1. Family: Fabaceae Lindl.
    1. Canavalia DC.

      1. This genus is accepted, and its native range is Tropics & Subtropics.

    [LOWO]

    Legumes of the World. Edited by G. Lewis, B. Schrire, B. MacKinder & M. Lock. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. (2005)

    Note

    Previous accounts of the Phaseoleae by Baudet (1978) and Lackey (1981) recognised 90 and 84 genera and c. 1540 and 1480 species respectively in the tribe. In an equivalent, i.e. traditionally held view of Phaseoleae, 89 genera and (1554)–1567–(1580) species are treated here (Table 9; Fig. 47). Changes between Baudet (1978) and this treatment are that eleven genera are now in synonymy or have subsequently been placed in Millettieae, two genera have been transferred from Desmodieae and eight new genera have been added. Vigna has traditionally been thought to comprise some 150–200 species, but Vigna sens. strict. may contain fewer than 100.

    Recent molecular analyses of the tribe, however, have emphasised both the polyphyletic and paraphyletic nature of Phaseoleae as traditionally circumscribed (Bruneau & Doyle, 1990; Doyle & Doyle, 1993; Delgado Salinas et al., 1993; Bruneau et al., 1995; Doyle et al., 1997, 2000; Kajita et al., 2001; Goel et al., 2001; Lee & Hymowitz, 2001). This has required a radical realignment of elements of the phaseoloids (Table 9; Fig. 47), with at least two major clades being evident: Phaseoleae subtribes Diocleinae and Ophrestiinae which together with tribe Abreae are allied to the core-Millettieae (Fig. 45), and the remaining groups comprising a Phaseoleae sens. lat. clade. The rbcL phylogeny of Kajita et al. (2001) and the ITS analysis of Hu et al. (2002) are equivocal as to which clade subtribe Clitoriinae belongs. Phaseoleae sens. lat. also includes two traditionally independent tribes, the Desmodieae and Psoraleeae. Delimiting a recircumscribed Phaseoleae sens. strict is thus very problematic. A solution may be to recognise a broad tribe Phaseoleae, comprising the subtribes Kennediinae, Cajaninae, Phaseolinae and Glycininae, assorted basally branching genera, and tribes Desmodieae and Psoraleeae (both treated at subtribal level).

    Many more species than are currently recognised were described from Hawaii by St. John (1970); Queiroz et al. (2003) find that Canavalia, Cleobulia and Cratylia form a clade
    Vernacular
    kanavali
    Habit
    Lianas to slender vines
    Ecology
    Tropical flooded or swamp forest, river banks and forest margins to seasonally dry coastal vegetation, thicket, open woodland, wooded grassland and rocky hillsides, often climbing over or trailing through other vegetation
    Distribution
    c. 33 spp. Neotropics (c. 18 spp. endemic in S America; 10 spp. in N & C America and c. 5 neotropical-wide); c. 10 spp. in Pacific Is.; 8 spp. in Asia and 1 sp. in Madagascar; c. 5 spp. widespread in Palaeotropics or pantropical
    [FTEA]

    Leguminosae, J. B. Gillett, R. M. Polhill & B. Verdcourt. Flora of Tropical East Africa. 1971

    Habit
    Woody lianes or perennial herbs, a few species cultivated as annuals
    Stem
    Stems trailing or climbing
    Leaves
    Leaves pinnately 3-foliolate; stipules small, deciduous, sometimes spurred and swollen below; stipels small, deciduous
    Inflorescences
    Inflorescences axillary, racemose, or flowers paired or in small groups along the rhachis which is thickened at their point of insertion
    Flowers
    Flowers mostly large, often rather thick in texture, white to purple
    Calyx
    Calyx 5-lobed, 2-lipped, the lower 3 lobes joined to form a trifid or entire lip, upper pair joined to form a bifid or truncate lip
    Corolla
    Standard rounded, reflexed, sometimes auriculate, appendaged; keel incurved, obtuse or beaked, often twisted
    Stamens
    Stamens generally all joined, the vexillary one free only near its base, rarely quite free; anthers uniform
    Pistil
    Ovary usually many-ovuled; style slender, curved, glabrous; stigma small, terminal
    Fruits
    Pods linear or oblong, (1–)4–15-seeded, flattened or turgid, often winged or ribbed along the upper suture and sometimes with additional ribs, sometimes thinly filled between the seeds; endocarp papery
    Seeds
    Seeds ovoid, ellipsoid or reniform, compressed; hilum linear, mostly at least half as long as the seed; a small papery persistent extension of the rim-aril present.
    [FZ]

    Leguminosae, B. Mackinder, R. Pasquet, R. Polhill & B. Verdcourt. Flora Zambesiaca 3:5. 2001

    Habit
    Woody lianes or perennial herbs, a few species cultivated as annuals; stems trailing or climbing.
    Leaves
    Leaves pinnately 3-foliolate; stipules small, deciduous, sometimes spurred and swollen below; stipels small, deciduous.
    Flowers
    Flowers in axillary racemes or pseudoracemes with 2–several at swollen nodes, often rather large and thick in texture.
    Calyx
    Calyx 2-lipped; upper 2 lobes joined to form a bifid or truncate lip, the 3 lower ones joined to form a trifid or entire lip.
    Corolla
    Corolla white to purple; standard rounded, reflexed, sometimes auricled, appendaged; keel incurved, obtuse or beaked, often twisted.
    Stamens
    Stamens all joined, the vexillary one free only near its base, rarely quite free; anthers uniform.
    Pistil
    Ovary usually many-ovuled; style slender, curved, glabrous; stigma small, terminal.
    Fruits
    Pod linear or oblong, flattened or turgid, often winged or ribbed along the upper suture and sometimes with additional ribs, sometimes thinly filled between the seeds; endocarp papery, (1)4–15-seeded.
    Seeds
    Seeds ovoid, ellipsoid or reniform, compressed; hilum linear, usually at least half as long as the seed; hilum with a small papery persistent extension of the rim aril.
    [LOWO]
    Use
    Used for human food, cover crops and green manures, e.g., C. gladiata (Jacq.) DC. (sword bean) and C. ensiformis (L.) DC. (jack bean) ; also as ornamentals, medicine, human food (vegetable) and forage; common drift seeds

    Images

    Distribution

    Native to:

    Alabama, Aldabra, Andaman Is., Angola, Argentina Northeast, Argentina Northwest, Arizona, Aruba, Assam, Bahamas, Bangladesh, Belize, Benin, Bermuda, Bismarck Archipelago, Bolivia, Borneo, Brazil North, Brazil Northeast, Brazil South, Brazil Southeast, Brazil West-Central, Burkina, Cambodia, Cameroon, Cape Provinces, Caroline Is., Caroline Is., Cayman Is., Central African Repu, Central American Pac, Chad, Chagos Archipelago, China South-Central, China Southeast, Christmas I., Cocos (Keeling) Is., Colombia, Comoros, Congo, Cook Is., Costa Rica, Cuba, District of Columbia, Dominican Republic, East Himalaya, Ecuador, El Salvador, Equatorial Guinea, Eritrea, Ethiopia, Fiji, Florida, French Guiana, Gabon, Galápagos, Gambia, Georgia, Ghana, Guatemala, Guinea, Guinea-Bissau, Gulf of Guinea Is., Guyana, Hainan, Haiti, Hawaii, Honduras, India, Ivory Coast, Jamaica, Japan, Jawa, Kazan-retto, Kenya, Kermadec Is., Korea, KwaZulu-Natal, Laccadive Is., Laos, Leeward Is., Lesser Sunda Is., Liberia, Line Is., Madagascar, Malawi, Malaya, Maldives, Mali, Maluku, Marianas, Marianas, Marshall Is., Marshall Is., Mauritius, Mexican Pacific Is., Mexico Central, Mexico Gulf, Mexico Northeast, Mexico Northwest, Mexico Southeast, Mexico Southwest, Mississippi, Missouri, Mozambique, Mozambique Channel I, Myanmar, Namibia, Nansei-shoto, Nauru, Nepal, Netherlands Antilles, New Caledonia, New Guinea, New South Wales, Nicaragua, Nicobar Is., Nigeria, Niue, Norfolk Is., Northern Provinces, Northern Territory, Ogasawara-shoto, Oklahoma, Pakistan, Panamá, Paraguay, Peru, Philippines, Puerto Rico, Queensland, Rodrigues, Rwanda, Réunion, Samoa, Santa Cruz Is., Senegal, Seychelles, Sierra Leone, Society Is., Socotra, Solomon Is., Somalia, South China Sea, Southwest Caribbean, Sri Lanka, Sudan, Sulawesi, Sumatera, Suriname, Swaziland, Taiwan, Tanzania, Texas, Thailand, Togo, Tokelau-Manihiki, Tonga, Trinidad-Tobago, Tubuai Is., Turks-Caicos Is., Tuvalu, Uganda, Uruguay, Vanuatu, Venezuela, Venezuelan Antilles, Vietnam, Wallis-Futuna Is., West Himalaya, Western Australia, Windward Is., Yemen, Zambia, Zaïre, Zimbabwe

    Introduced into:

    Burundi, Gilbert Is., Illinois, Niger

    Canavalia DC. appears in other Kew resources:

    Date Reference Identified As Barcode Type Status
    Mar 1, 2003 Harley, R.M. [54597], Brazil K000930186
    Jan 1, 1997 Coradin, L. [7581], Brazil K000930182
    Jan 1, 1985 Sperling, C.R. [6054], Brazil K000930193
    Jan 1, 1972 Mexia, Y.E.J. [4986], Brazil K000930198
    Souza, V.C. [5508], Brazil K000930205
    Souza, V.C. [5508], Brazil K000930206
    Guedes, M.L. [357], Brazil K000930207
    Guedes, M.L. [PCD 0357], Brazil K000930208
    Heringer, E.P. [14568], Brazil K000930191
    Heringer, E.P. [13252], Brazil K000930192
    Folli, D.A. [4822], Brazil K000930199
    Folli, D.A. [4822], Brazil K000930200
    Folli, D.A. [4550], Brazil K000930201
    Folli, D.A. [4550], Brazil K000930202
    Hoehne, W. [s.n.], Brazil K000930183
    Atkins, S. [CFCR14817], Brazil K000930203
    Atkins, S. [CFCR 14817], Brazil K000930204
    Silva, A.G. [60], Brazil K000930189
    Silva, A.G. [81], Brazil K000930190
    Mexia, Y.E.J. [4742], Brazil K000930196
    Hatschbach, G.G. [62358], Brazil K000930181
    Hatschbach, G.G. [60693], Brazil K000930185
    Hatschbach, G.G. [36958], Brazil K000930194
    Vinha, P. [811], Brazil K000930184
    Gutierres, N.V. [s.n.], Brazil K000930187
    Augusto, L. [16/96], Brazil K000930188

    First published in Mém. Légum.: 375 (1826)

    Accepted by

    • Moteetee, A.N. (2016). Canavalia (Phaseoleae, Fabaceae) species in South Africa: naturalised and indigenous South African Journal of Botany 103: 6-16.
    • Govaerts, R. (1999). World Checklist of Seed Plants 3(1, 2a & 2b): 1-1532. MIM, Deurne.

    Literature

    Flora of West Tropical Africa
    • —F.T.A. 2: 189.
    Flora Zambesiaca
    • Sauer in Brittonia 16: 106–181 (1964).
    • emend. DC., Prodr. 2: 403 (1825) nom. conserv.
    • Fam. Pl. 2: 325, 531 (1763) as “Canavali”
    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    • Sauer in Brittonia 16: 106–181 (1964), nom. conserv.
    • Mém. Legum.: 375 (1826)
    • emend. DC, Prodr. 2: 403 (1825)
    • Fam. Pl. 2: 325, 531 (1763), as Canavali

    Sources

    Flora Zambesiaca
    Flora Zambesiaca
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Herbarium Catalogue Specimens
    'The Herbarium Catalogue, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Published on the Internet http://www.kew.org/herbcat [accessed on Day Month Year]'. Please enter the date on which you consulted the system.
    Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/

    Kew Backbone Distributions
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2018. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

    Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2018. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

    Legumes of the World Online
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0