perianth
    Perianth-segments unequal, the outermost ± triangular to oblong, unequal, the inner ones up to 3 mm. long, oblong to ovate-oblong, spreading, translucent.
    Stamens
    Stamens c. 20, slightly shorter than inner segments of perianth; anthers ± 0·5 mm. in diameter, globular.
    Ovary
    Ovary prominent, c. 3 × 2·5 mm., with numerous ovules; style thick, ± as long as segments of perianth; stigma 3–5-partite with oblong fleshy spreading lobes.
    Fruits
    Fruit 4–8 mm. in diameter, a spherical or elongate white or pink berry, pellucid, surmounted by the remains of perianth, with a viscid pulp.
    [FTEA]

    Cactaceae, R. Hunt. Flora of Tropical East Africa. 1968

    Habit
    Much-branched pendent epiphytic shrub l–3(–9) m. long.
    Stem
    Stems slender, cylindric, 2–8 mm. in diameter, sometimes slightly furrowed, arising in pairs or clusters from tips of older branches, pale green, occasionally producing adventitious roots.
    Spines
    Areoles subtended by minute triangular scales, naked or with l(–2) short stiff bristles 1 mm. long.
    Flowers
    Flowers lateral, solitary, small, white or yellowish.
    Perianth
    Perianth-segments 9–12, outermost triangular, inner oblong, obtuse, 2–3 mm. long.
    Stamens
    Stamens ± 10–20, inserted at base of perianth, ± as long as perianth.
    Style
    Style thick; stigmas 3–5.
    Fruits
    Berry spherical or somewhat elongate, 5–8 mm. in diameter, pellucid, white, pink or red.
    Seeds
    Seeds black, glossy, subpyriform, ± 1 mm. long.
    Figures
    Fig. 2, p. 6.
    Habitat
    Epiphytic or in humus on rocks; lowland and upland rain-forest and upland evergreen bushland; 550–2200 m.
    Distribution
    K1 K4 K5 K6 K7 T1 T2 T3 T7 U2 U4 Z widespread in tropical Africa from Ivory Coast east to Ethiopia and as far south as NatalMadagascar, Mascarene Is., CeylonFlorida, West Indies, Central and tropical South America

    Images

    Distribution

    Native to:

    Argentina Northeast, Argentina Northwest, Belize, Benin, Bolivia, Brazil North, Brazil Northeast, Brazil West-Central, Burundi, Cameroon, Cayman Is., Central African Repu, Colombia, Congo, Costa Rica, Cuba, Dominican Republic, Ecuador, Ethiopia, Florida, French Guiana, Gabon, Ghana, Guatemala, Guinea, Gulf of Guinea Is., Guyana, Haiti, Honduras, Ivory Coast, Jamaica, Kenya, Leeward Is., Liberia, Madagascar, Malawi, Mexico Central, Mexico Gulf, Mexico Northeast, Mexico Northwest, Mexico Southeast, Mexico Southwest, Mozambique, Nicaragua, Nigeria, Panamá, Paraguay, Peru, Puerto Rico, Rwanda, Sierra Leone, Sri Lanka, Sudan, Suriname, Tanzania, Togo, Trinidad-Tobago, Uganda, Venezuela, Venezuelan Antilles, Windward Is., Zaïre, Zimbabwe

    Rhipsalis baccifera (J.S.Muell.) Stearn appears in other Kew resources:

    Date Reference Identified As Barcode Type Status
    Jan 1, 2015 Delnatte, C. [3565], Martinique K000543984
    Oct 22, 2013 Mbale, M. [NMK 975], Kenya K000543534
    Jan 1, 2011 Ramahefaharivelo, A. [s.n.], Madagascar K000634909
    Jun 30, 2010 Matimele, H.A. [98], Mozambique K000543232
    Jan 1, 2010 Ramahefaharivelo, A. [13], Madagascar K000634908
    Jul 1, 2009 Onana, J.-M. [2810], Cameroon K000338210
    Jan 12, 2009 van der Burgt, X.M. [1343], Guinea K000460596
    Jan 12, 2009 Haba, P.K. [480], Guinea K000460597
    Jan 12, 2009 Haba, P.K. [451], Guinea K000460598
    Jan 7, 2009 Cheek, M. [13819], Guinea K000460595
    Jan 1, 2009 Pignal, M. [3522], Comoros K000543123
    Apr 17, 2008 Timberlake, J. [5178], Mozambique K000543298
    Apr 17, 2008 Timberlake, J. [5394a], Mozambique K000543462
    Jan 1, 2008 Calvente, A.M. [379], Ecuador K000542715
    Aug 1, 2006 Etuge, M. [5199], Cameroon K000460044
    Jan 1, 2005 Jannerup [315], Tanzania K000037099
    Jan 1, 2005 Price, D. [WK293], Tanzania K000037100
    Jan 1, 2005 Andriamahefarivo, L. [69], Madagascar K000542918
    Jan 1, 2004 Onana, J.-M. [2053], Cameroon K000746418
    Jan 1, 2003 Ortiz [108], Bolivia K000036564
    Jan 1, 2003 Acevado Rodriguez, P. [14080], Dominican Republic K000543121
    Sep 1, 2002 Cheek, M. [9175 a], Cameroon K000008445
    Sep 1, 2002 Cable, S. [924], Cameroon K000008112
    Sep 1, 2002 Etuge, M. [1586], Cameroon K000008111
    Sep 1, 2002 Zapfack, L. [960], Cameroon K000008110
    Jan 4, 2001 Wieringa, J.J. [3886], Gabon K000543385
    Jan 1, 1997 Klitgaard, B. [584], Ecuador K000542696
    Jan 1, 1989 Peterson, P.M. [7146], Panama K000543077
    May 1, 1962 Volkens, G. [1581], Tanzania K000009565 isotype
    Angola K000009602
    Seychelles K000102395
    K000250255
    Mexico K000250251
    Zimbabwe K000250257
    K000250256
    K000250265
    K000250264
    K000250262
    Sri Lanka K000251643
    K000102388
    Uganda K000009654
    Verdcourt, B. [49], Tanzania 10604.000
    Verdcourt, B. [156], Tanzania 10606.000
    Greenway, P.J. [10,234], Tanzania 6617.000
    Dawkins, H.C. [863], Uganda 10605.000
    Morton [6396], Ghana K000251663
    Leach [14398] K000009587
    Leach [11485] K000009581
    Leach [12678], Zimbabwe K000009596
    Troupin [4166], Rwanda K000009617
    Troupin [2832], Rwanda K000009616
    Troupin [4166], Rwanda K000009614
    Jeffrey, C. [468], Seychelles 22901.000
    Jeffrey, C. [468A], Seychelles 23302.000
    Brenan [8578], Nigeria K000251672
    Jones [FHI19530], Nigeria K000251675
    Moore [47943], Tanzania K000009568
    Greenway [10234], Tanzania K000009574
    Greenway [13290], Tanzania K000009569
    Bosser [21216], Réunion K000102409
    Bosser [21438], Réunion K000102405
    Kennedy [1365], Nigeria K000251673
    Glover, P.E. [2647], Kenya 23016.000
    Mooney [6777], Ethiopia K000009631
    Chandler [1862], Uganda K000009653
    Purseglove, J.W. [P1768], Uganda K000009648
    Simon [1343], Zimbabwe K000009600
    Kirk, Mozambique K000009585
    Kirk [0], Mozambique K000009582
    Thompson [1706] K000251679
    Deighton [2222], Sierra Leone K000251651
    Deighton [3222], Sierra Leone K000251652
    Glover [3063], Kenya K000009546
    Gillett [20903], Kenya K000009664
    McPherson [16716] K000100238
    Horich [3], Guatemala K000250252
    Brummitt, R.K. [8589a], Malawi K000542635
    Wright [206], Cuba K000102431
    Eggeling [21171], Uganda K000009645
    Richards [25023], Tanzania K000009563
    Richards [20393], Tanzania K000009567
    Balfour, I.B. [0], Réunion K000102407
    Brieger [43], Brazil 52524.000
    Strey [10235] K000102416
    Verdcourt [49], Tanzania K000009559
    Cheek, M. [3477], Cameroon K000199876
    Rico, L. [2067], Cuba 59941.000
    Archer [2403], Guyana K000250443
    Jackson [13], Sierra Leone K000251654
    Gilbert [6874], Kenya K000009670
    Dawkins [D863], Uganda K000009647
    Bowling [91], Sierra Leone 52492.000
    Prance [4158], Amazonas K000250465
    Prance [2017], Brazil K000250464
    Brass [17824], Malawi K000009590
    Brass [17842], Malawi K000009588
    Brass [17676], Malawi K000009589
    Field [288], Venezuela K000250340
    Wood [171] K000102414
    Meyer [8033], Ethiopia K000009632
    Meyer [8999], Ethiopia K000009633
    Lorence [1522], Mauritius K000102399
    Wells [51] K000102411
    Steyermark [61915], Venezuela K000251162
    Cadet [4847], Réunion K000102406
    Barclay [2875], Mauritius K000102398
    Barclay [1150], Mauritius K000102397
    Brown [0], Mauritius K000102403
    Mason, Ghana 52501.000
    Fosberg [40583], Ivory Coast K000251662
    Faulkner [4514], Tanzania K000009564
    Stannard [760], Roraima K000250466
    Faden [8547] K000009554
    Johnson [0], Peru K000250253
    Andrews [1165], Sudan K000009630
    Tanner [157], Tanzania K000009576
    Tanner [88], Tanzania K000009575
    Letouzey [3070], Cameroon K000251683
    Letouzey [9931], Cameroon K000251680
    Friedmann [1522], Réunion K000102408
    Gardner [18580], Kenya K000009661
    Gardner [3216], Kenya K000009659
    McKee [10671], Guyana K000250444
    McKee [10673], Guyana K000250439
    Jayasuriya [852], Sri Lanka K000251647
    Ekman [1139], Cuba K000102435
    Ekman [7305], Cuba K000102434
    Bunting [9540], Venezuela K000250335
    Lewis, B. [914], Madagascar K000035144
    Lewis, B. [914], Madagascar K000035145
    Compton [27900] K000102412
    Kostermans [23381], Sri Lanka K000251646
    Kostermans [27872], Sri Lanka K000251648
    Edwards [1795] K000102415
    Magogo [633], Kenya K000009552
    Bjornstad [AB1893], Tanzania K000009572
    Bjornstad [255], Kenya K000009557
    Jangoux [88], Brazil K000250468
    Forsyth Major [610], Madagascar K000102374
    Forsyth Major [111], Madagascar K000102375
    Breteler [3137], Venezuela K000250339
    van Someren [1765], Kenya K000009662
    Sintenis [3350], Puerto Rico K000102445
    Sintenis [219], Puerto Rico K000102443
    Sintenis [2353], Puerto Rico K000102440
    Menacho, M. [36], Bolivia K000037076
    Spruce, R. [0], Brazil K000250462
    Spruce, R. [611], Brazil K000250461
    Williams [732], Bolivia K000250345
    Malcomber [1206], Madagascar K000102367
    Codd [10313] K000102410
    Dorr [3426] K000102364
    Dorr [3299] K000102363
    Bally [1101], Kenya K000009548
    Bally [6590], Kenya K000009667
    Bally [8794], Kenya K000009553
    Parker [0], Guyana K000250437
    Parker [104], Guyana K000250438
    Parker [3], Madagascar K000102369
    Parker [0], Madagascar K000102383
    Renvoize [1551], Tanzania K000009561
    Bourgeau [1873], Mexico K000062724
    Baron, R. [1467], Madagascar K000102382
    Baron, R. [6460], Madagascar K000102370
    Baron, R. [2842], Madagascar K000102372
    Baron, R. [5776], Madagascar K000102379
    Baron, R. [7011], Madagascar K000102377
    Baron, R. [2750], Madagascar K000102385
    Baron, R. [294], Madagascar K000102384
    Baron, R. [1467], Madagascar K000102387
    Baron, R. [294], Madagascar K000102380
    Baron, R. [4398], Madagascar K000102378
    Gay [0] K000275205
    Gay [0] K000250260
    Zenker [2640], Cameroon K000251685
    Zenker [4992], Cameroon K000251684
    Grimshaw, J.M. [94351], Tanzania K000009578
    Gerrard [106] K000102413
    Hostmann [393], Paraguay K000250460
    Hostmann [393], Suriname K000250456
    Thomasset [0], Seychelles K000102394
    Fendler [1128], Venezuela K000250338
    Fendler [372] K000102447
    Fryxell [3515], Mexico K000062717
    Decary [14091], Madagascar K000102371
    Decary [1189], Madagascar K000102386
    Decary [10146], Madagascar K000102381
    Bernoulli [2728], Guatemala K000102426
    Fiebrig, K. [431], Paraguay K000250472
    Andre [2591], Ecuador K000250342
    Gerard [5037], Congo K000009608
    Gledhill [0], Sierra Leone K000251653
    Lowe [2456], Nigeria K000251670
    Schlieben [1189A], Tanzania K000009558
    Schlieben [12194], Tanzania K000009573
    Schlieben [11141], Comoros K000102391
    Chapman [2811], Nigeria K000251669
    Chapman [6364], Malawi K000009591
    Harris [7646], Jamaica K000102438
    Ule [9651], Brazil K000250463
    Whyte [0], Uganda K000009652
    Enti [39261], Ghana K000251666
    Bos [3946], Cameroon K000251686
    Devred [3998], Congo K000251700
    Louis, A.M. [2439], Gabon K000743747
    Liebenberg [816], Uganda K000009650
    Lam [5369], Madagascar K000102376
    Swynnerton [1086], Zimbabwe K000009594
    Pierlot [2735], Congo K000009611
    Leeuwenberg [2881], Ivory Coast K000251659
    Leeuwenberg [3926], Ivory Coast K000251657
    Leeuwenberg [2148], Ivory Coast K000251658
    Leeuwenberg [5397], Cameroon K000251681
    Liben [3450], Congo K000251698
    Venter [218] K000102418
    Venter [998] K000102417
    Waller [0] K000009584
    Waller [0] K000009583
    Bernardi [14841], Mauritius K000102404
    Gardiner [0], Seychelles K000102396
    Gardiner [0], Seychelles K000102392
    Testu [1412], Gabon K000251688
    Koritschoner [817], Tanzania K000009560
    Johnston [608], Uganda K000009656
    Maitland [617], Uganda K000009651
    Loveridge [274], Zimbabwe K000009593
    Loveridge [1667], Zimbabwe K000009597
    Loveridge [253], Uganda K000009637
    Loveridge [131], Uganda K000009636
    Boiteau [0], Suriname K000250450
    Walker [0], Sri Lanka K000251645
    Walker [0], Sri Lanka K000251644
    Walker [16], Sri Lanka K000251642
    Fries [1561], Rwanda K000009618
    Ayres [0], Mauritius K000102401
    Ayres [0], Mauritius K000102400
    de Wilde [177], Ivory Coast K000251656
    Leippert [6430], Tanzania K000009562
    Elliot [7247], Uganda K000009655
    Onyeachusim [54088], Nigeria K000251677
    Lebzun [5126], Congo K000251695
    Lebzun [3926], Congo K000009605
    Pringle [3892], Mexico K000062722
    Pedersen [4804], Argentina K000250361
    Pedersen [11352], Argentina K000250360
    Sandwith [149], Guyana K000250441
    Sandwith [149], Guyana K000250440
    Palmer [357], Mexico K000062721
    Brown, E. N. [0] K000250261
    Brown, E. N. [0] K000250263
    Brown, E. N. [0] K000250266
    Brown, E. N. [0] K000102442
    Hutchison [1520], Peru K000250254
    Nee [42245], Bolivia K000250348
    Nee [36844], Bolivia K000250347
    Nee [33061], Mexico K000062716
    Rwaburindore, K. P. [2739], Uganda K000035158
    Jeffrey [468], Seychelles K000102393
    Hafashimana, N. D.L. [743], Uganda K000035172
    Labat, N. J. [3129] K000035306
    Hedburg [2075], Tanzania K000009570
    Nee et al [26089], Mexico K000062719
    Irwin et al [55466], Suriname K000250453
    Irwin et al [55812], Suriname K000250452
    Irwin et al [55571], Suriname K000250451
    Shafer [131], Argentina K000250362
    Shafer [139], Paraguay K000250471
    Woolston [741], Paraguay K000250473
    Harold [73], Nigeria K000251671
    Eyerdam [22746], Argentina K000250359
    Eyerdam [22667], Argentina K000250358
    Prance et al [30395], Brazil K000250470
    Smith, D. J. [2040], Guatemala K000102425
    Smith, D. J. [2501], Guatemala K000102424
    Smith, D. J. [4813], Costa Rica K000102423
    Orcutt [1110], Jamaica K000102430
    Orcutt [2639], Jamaica K000102439
    Heller [516], Puerto Rico K000102444
    Maxon [1514], Jamaica K000102437
    Matuda [3384], Mexico K000062723
    Jansen-Jacobs et al [1951], Guyana K000250445
    Jansen-Jacobs et al [1724], Guyana K000250448
    Jansen-Jacobs et al [1724], Guyana K000250447
    Jansen-Jacobs et al [1951], Guyana K000250446
    Bunting et al [6370], Venezuela K000250334
    Bunting et al [12186], Venezuela K000250336
    Samuels [428], Suriname K000250455
    Schipp [318], Belize K000102422
    Bettencourt [41], Mexico K000250258
    Holton [729], Ecuador K000250343
    Kessler, M. et al [8316], Bolivia K000250346
    Milliken [281], Roraima K000250469
    Milliken [82], Roraima K000250459
    Ern et al [2200], Togo K000251668
    Glover et al [648], Kenya K000009547
    Mavi [648A], Zimbabwe K000009598
    Weerasooriya [157] K000251641
    Weerasooriya [157] K000251640
    Weerasooriya [157] K000251639
    Phillipson [2239] K000102365
    Siemens [40], Kenya K000009660
    Borhidi et al [87042] K000009577
    Fevereiro et al [M417], Brazil K000250467
    Balee [840], Brazil K000250458
    Gereau [3258], Madagascar K000102366
    Hakki et al [678], Togo K000251667
    Hunt in Taylor [631], Venezuela K000250341
    Mtui [173] K000009571
    Faden et al [0], Kenya K000009555
    Martinez, S. et al [24992], Mexico K000062718
    Fernandes Casas [1991] K000251690
    Oldeman [B2056], Guyana K000250449
    Labat et al [2118bis], Madagascar K000102368
    Labat et al [2399], Madagascar K000100127
    Wild H [2107], Zimbabwe K000009595
    Goldsmith [10467], Zimbabwe K000009592
    Dorantes [2920], Mexico K000062715
    Kerber [308], Mexico K000102429
    Mueller F [1470], Mexico K000102428
    Mueller F [1066], Mexico K000062720
    Wild, A. T. M. [A44], Zimbabwe K000009599
    Bouten [0], Mauritius K000102402
    Bigger [2164], Tanzania K000009566
    Asplund [9165], Ecuador K000250344
    Hayes [0], Venezuela K000250333
    Gentle [2783], Belize K000102421
    Newcomb [128], Mexico K000250259
    Ro. [625] K000102446
    Garber [63], Puerto Rico K000102441
    Tranqueville [189], Cuba K000102436
    Jack [5017], Cuba K000102433
    Jack [5017], Cuba K000102432
    Stahel [0], Suriname K000250454
    Myers [5924], Guyana K000250442
    Maguire [24086], Suriname K000250457
    Leonard A [4028], Congo K000251699
    Leonard A [2520], Congo K000009612
    Duemmer [1013], Uganda K000009649
    Yamada [420], Zaïre K000251689
    Gutzwiller [2951], Congo K000009609
    Gutzwiller [1535], Congo K000009607
    Gutzwiller [3049], Congo K000009610
    Ramps [2594], Ivory Coast K000251661
    Lewalle [3231], Burundi K000009619
    Lawalle [759], Burundi K000009620
    Wagemans [1587], Congo K000251697
    Wagemans [1587], Congo K000251696
    Deyred [3791], Congo K000251694
    Stauffer [581], Congo K000251693
    Louis [4759], Congo K000251692
    Louis [4760], Congo K000251691
    Leonard J [329], Congo K000009606
    Jarrett [280], Uganda K000009646
    Wickham Th [2327], Uganda K000009638
    Friis et al [2326], Ethiopia K000009635
    Friis et al [1727], Ethiopia K000009634
    Wrigley [54], Equatorial Guinea K000251687
    Christiaensens [1497], Rwanda K000009615
    Christiaensens [882], Rwanda K000009613
    Linuta [136], Togo K000251649
    Bactu [2034], Togo K000251650
    Nigne [4379], Ghana K000251665
    Nigne [4379], Ghana K000251664
    Muroin [116], Nigeria K000251674
    Meurillon [614], Cameroon K000251682
    Wit [1248], Nigeria K000251678
    Adam [20689], Liberia K000251655
    Po [1419], Togo K000251676
    Oteke [172], Kenya K000009658
    Oteke [172], Kenya K000009657
    Grandvaux Barbosa et Carv [4411] K000009579
    Schaefer [7245] K000009580
    Waterlot [114], Madagascar K000102373
    Roberty [15501], Ivory Coast K000251660
    Gillett et al [17101], Kenya K000009551
    Maas Geesteranus [5799], Kenya K000009665
    Napier Bax [2635], Kenya K000009549
    Napier Bax [2635], Kenya K000009550
    Kerfoot, O. [2778A], Kenya K000009669
    Kerfoot, O. [2723], Kenya K000009668
    Kerfoot, O. [2778], Kenya K000009666
    Leakey H [H6563], Kenya K000009556
    Zardini, E.M. [35507], Paraguay K000100060
    Glen [3442] K000100128
    Rico et al [2067], Cuba K000100118
    Randriamampionona [462], Madagascar K000100279
    Yuncker [8402], Honduras K000102427
    Timberlake, J. [5178], Mozambique K000613558
    Timberlake, J. [5873], Mozambique K000543463
    Timberlake, J. [5873], Mozambique K000543464
    Sosef, M.S.M. [2264], Gabon K000743758
    Philcox, et al. [8967], Zimbabwe K000009601
    Trigui, S.M. [SMT 014], Madagascar K000542980
    Ammann, M.Y. [306], Madagascar K000543233
    Randimbiarison, C.H. [RCH 098], Madagascar K000543548
    Zappi, D [1477], Brazil K000543642
    Zappi, D [1477], Brazil K000543643
    Ibarra Manríquez, G. [5324], Mexico Rhipsalis bartlettii K000634410

    First published in Cact. J. (Croydon) 7: 107 (1939)

    Accepted by

    • Villaseñor, J.L. (2016). Checklist of the native vascular plants of Mexico Revista Mexicana de Biodiversidad 87: 559-902.
    • Hernández, H.M. & Gómez-Hinostrosa, C. (2015). Mapping the cacti of Mexico part II. Mammillaria Succulent Plant Research 9: 1-189.
    • Darbyshire, I., Kordofani, M., Farag, I., Candiga, R. & Pickering, H. (eds.) (2015). The Plants of Sudan and South Sudan: 1-400. Kew publishing, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Jongkind, C. (2014). Fauna & Flora of Liberia, flowering plant species list www.liberianfaunaflora.org.
    • Carbonó-Delahoz, E., Barros-Barraza, A. & Jiménez-Vergara, J. (2013). Cactaceae de Santa Marta, Magdalena, Colombia Revista de la Academia Colombiana de Ciencias Exactas, Físicas y Naturales 37: 177-187.
    • Acevedo-Rodríguez, P. & Strong, M.T. (2012). Catalogue of seed plants of the West Indies Smithsonian Contributions to Botany 98: 1-1192.
    • Garcia-Mendoza, A.J. & Meave, J.A. (eds.) (2012). Diversidad florística de Oaxaca: de musgos a angiospermas (colecciones y listas de especies), ed. 2: 1-351. Instituto de Biología, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México.
    • Idárraga-Piedrahita, A., Ortiz, R.D.C., Callejas Posada, R. & Merello, M. (eds.) (2011). Flora de Antioquia: Catálogo de las Plantas Vasculares 2: 1-939. Universidad de Antioquia, Medellín.
    • Fischer, E., Rembold, K., Althof, A. & Obholzer, J. (2010). Annotated checklist of the vascular plants of Kakamega forest, Western province, Kenya Journal of East African Natural History 99: 129-226.
    • Paña-Chocarro, M.C., Espada-Mateos, C., Vera, M., Céspedes, G. & Knapp, S. (2010). Updated checklist of vascular plants of the Mbaracayú Forest Nature Reserve (Reserva Natural del Bosque Mbaracayú), Paraguay Phytotaxa 12: 1-224.
    • Lejoy, J., Ndjele, M.-B. & Geerinck, D. (2010). Catalogue-flore des plantes vasculaires des districts de Kisangani et de la Tshopo (RD Congo) Taxonomania 30: 1-307.
    • Lisowski, S. (2009). Flore (Angiospermes) de la République de Guinée Scripta Botanica Belgica 41: 1-517.
    • Zuloaga, F.O., Morrone, O. , Belgrano, M.J., Marticorena, C. & Marchesi, E. (eds.) (2008). Catálogo de las Plantas Vasculares del Cono Sur Monographs in Systematic Botany from the Missouri Botanical Garden 107: 1-3348. Missouri Botanical Garden.
    • Hokche, O., Berry, P.E. & Huber, O. (eds.) (2008). Nuevo Catálogo de la Flora Vascular de Venezuela: 1-859. Fundación Instituto Botánico de Venezuela.
    • Nelson Sutherland, C.H. (2008). Catálogo de las plantes vasculares de Honduras. Espermatofitas: 1-1576. SERNA/Guaymuras, Tegucigalpa, Honduras.
    • Véliz, M. (2008). Las Cactáceas de Guatemala: 1-129. Unidad de Investigación Herbario BIGU, Universidad de San Carlos de Guatemala.
    • Sant'Ana Melhem, T., das Graças Lapa Wanderley, M., Ehlin Martins, S., Jung-Mendaçolli, S.L., Shepherd, G.J. & Kirizawa, M. (eds.) (2007). Flora Fanerogâmica do Estado de São Paulo 5: 1-476. Instituto de Botânica, São Paulo.
    • Akoègninou, A., van der Burg, W.J. & van der Maesen, L.J.G. (eds.) (2006). Flore Analytique du Bénin: 1-1034. Backhuys Publishers.
    • Stevens, W.D., Ulloa U., C., Pool, A. & Montiel, O.M. (2001). Flora de Nicaragua Monographs in Systematic Botany from the Missouri Botanical Garden 85: i-xlii, 1-2666. Missouri Botanical Garden.
    • Edwards, S., Tadesse, M., Demissew, S. & Hedberg, I. (eds.) (2000). Flora of Ethiopia and Eritrea 2(1): 1-532. The National Herbarium, Addis Ababa University, Ethiopia & The Department of Systematic Botany, Upps.
    • Boggan, J. Funck, V. & Kelloff, C. (1997). Checklist of the Plants of the Guianas (Guyana, Surinam, Franch Guiana) ed. 2: 1-238. University of Guyana, Georgetown.
    • Castle, G.E. (1994). Flore des Seychelles Dicotylédones: 1-663. Orstom Editions.
    • Launert, E. (ed.) (1978). Flora Zambesiaca 4: 1-658. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
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    • Acevedo-Rodríguez, P. & Strong, M.T. (2012). Catalogue of seed plants of the West Indies Smithsonian Contributions to Botany 98: 1-1192.
    • Garcia-Mendoza, A.J. & Meave, J.A. (eds.) (2012). Diversidad florística de Oaxaca: de musgos a angiospermas (colecciones y listas de especies), ed. 2: 1-351. Instituto de Biología, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México.
    • Fischer, E., Rembold, K., Althof, A. & Obholzer, J. (2010). Annotated checklist of the vascular plants of Kakamega forest, Western province, Kenya Journal of East African Natural History 99: 129-226.
    • Paña-Chocarro, M.C., Espada-Mateos, C., Vera, M., Céspedes, G. & Knapp, S. (2010). Updated checklist of vascular plants of the Mbaracayú Forest Nature Reserve (Reserva Natural del Bosque Mbaracayú), Paraguay Phytotaxa 12: 1-224.
    • Lejoy, J., Ndjele, M.-B. & Geerinck, D. (2010). Catalogue-flore des plantes vasculaires des districts de Kisangani et de la Tshopo (RD Congo) Taxonomania 30: 1-307.
    • Lisowski, S. (2009). Flore (Angiospermes) de la République de Guinée Scripta Botanica Belgica 41: 1-517.
    • Hokche, O., Berry, P.E. & Huber, O. (eds.) (2008). Nuevo Catálogo de la Flora Vascular de Venezuela: 1-859. Fundación Instituto Botánico de Venezuela.
    • Nelson Sutherland, C.H. (2008). Catálogo de las plantes vasculares de Honduras. Espermatofitas: 1-1576. SERNA/Guaymuras, Tegucigalpa, Honduras.
    • Véliz, M. (2008). Las Cactáceas de Guatemala: 1-129. Unidad de Investigación Herbario BIGU, Universidad de San Carlos de Guatemala.
    • Sant'Ana Melhem, T., das Graças Lapa Wanderley, M., Ehlin Martins, S., Jung-Mendaçolli, S.L., Shepherd, G.J. & Kirizawa, M. (eds.) (2007). Flora Fanerogâmica do Estado de São Paulo 5: 1-476. Instituto de Botânica, São Paulo.
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    Sources

    Flora Zambesiaca
    Flora Zambesiaca
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Herbarium Catalogue Specimens
    'The Herbarium Catalogue, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Published on the Internet http://www.kew.org/herbcat [accessed on Day Month Year]'. Please enter the date on which you consulted the system.
    Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/

    Kew Backbone Distributions
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2018. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

    Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2018. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

    Kew Science Photographs
    Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/

    Neotropikey
    Milliken, W., Klitgard, B. and Baracat, A. (2009 onwards), Neotropikey - Interactive key and information resources for flowering plants of the Neotropics.
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0