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This genus is accepted, and its native range is Tropics & Subtropics.

[FSOM]

M. Thulin et al. Flora of Somalia, Vol. 1-4 [updated 2008] https://plants.jstor.org/collection/FLOS

Morphology General Habit
Climbing robust herbs or woody lianes
Morphology Leaves
Leaves pinnately 3-foliolate
Morphology Reproductive morphology Inflorescences
Inflorescences axillary, racemose
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers
Flowers mostly large, rather thick in texture
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Calyx
Calyx 5-lobed, 2-lipped, the lower 3 lobes joined to form a trifid or entire lip, upper pair joined to form a bifid or truncate lip
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Corolla
Standard reflexed
Morphology Reproductive morphology Fruits
Pod linear-oblong, large, usually with longitudinal ribs close to upper margin.
Distribution
Some 60 species throughout the tropics and subtropics, but mainly American.
Note
Previous records of C. ensiformis (L.) DC. and C. gladiata (Jacq.) DC. in Somalia are based on material of respectively C. cathartica and C. africana.

[LOWO]

Legumes of the World. Edited by G. Lewis, B. Schrire, B. MacKinder & M. Lock. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. (2005)

Note

Previous accounts of the Phaseoleae by Baudet (1978) and Lackey (1981) recognised 90 and 84 genera and c. 1540 and 1480 species respectively in the tribe. In an equivalent, i.e. traditionally held view of Phaseoleae, 89 genera and (1554)–1567–(1580) species are treated here (Table 9; Fig. 47). Changes between Baudet (1978) and this treatment are that eleven genera are now in synonymy or have subsequently been placed in Millettieae, two genera have been transferred from Desmodieae and eight new genera have been added. Vigna has traditionally been thought to comprise some 150–200 species, but Vigna sens. strict. may contain fewer than 100.

Recent molecular analyses of the tribe, however, have emphasised both the polyphyletic and paraphyletic nature of Phaseoleae as traditionally circumscribed (Bruneau & Doyle, 1990; Doyle & Doyle, 1993; Delgado Salinas et al., 1993; Bruneau et al., 1995; Doyle et al., 1997, 2000; Kajita et al., 2001; Goel et al., 2001; Lee & Hymowitz, 2001). This has required a radical realignment of elements of the phaseoloids (Table 9; Fig. 47), with at least two major clades being evident: Phaseoleae subtribes Diocleinae and Ophrestiinae which together with tribe Abreae are allied to the core-Millettieae (Fig. 45), and the remaining groups comprising a Phaseoleae sens. lat. clade. The rbcL phylogeny of Kajita et al. (2001) and the ITS analysis of Hu et al. (2002) are equivocal as to which clade subtribe Clitoriinae belongs. Phaseoleae sens. lat. also includes two traditionally independent tribes, the Desmodieae and Psoraleeae. Delimiting a recircumscribed Phaseoleae sens. strict is thus very problematic. A solution may be to recognise a broad tribe Phaseoleae, comprising the subtribes Kennediinae, Cajaninae, Phaseolinae and Glycininae, assorted basally branching genera, and tribes Desmodieae and Psoraleeae (both treated at subtribal level).

Many more species than are currently recognised were described from Hawaii by St. John (1970); Queiroz et al. (2003) find that Canavalia, Cleobulia and Cratylia form a clade
Vernacular
kanavali
Habit
Lianas to slender vines
Ecology
Tropical flooded or swamp forest, river banks and forest margins to seasonally dry coastal vegetation, thicket, open woodland, wooded grassland and rocky hillsides, often climbing over or trailing through other vegetation
Distribution
c. 33 spp. Neotropics (c. 18 spp. endemic in S America; 10 spp. in N & C America and c. 5 neotropical-wide); c. 10 spp. in Pacific Is.; 8 spp. in Asia and 1 sp. in Madagascar; c. 5 spp. widespread in Palaeotropics or pantropical

[FTEA]

Leguminosae, J. B. Gillett, R. M. Polhill & B. Verdcourt. Flora of Tropical East Africa. 1971

Morphology General Habit
Woody lianes or perennial herbs, a few species cultivated as annuals
Morphology Stem
Stems trailing or climbing
Morphology Leaves
Leaves pinnately 3-foliolate; stipules small, deciduous, sometimes spurred and swollen below; stipels small, deciduous
Morphology Reproductive morphology Inflorescences
Inflorescences axillary, racemose, or flowers paired or in small groups along the rhachis which is thickened at their point of insertion
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers
Flowers mostly large, often rather thick in texture, white to purple
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Calyx
Calyx 5-lobed, 2-lipped, the lower 3 lobes joined to form a trifid or entire lip, upper pair joined to form a bifid or truncate lip
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Corolla
Standard rounded, reflexed, sometimes auriculate, appendaged; keel incurved, obtuse or beaked, often twisted
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Androecium Stamens
Stamens generally all joined, the vexillary one free only near its base, rarely quite free; anthers uniform
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Gynoecium Pistil
Ovary usually many-ovuled; style slender, curved, glabrous; stigma small, terminal
Morphology Reproductive morphology Fruits
Pods linear or oblong, (1–)4–15-seeded, flattened or turgid, often winged or ribbed along the upper suture and sometimes with additional ribs, sometimes thinly filled between the seeds; endocarp papery
Morphology Reproductive morphology Seeds
Seeds ovoid, ellipsoid or reniform, compressed; hilum linear, mostly at least half as long as the seed; a small papery persistent extension of the rim-aril present.

[FZ]

Leguminosae, B. Mackinder, R. Pasquet, R. Polhill & B. Verdcourt. Flora Zambesiaca 3:5. 2001

Morphology General Habit
Woody lianes or perennial herbs, a few species cultivated as annuals; stems trailing or climbing.
Morphology Leaves
Leaves pinnately 3-foliolate; stipules small, deciduous, sometimes spurred and swollen below; stipels small, deciduous.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers
Flowers in axillary racemes or pseudoracemes with 2–several at swollen nodes, often rather large and thick in texture.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Calyx
Calyx 2-lipped; upper 2 lobes joined to form a bifid or truncate lip, the 3 lower ones joined to form a trifid or entire lip.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Corolla
Corolla white to purple; standard rounded, reflexed, sometimes auricled, appendaged; keel incurved, obtuse or beaked, often twisted.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Androecium Stamens
Stamens all joined, the vexillary one free only near its base, rarely quite free; anthers uniform.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Gynoecium Pistil
Ovary usually many-ovuled; style slender, curved, glabrous; stigma small, terminal.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Fruits
Pod linear or oblong, flattened or turgid, often winged or ribbed along the upper suture and sometimes with additional ribs, sometimes thinly filled between the seeds; endocarp papery, (1)4–15-seeded.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Seeds
Seeds ovoid, ellipsoid or reniform, compressed; hilum linear, usually at least half as long as the seed; hilum with a small papery persistent extension of the rim aril.

[LOWO]
Use
Used for human food, cover crops and green manures, e.g., C. gladiata (Jacq.) DC. (sword bean) and C. ensiformis (L.) DC. (jack bean) ; also as ornamentals, medicine, human food (vegetable) and forage; common drift seeds

Native to:

Alabama, Aldabra, Andaman Is., Angola, Argentina Northeast, Argentina Northwest, Arizona, Aruba, Assam, Bahamas, Bangladesh, Belize, Benin, Bermuda, Bismarck Archipelago, Bolivia, Borneo, Brazil North, Brazil Northeast, Brazil South, Brazil Southeast, Brazil West-Central, Burkina, Cambodia, Cameroon, Cape Provinces, Caroline Is., Caroline Is., Cayman Is., Central African Repu, Central American Pac, Chad, Chagos Archipelago, China South-Central, China Southeast, Christmas I., Cocos (Keeling) Is., Colombia, Comoros, Congo, Cook Is., Costa Rica, Cuba, District of Columbia, Dominican Republic, East Himalaya, Ecuador, El Salvador, Equatorial Guinea, Eritrea, Ethiopia, Fiji, Florida, French Guiana, Gabon, Galápagos, Gambia, Georgia, Ghana, Guatemala, Guinea, Guinea-Bissau, Gulf of Guinea Is., Guyana, Hainan, Haiti, Hawaii, Honduras, India, Ivory Coast, Jamaica, Japan, Jawa, Kazan-retto, Kenya, Kermadec Is., Korea, KwaZulu-Natal, Laccadive Is., Laos, Leeward Is., Lesser Sunda Is., Liberia, Line Is., Madagascar, Malawi, Malaya, Maldives, Mali, Maluku, Marianas, Marianas, Marquesas, Marshall Is., Marshall Is., Mauritius, Mexican Pacific Is., Mexico Central, Mexico Gulf, Mexico Northeast, Mexico Northwest, Mexico Southeast, Mexico Southwest, Mississippi, Missouri, Mozambique, Mozambique Channel I, Myanmar, Namibia, Nansei-shoto, Nauru, Nepal, Netherlands Antilles, New Caledonia, New Guinea, New South Wales, Nicaragua, Nicobar Is., Nigeria, Niue, Norfolk Is., Northern Provinces, Northern Territory, Ogasawara-shoto, Oklahoma, Pakistan, Panamá, Paraguay, Peru, Philippines, Pitcairn Is., Puerto Rico, Queensland, Rodrigues, Rwanda, Réunion, Samoa, Santa Cruz Is., Senegal, Seychelles, Sierra Leone, Society Is., Socotra, Solomon Is., Somalia, South China Sea, Southwest Caribbean, Sri Lanka, Sudan, Sulawesi, Sumatera, Suriname, Swaziland, Taiwan, Tanzania, Texas, Thailand, Togo, Tokelau-Manihiki, Tonga, Trinidad-Tobago, Tuamotu, Tubuai Is., Turks-Caicos Is., Tuvalu, Uganda, Uruguay, Vanuatu, Venezuela, Venezuelan Antilles, Vietnam, Wallis-Futuna Is., West Himalaya, Western Australia, Windward Is., Yemen, Zambia, Zaïre, Zimbabwe

Introduced into:

Burundi, Gilbert Is., Illinois, Niger

Canavalia DC. appears in other Kew resources:

Date Reference Identified As Barcode Type Status
Mar 1, 2003 Harley, R.M. [54597], Brazil K000930186
Jan 1, 1997 Coradin, L. [7581], Brazil K000930182
Jan 1, 1985 Sperling, C.R. [6054], Brazil K000930193
Jan 1, 1972 Mexia, Y.E.J. [4986], Brazil K000930198
Hoehne, W. [s.n.], Brazil K000930183
Gutierres, N.V. [s.n.], Brazil K000930187
Heringer, E.P. [14568], Brazil K000930191
Folli, D.A. [4822], Brazil K000930199
Folli, D.A. [4822], Brazil K000930200
Atkins, S. [CFCR 14817], Brazil K000930204
Hatschbach, G.G. [60693], Brazil K000930185
Souza, V.C. [5508], Brazil K000930205
Vinha, P. [811], Brazil K000930184
Silva, A.G. [81], Brazil K000930190
Atkins, S. [CFCR14817], Brazil K000930203
Silva, A.G. [60], Brazil K000930189
Guedes, M.L. [PCD 0357], Brazil K000930208
Souza, V.C. [5508], Brazil K000930206
Mexia, Y.E.J. [4742], Brazil K000930196
Hatschbach, G.G. [36958], Brazil K000930194
Folli, D.A. [4550], Brazil K000930201
Heringer, E.P. [13252], Brazil K000930192
Hatschbach, G.G. [62358], Brazil K000930181
Guedes, M.L. [357], Brazil K000930207
Folli, D.A. [4550], Brazil K000930202
Augusto, L. [16/96], Brazil K000930188

First published in Mém. Légum.: 375 (1826)

Accepted by

  • Govaerts, R. (1999). World Checklist of Seed Plants 3(1, 2a & 2b): 1-1532. MIM, Deurne.
  • Moteetee, A.N. (2016). Canavalia (Phaseoleae, Fabaceae) species in South Africa: naturalised and indigenous South African Journal of Botany 103: 6-16.

Literature

Flora of West Tropical Africa

  • —F.T.A. 2: 189.

Flora Zambesiaca

  • Fam. Pl. 2: 325, 531 (1763) as “Canavali”
  • Sauer in Brittonia 16: 106–181 (1964).
  • emend. DC., Prodr. 2: 403 (1825) nom. conserv.

Flora of Somalia

  • Flora Somalia, Vol 1, (1993) Author: by M. Thulin [updated by M. Thulin 2008]

Flora of Tropical East Africa

  • Fam. Pl. 2: 325, 531 (1763), as Canavali
  • Mém. Legum.: 375 (1826)
  • Sauer in Brittonia 16: 106–181 (1964), nom. conserv.
  • emend. DC, Prodr. 2: 403 (1825)

Flora Zambesiaca
Flora Zambesiaca
http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

Flora of Somalia
Flora of Somalia
http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

Flora of Tropical East Africa
Flora of Tropical East Africa
http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

Herbarium Catalogue Specimens
Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/

Kew Backbone Distributions
The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2021. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
© Copyright 2017 World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone
The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2021. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
© Copyright 2017 International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

Legumes of the World Online
http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0