1. Family: Fabaceae Lindl.
    1. Dialium L.

      1. This genus is accepted, and its native range is Tropics.

    [FZ]

    Leguminosae, R.K. Brummitt, A.C. Chikuni, J.M. Lock & R.M. Polhill. Flora Zambesiaca 3:2. 2007

    Habit
    Trees or rarely shrubs, unarmed, evergreen or deciduous.
    Leaves
    Leaves imparipinnate (sometimes 3-foliolate), with leaflets opposite or alternate, often with a rather dense vein reticulum; stipules inconspicuous, lateral, caducous.
    Flowers
    Flowers small, in many-flowered terminal and lateral panicles; bracts and bracteoles small, caducous. Flowers hermaphrodite, usually somewhat zygomorphic, with a well-developed disk.
    Calyx
    Sepals normally 5, rarely 6 or 7, imbricate.
    Corolla
    Petals greatly reduced or lacking.
    Stamens
    Stamens 2_10; anthers basifixed, dehiscing by longitudinal slits.
    Ovary
    Ovary sessile or shortly stipitate, often oblique, with 2 ovules.
    Fruits
    Fruit ellipsoid to ± spherical, sometimes laterally compressed, indehiscent; exocarp hard and brittle, the mesocarp pulpy and brown to orange or red when dry, edible.
    Seeds
    Seeds either 1 or 2, often on the same plant, those in 2-seeded fruits differing markedly in shape from those in 1-seeded fruits, the testa smooth and shiny, without areoles.
    [LOWO]

    Legumes of the World. Edited by G. Lewis, B. Schrire, B. MacKinder & M. Lock. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. (2005)

    Vernacular
    jutahy, keranji
    Habit
    Trees
    Ecology
    Tropical rain forest (mainly lowland evergreen), occasionally in peat, swamp or heath forest, or coastal; a few species in monsoon forest and wooded grassland (savanna), but in drier vegetation types the species frequently occur on river margins or deep s
    Distribution
    previous numbers range from 40-70); pantropical (from 19°N in S Mexico and Belize to 23°S in Madagascar) with 1 sp. extra-tropical in Mozambique and S Africa; not extending E of Wallace's Line (totally absent from Australia and New Guinea); main centres of diversity in WC Africa (14 spp.; 3 spp. also in E coastal Africa, 3 spp. endemic to Madagascar) and W Malesia (4 spp. in S Thailand, Laos, Cambodia and S Vietnam, 2 spp. in Borneo, Sumatra and Malay Peninsula, 1 (-2) spp. in S India and Sri Lanka), and 1 sp. widespread in the Neotropics from S Mexico through C America to the Amazon and Atlantic forest in Brazil, extending into Colombia, Peru, Ecuador and Bolivia
    Note
    Irwin & Barneby (1981) described a new subtribe Dialiinae to accommodate 13 genera (including Dialium) of the Cassieae and recognised 5 subgenera in Dialium; Rojo (1982) only recognised 3 subgenera, reducing one to a section of another, and reinstating Uittienia as a separate genus. In the molecular analysis of Kajita et al. (2001), Dialium is sister to a clade which contains Apuleia, Petalostylis and Zenia; in the combined analysis of Herendeen et al. (2003a), Zenia is sister to a clade which includes several species of Dialium nested amongst which is one species of Dicorynia

    Tribe Cercideae is basally branching in the Leguminosae (Bruneau et al., 2001; Herendeen et al., 2003a), as predicted by Wunderlin et al. (1981), and Cercis is the most basally branching genus in the tribe. While much taxonomic work has been carried out on the tribe in the past thirty years (e.g., Larsen et al., 1980, 1984; Wunderlin, 1976, 1979; Wunderlin et al., 1981, 1987; Zhang, 1995; Vaz, 2003; Vaz & Tozzi, 2003), few species have been included in phylogenetic analyses and inter- and intra-generic relationships are still largely unresolved with the exception of Cercis (Hao et al., 2001; Davis et al., 2002b).

    Wunderlin (1979) and Wunderlin et al. (1981) divided the tribe into two subtribes, Cercidinae and Bauhiniinae, based on seed, floral and fruit characters. Walpers (1842) had already down-ranked Bauhinieae Benth. (1840) to subtribal status, thus the combination Bauhiniinae (Benth.) Wunderlin (1979) is superfluous. Polhill (1994) kept the Cercideae unchanged with two subtribes and five genera. While the Cercidinae contains three small distinct genera, Cercis, Griffonia and Adenolobus, the Bauhiniinae houses the monospecific Madagascan genus Brenierea and the large, diverse pantropical genus Bauhinia sens. lat. which has been segregated into as many as twenty-six genera by various authors (Wunderlin, 1976).

    While many of the Bauhinia segregates are based on minor morphological differences, others are distinguished morphologically by a suite of characters. Britton and Rose (1930), in their account of the Caesalpiniaceae for the North American Flora, divided Bauhinia into several segregate genera, including Schnella Raddi which here is treated as a synonym of Phanera, but might prove to be distinct as indicated in recent molecular analyses by Forest (unpublished data). Britton and Killip (1936) recognised Schnella as distinct from Bauhinia in Colombia. De Wit (1956), treating ‘Malaysian Bauhinieae’, recognised Bracteolanthus, Lysiphyllum, Gigasiphon, Piliostigma, Lasiobema and Phanera as separate genera and this was largely followed by subsequent flora writers in Africa and New Guinea (e.g., Brenan, 1967; Coetzer & Ross in Ross, 1977; Verdcourt, 1979). Others have retained a more inclusive Bauhinia proposed by Wunderlin et al. (1981, 1987), e.g., Macbride (1943: 207–220) for Peru; Larsen et al. (1980) for the Flora of Cambodia, Laos and Vietnam; Larsen et al. (1984) for the Flora of Thailand; Chen (1988) for China, and Larsen & Larsen in Hou et al. (1996) in Flora Malesiana. Zhang (1995) published a morphological cladistic analysis of the series of Bauhinia sens. lat., but few species of Bauhinia have been included in molecular studies. It remains equivocal as to whether Bauhinia sens. lat. is monophyletic, but preliminary molecular results indicate that some elements should be reinstated as distinct genera (Bruneau et al., in prep.; Forest, unpubl.). This runs contrary to the findings of Larsen & Larsen in Hou et al. (1996) who concluded “that Bauhinia in the sense of Linnaeus, Bentham, De Candolle, Taubert and Hutchinson is an evolutionary unit and a very natural genus”. Larsen and Larsen also noted that Bauhinia sens. lat. presents a reticulate pattern of variation across its pantropical range (this apparently conflicting somewhat with its status as a “natural genus”). While this is undoubtedly true if the genus is considered as all-inclusive, recent studies of legume distributions in general (Schrire et al., this volume and 2005) have revealed repeated patterns of generic distribution which appear to be duplicated by at least some of the segregates of Bauhinia. If these segregates are recognised as distinct genera (as several are in this treatment) then the reticulate pattern of variation of Bauhinia is far less pronounced. More sampling at the species level in molecular analyses and more morphological studies are needed across the full pantropical range of Bauhinia sens. lat. before inter- and intra-generic relationships are clearly resolved. In the current account genera that have been recognised as distinct from Bauhinia in at least one flora treatment that post-dates De Wit (1956) have been treated as separate genera, especially where these are supported by the preliminary results from a chloroplast trnL (intron and spacer) sequence analysis (Forest, unpubl.). The reader’s attention is also alerted to the detailed infra-generic division of Bauhinia by Wunderlin et al. (1987) in their reorganisation of the Cercideae which also forms a sound basis for sampling in future studies.

    Palynological studies of Bauhinia (Larsen, 1975; Schmitz, 1977; Ferguson & Pearce, 1986) have all stressed the considerable variation in pollen morphology within the genus sens. lat. and there are clear correlations between pollen exine ornamentation, floral morphology and pollination. It remains to be seen just how closely these correspond to evolutionary relationships of species. Nevertheless, Schmitz (1977) made several new combinations in segregate genera of Bauhinia based on palynological type. These included new names in Lasiobema, Lysiphyllum, Pauletia, Perlebia and Phanera (Pauletia and Perlebia here considered as synonyms of Bauhinia). Zhang (1995), who analysed morphologically the series of Bauhinia proposed by Wunderlin et al. (1987), concluded that while some supraspecific segregates of the genus were supported, none of the subgenera appeared to be monophyletic. Several realignments were proposed.

    The Cercideae as presented here includes 12 genera and (322)–335–(348) species. This treatment differs from Wunderlin et al. (1981, 1987) and Polhill (1994) in that Barklya, Gigasiphon, Lasiobema, Lysiphyllum, Phanera, Piliostigma and Tylosema are considered distinct from Bauhinia. While some of these may well be reincluded in Bauhinia after further study, yet other genera may be reinstated from within Bauhinia. Bracteolanthus, treated as distinct by De Wit (1956), is here included in Lysiphyllum following Wunderlin et al. (1987), while Barklya, considered congeneric with Bauhinia by Wunderlin (1979) and Wunderlin et al. (1981, 1987) is considered distinct following George (1998b) and Forest (unpublished data). The reinstatement of Lasiobema appears least well supported (Forest, unpubl.).

    [FTEA]

    Leguminosae, J. B. Gillett, R. M. Polhill & B. Verdcourt. Flora of Tropical East Africa. 1971

    Habit
    Trees or (rarely) large shrubs, not climbing, unarmed
    Leaves
    Leaves simply imparipinnate; stipules very quickly falling; conspicuous glands absent from petiole and rhachis; leaflets 3–21, opposite to alternate
    Inflorescences
    Inflorescences of terminal and lateral many-flowered panicles; bracts and bracteoles small, quickly falling
    Flowers
    Flowers hermaphrodite, irregular, very rarely (not in East Africa) regular
    Calyx
    Sepals 5 (or ? 6, but very rarely and not in Flora area), imbricate
    Stamens
    Stamens 2 (in East African species), elsewhere sometimes up to 10; anthers basifixed, dehiscing by lateral slits
    Disc
    Disc (in East African species) well-developed, much wider than the ovary and ± puberulous or pubescent
    Ovary
    Ovary small, sessile or shortly stipitate, with 2 ovules
    Fruits
    Pod (in East African species) ± ellipsoid to subglobose, not compressed (in species outside the Flora area sometimes ± flattened), indehiscent; exocarp hard, brittle, smooth except for indumentum; mesocarp pulpy, mealy and brown-orange or red when dry
    Seeds
    Seeds 1–2, embedded in the mesocarp; testa smooth except for small ± irregular cracks; areoles absent; endosperm present.
    [LOWO]
    Use
    The edible fruits are used mainly in chutneys, the timber of various species ( keranji, jutahy ) is used for boat building, house construction, flooring, tools, firewood and charcoal (some species have a high silica content and resist borer attack). The bark and leaves are widely used in folk medicine in W Africa (e.g., for fevers and toothache); the bark of D. cochinchinense Pierre is a substitute for betel nut in Indochina; the bark of D. pachyphyllum Harms has a poisonous red gum-resin used for arrow-poison in Congo (Kinshasa)

    Images

    Distribution

    Doubtfully present in:

    Sudan

    Native to:

    Angola, Belize, Benin, Bolivia, Borneo, Botswana, Brazil North, Brazil Northeast, Brazil Southeast, Brazil West-Central, Burkina, Cabinda, Cambodia, Cameroon, Caprivi Strip, Central African Repu, Colombia, Congo, Costa Rica, Ecuador, Equatorial Guinea, French Guiana, Gabon, Gambia, Ghana, Guatemala, Guinea, Guinea-Bissau, Gulf of Guinea Is., Guyana, Honduras, India, Ivory Coast, Jawa, Kenya, KwaZulu-Natal, Laos, Liberia, Madagascar, Malaya, Mali, Mexico Gulf, Mexico Southeast, Mexico Southwest, Mozambique, Namibia, Nicaragua, Nigeria, Northern Provinces, Panamá, Peru, Senegal, Sierra Leone, Somalia, Sri Lanka, Sumatera, Suriname, Tanzania, Thailand, Togo, Uganda, Venezuela, Vietnam, Zambia, Zaïre, Zimbabwe

    Introduced into:

    Cuba, Puerto Rico

    Dialium L. appears in other Kew resources:

    Date Reference Identified As Barcode Type Status
    Nov 1, 2000 Cheek, M. [10372], Cameroon K000051322
    Harris, D.J. [4967], Central African Republic 60031.000
    Harris, D.J. [3215], Congo 60035.000
    Ferreira, C.A.C. [8069], Amazonas K000835180
    Ríos, P. [22], Costa Rica K000680477

    First published in Mant. Pl. 1: 3 (1767)

    Accepted by

    • Govaerts, R. (2000). World Checklist of Seed Plants Database in ACCESS D: 1-30141.

    Literature

    Flora of West Tropical Africa
    • Steyaert in Bull. Soc. Roy. Bot. Belg. 84: 29–45 (1951).
    • —F.T.A. 2: 282
    Flora Zambesiaca
    • Steyaert in Bull. Soc. Roy. Bot. Belg. 84: 29–45 (1951).
    • Mant. Pl.: 3 (1767).
    • Syst. Nat., ed. 12, 2: 56 (1767)
    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    • Mant. Pl.: 3 (1767)

    Sources

    Flora Zambesiaca
    Flora Zambesiaca
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Herbarium Catalogue Specimens
    'The Herbarium Catalogue, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Published on the Internet http://www.kew.org/herbcat [accessed on Day Month Year]'. Please enter the date on which you consulted the system.
    Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/

    Kew Backbone Distributions
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2018. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

    Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2018. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

    Legumes of the World Online
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0