1. Family: Fabaceae Lindl.
    1. Cicer L.

      1. This genus is accepted, and its native range is Canary Islands, Medit. to Central Asia.

    [FTEA]

    Leguminosae, J. B. Gillett, R. M. Polhill & B. Verdcourt. Flora of Tropical East Africa. 1971

    Habit
    Erect or prostrate, perennial or annual, usually viscid herbs or subshrubs
    Leaves
    Leaves 3-foliolate or more usually pinnate, the terminal leaflet sometimes replaced by a tendril or spine; leaflets very conspicuously dentate; stipules often conspicuous, leafy, oblique, toothed or deeply divided; stipels absent
    Inflorescences
    Inflorescences axillary, few-flowered or flowers solitary; bracts small; bracteoles absent
    Calyx
    Calyx 5-lobed, the tube oblique or gibbous; lobes sub-equal or the upper pair shorter, connivent
    Corolla
    Corolla small, white, blue or purplish; standard ovate or rounded, narrowed into a broad claw, without appendages
    Stamens
    Vexillary stamen free; anthers uniform
    Pistil
    Ovary 2–few-ovuled; style filiform, incurved, not bearded; stigma terminal
    Fruits
    Pods sessile, oblong-ellipsoid, inflated
    Seeds
    Seeds subglobose or irregularly obovoid; hilum small.
    [FZ]

    Leguminosae, various authors. Flora Zambesiaca 3:7. 2003

    Habit
    Erect or prostrate annuals, or perennial herbs with annual stems from woody rootstocks, pubescent with stalked glandular hairs or hairs eglandular, sometimes the leaf rhachis, peduncles and stipules spinose.
    Leaves
    Leaves 3-foliolate or more usually pinnate, imparipinnate or paripinnate with the rhachis ending in a tendril or spine; leaflets conspicuously dentate; stipules small or large, foliaceous, dentate or incised.
    Flowers
    Flowers solitary or in 2–5-flowered axillary racemes; bracts small; bracteoles absent.
    Calyx
    Calyx nearly regular, 5-lobed; tube short, oblique or dorsally gibbous; lobes subequal.
    Corolla
    Corolla white, pink, purplish or blue, veined; standard obovate, narrowed into a broad claw, without appendages; wings oblong-obovate, free from the keel.
    Stamens
    Vexillary stamen free; anthers all similar.
    Pistil
    Ovary sessile, 1–10-ovuled; style filiform, incurved, glabrous; stigma dilated or not, terminal.
    Fruits
    Pods sessile, elliptic, obovate or elongate-rhomboid, acuminate, inflated.
    Seeds
    Seeds subglobose to oblong-obovoid, beaked; hilum without an aril.
    [LOWO]

    Legumes of the World. Edited by G. Lewis, B. Schrire, B. MacKinder & M. Lock. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. (2005)

    Note
    Cicer, the only genus in Cicereae (Fig. 55), occurs exclusively in the Old World, with centres of distribution in W and C Asia. One of the 43 species occurs in NE tropical Africa. Cicer arietinum L., the chickpea , is widely cultivated in warm temperate and subtropical regions. The genus was formerly placed in Fabeae (as Vicieae), however, Kupicha (1977; 1981b) showed clearly that the genus is distinct and reinstated tribe Cicereae. Steele & Wojciechowski (2003) and Wojciechowski (2003) find Cicer is best supported as sister to the Trifolieae–Fabeae clade.

    Polhill (1981a) had placed Cicereae as part of his ‘temperate epulvinate series’. Doyle (1995) and Liston (1995) grouped the Cicereae, Trifolieae, Galegeae, Hedysareae, Fabeae (as Vicieae) and some genera currently in Millettieae sens. lat., on the basis that they lack the inverted repeat (IR). Wojciechowski et al. (2000) placed Cicereae within their Inverted Repeat Lacking Clade (IRLC) and within this, in their Vicioid clade. Galega and Cicereae are sister groups in this analysis to the rest of the Vicioid clade which includes Fabeae and Trifolieae (except Parochetus which is basally branching to the Vicioid clade). The postulated relationship with Galega is unexpected and, perhaps because of this, the morphological similarities and/or differences remain unexplored. The analyses of Wojciechowski (2003), Steele & Wojciechowski (2003) and Wojciechowski et al. (2004), suggest that Cicereae remains a fairly isolated group with respect to Galega and the Trifolieae-Fabeae clade. In future, tribe Galegeae sens. strict. is likely to comprise the single genus Galega, although relationships with Parochetus and Cicereae need to be studied further to ascertain if these should also be included.

    Habit
    Herbs, sometimes shrubby
    Ecology
    Mediterranean and warm and continental temperate grassland and shrubland; perennial species often montane or upland
    Distribution
    Mediterranean region to W and C Asia, Canary Islands and NE tropical Africa
    [LOWO]
    Use
    Cicer arietinum L. is a major pulse crop (chickpea, pois chiche, garbanzo, Bengal gram, chana) , joining peas and lentils as one of the three main foodpulses; the seeds are also ground into flour, used in soup, dhal and bread or are mashed with oils and spices into hummus; other uses include starch, medicine and fodder

    Images

    Distribution

    Native to:

    Afghanistan, Albania, Altay, Bulgaria, Canary Is., Cyprus, Egypt, Eritrea, Ethiopia, Greece, India, Iran, Iraq, Kazakhstan, Kirgizstan, Kriti, Lebanon-Syria, Mongolia, Morocco, Nepal, North Caucasus, Pakistan, Palestine, Saudi Arabia, Sudan, Tadzhikistan, Tibet, Transcaucasus, Turkey, Turkey-in-Europe, Turkmenistan, Uzbekistan, West Himalaya, Xinjiang

    Introduced into:

    Alabama, Algeria, Andaman Is., Angola, Assam, Baltic States, Bangladesh, Belarus, Central European Rus, China North-Central, Colombia, Cuba, Czechoslovakia, Dominican Republic, East Aegean Is., East European Russia, East Himalaya, Ecuador, Fiji, France, Inner Mongolia, Italy, Jawa, Kenya, Krym, Libya, Madeira, Mauritania, Mauritius, Mexico Southwest, Myanmar, New Guinea, North European Russi, Peru, Puerto Rico, Qinghai, Queensland, Somalia, South Australia, South European Russi, Sri Lanka, Taiwan, Tanzania, Trinidad-Tobago, Tunisia, Uganda, Ukraine, Vermont, West Siberia, Yemen, Zaïre, Zimbabwe

    Cicer L. appears in other Kew resources:

    First published in Sp. Pl.: 738 (1753)

    Accepted by

    • Govaerts, R. (1999). World Checklist of Seed Plants 3(1, 2a & 2b): 1-1532. MIM, Deurne.

    Literature

    Flora Zambesiaca
    • van der Maesen in Meded. Landbouwhoogeschool 72, part10: 1–342 (1972).
    • M.G. Popov in Bull. Appl. Bot. Gen. Pl. Breed. 21: 3–240 (1929).
    • Gen. Pl., ed. 5: 327 (1754).
    • Sp. Pl.: 738 (1753)
    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    • M. G. Popov in Bull. Appl. Bot. Gen. Pl. Breed. 21: 3–240 (1929)
    • L., Gen. Pl., ed. 5: 327 (1754)
    • Sp. Pl.: 738 (1753)

    Sources

    Flora Zambesiaca
    Flora Zambesiaca
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Kew Backbone Distributions
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2018. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

    Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2018. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

    Legumes of the World Online
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0