1. Family: Fabaceae Lindl.
    1. Cyamopsis DC.

      1. This genus is accepted, and its native range is Tropical & S. Africa, Arabian Peninsula, Indian Subcontinent.

    [FTEA]

    Leguminosae, J. B. Gillett, R. M. Polhill & B. Verdcourt. Flora of Tropical East Africa. 1971

    Habit
    Annual herbs with biramous hairs
    Leaves
    Leaves imparipinnate; leaflets 3–7 or rarely single, with entire or toothed margins
    Flowers
    Flowers small in axillary racemes
    Calyx
    Calyx broad, oblique, the lowest tooth longest
    Corolla
    Standard glabrous, markedly veined; keel somewhat pouched or shortly spurred at the sides
    Stamens
    Filaments united into a tube or the vexillary one almost free; anthers all alike, apiculate
    Fruits
    Pod flat, dehiscent, erect, longitudinally ridged, several-seeded, with septa between the seeds, ending in a pronounced beak
    Seeds
    Seeds flattened, minutely tuberculate.
    [LOWO]

    Legumes of the World. Edited by G. Lewis, B. Schrire, B. MacKinder & M. Lock. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. (2005)

    Note

    The tribe is geographically disjunct, comprising a paraphyletic group of tropical American genera (Cyclolobium, Poecilanthe, Harpalyce and Brongniartia), and nested within it, a monophyletic group of Australian genera (Templetonia, Hovea, Cristonia, Thinicola and Lamprolobium). The Australian genus Plagiocarpus appears to be more closely related to the neotropical Brongniartia than to the other Australian genera.

    Arroyo (1981) considered the tribe to comprise the two genera Brongniartia and Harpalyce, both from the Neotropics, so that the concept of Brongniartieae has expanded considerably. The Australian Templetonia group was transferred on the basis of a cladistic analysis of morphology (Crisp & Weston, 1987), and recently two new genera have been described in this group, Cristonia and Thinicola (Ross, 2001a). Two more neotropical genera (Cyclolobium and Poecilanthe) have been transferred into the tribe on the evidence of DNA sequences and phytochemistry (Crisp et al., 2000; Hu et al., 2002). A putative new genus from Bahia, Brazil is under study by Queiroz, Lewis and Wojciechowski. Current molecular data indicate its sister relationships are to Harpalyce and Poecilanthe, but formal description of the new genus awaits further analysis.

    Polhill (1994) placed Brongniartieae next to Bossiaeeae, partly because Crisp & Weston (1987) removed the Australian Templetonia group from the latter and placed it in Brongniartieae. Polhill (l.c.), however, noted that their very different alkaloid profiles suggested Brongniartieae and the Templetonia group had an affinity to the genistoid tribes, while tribe Bossiaeeae was more closely related to Mirbelieae, Hypocalyptus (now in Hypocalypteae), a group of Old World tropical tribes (including Indigofereae, Millettieae and Phaseoleae) and the Hologalegina group of tribes. Recent phylogenetic analyses, especially those using DNA sequences (e.g., Crisp et al., 2000; Doyle et al., 2000; Hu, 2000; Pennington et al., 2000a; Hu et al., 2000; 2002; Wojciechowski et al., 2004) support a placement of Brongniartieae either next to, or within, the main clade of genistoid tribes, which includes Sophoreae sens. lat., Euchresteae, Thermopsideae, Podalyrieae, Crotalarieae and Genisteae. Pennington et al. (2001), Kajita et al. (2001) and Wink & Mohamed (2003) place Brongniartieae sister to a clade including Sophoreae sens. strict., Thermopsideae, Podalyrieae, Crotalarieae and Genisteae. The tribe as treated here comprises 10 genera (not including the putative new genus) and c. 152 species (Fig. 32).

    Cyamopsis is placed basally in a clade uniting Indigastrum, Rhynchotropis and Microcharis, which is sister to an Indigofera clade (Barker et al., 2000)
    Habit
    Herbs
    Ecology
    Seasonally dry tropical thorn scrub and grassland, often in floodplains, stream beds, pans and in open sandy or rocky areas
    Distribution
    Africa (mainly in the semi-arid SW, 1 sp. disjunct, also occurring in the Sudanian and Somalia-Masai regional centres of endemism into Arabia); C. tetragonoloba (L.) Taub., apparently unknown in the wild, but possibly from India (Gillett, 1958)
    [LOWO]
    Use
    Cyamopsis tetragonoloba (guar, Calcutta or cluster bean) is widely cultivated in tropical countries as a source of seed gum used in the food, paper and textile industries; also important for human food (pods), fodder, soil improvement and stabilisation, and as green manure

    Images

    Distribution

    Native to:

    Angola, Botswana, Burkina, Cape Provinces, Chad, Eritrea, Gambia, India, Mali, Mauritania, Namibia, Niger, Northern Provinces, Pakistan, Saudi Arabia, Senegal, Sudan, Tanzania, West Himalaya, Zimbabwe

    Introduced into:

    Afghanistan, Assam, Bangladesh, Cameroon, China South-Central, Ethiopia, Jawa, KwaZulu-Natal, Mozambique, Nepal, Nicobar Is., Sierra Leone, Sri Lanka, Trinidad-Tobago, Vietnam, Yemen, Zambia, Zaïre

    Cyamopsis DC. appears in other Kew resources:

    First published in Mém. Légum.: 230 (1825)

    Accepted by

    • Govaerts, R. (1999). World Checklist of Seed Plants 3(1, 2a & 2b): 1-1532. MIM, Deurne.

    Literature

    Flora of West Tropical Africa
    • —F.T.A. 2: 65.
    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    • Mém. Leg.: 230 (Feb. 1826)
    • Prodr. 2: 215 (Nov. 1825)

    Sources

    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Kew Backbone Distributions
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2018. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

    Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2018. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

    Legumes of the World Online
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0