1. Family: Apocynaceae Juss.
    1. Carissa L.

      1. This genus is accepted, and its native range is Africa to Indo-China, Australia to New Caledonia.

    [FZ]

    Apocynaceae, A. J. M. Leeuwenberg & F. K. Kupicha et al. Flora Zambesiaca 7:2. 1985

    Habit
    Shrubs or small trees, much branched, sometimes scandent, with simple or forked spines.
    Stipules
    Stipules absent.
    Flowers
    Flowers in terminal corymbs or 1–5-flowered cymes.
    Calyx
    Calyx lobes imbricate, free to base.
    Corolla
    Corolla hypocrateriform; tube cylindrical, ± straight, hairy within; lobes contorted, overlapping either to the left or the right, of various shapes, much shorter than to longer than the tube.
    Stamens
    Stamens inserted at the middle or towards the top of the corolla tube; anthers subsessile, without carina, glabrous.
    Pistil
    Ovary glabrous, bicarpellate, with 1–4 or rarely many ovules per loculus; style slender; stigma below or reaching to androecium, bilobed, glabrous; clavuncle often inconspicuous.
    Fruits
    Fruit an ellipsoid or ovoid berry containing (l)2–8(∞) seeds.
    Seeds
    Seeds discoid or compressed-ellipsoid, velutinous.
    [FTEA]

    Apocynaceae, E.A. Omino. Flora of Tropical East Africa. 2002

    Habit
    Much branched shrubs, sometimes scandent, with simple or forked spines; stipules absent
    Leaves
    Leaves opposite, petiolate; blade ovate to suborbicular, with or without a mucro at the apex, entire or slightly crenate at the margin
    Inflorescences
    Inflorescence a terminal corymb or cyme, dense to lax
    Flowers
    Flowers 5- rarely 4-merous, fragrant
    Calyx
    Sepals imbricate
    Corolla
    Corolla pink outside, white inside; tube cylindrical; lobes contorted, overlapping to the left or right
    Stamens
    Stamens included, free from the style, inserted at the middle or towards the apex of the corolla tube
    Pistil
    Ovary glabrous, 2-celled, with 1–4 or rarely many ovules per locule; style terete; pistil head of two parts, a subglobose or ellipsoid basal stigmatic part and a bilobed stigmoid apex
    Fruits
    Fruit an ellipsoid or ovoid berry with 1–8 seeds.

    Images

    Distribution

    Native to:

    Aldabra, Andaman Is., Angola, Bangladesh, Benin, Botswana, Burkina, Burundi, Cambodia, Cameroon, Cape Provinces, Cape Verde, Caprivi Strip, Central African Repu, Chad, China South-Central, Comoros, Congo, Djibouti, East Himalaya, Egypt, Eritrea, Ethiopia, Free State, Ghana, Guinea, Guinea-Bissau, India, Ivory Coast, Kenya, KwaZulu-Natal, Laos, Madagascar, Malawi, Mali, Mauritius, Mozambique, Myanmar, Namibia, Nepal, New Caledonia, New Guinea, New South Wales, Nicobar Is., Nigeria, Northern Provinces, Northern Territory, Oman, Pakistan, Queensland, Rodrigues, Rwanda, Réunion, Saudi Arabia, Senegal, Seychelles, Socotra, Somalia, Sri Lanka, Sudan, Swaziland, Tanzania, Thailand, Togo, Uganda, Vietnam, West Himalaya, Western Australia, Yemen, Zambia, Zaïre, Zimbabwe

    Introduced into:

    Arizona, Ascension, Bahamas, China Southeast, El Salvador, Hainan, Hawaii, Honduras, Jamaica, Jawa, Leeward Is., Lesser Sunda Is., Malaya, Mexico Central, Mexico Southwest, Nicaragua, Philippines, Puerto Rico, Taiwan, Texas, Trinidad-Tobago, Windward Is.

    Carissa L. appears in other Kew resources:

    First published in Mant. Pl. 1: 7 (1767)

    Accepted by

    • Thulin, M. (ed.) (2006). Flora of Somalia 3: 1-626. The Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Govaerts, R. (2003). World Checklist of Selected Plant Families Database in ACCESS: 1-216203. The Board of Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Govaerts, R. (1999). World Checklist of Seed Plants 3(1, 2a & 2b): 1-1532. MIM, Deurne.

    Literature

    Flora of West Tropical Africa
    • —F.T.A. 4, 1: 88. Nom. cons.
    Flora Zambesiaca
    • Pichon in Mém. Mus. Nation. Hist. Nat., N.S. 24: 130 (1948) pro parte excl. Sect. Acokanthera (G. Don) Pichon.
    • Markgraf in Notizbl. Bot. Gart. Berlin 15: 455 (1942).
    • Mant. Pl.: 7, 52 (1767), nom. conserv.
    • Syst. Nat., ed. 12, 2: 189 (1767)
    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    • Leeuwenberg & van Dilst in Wageningen Univ. Pap. 01.1: 1–109 (2001)
    • Kupicha in F.Z. 7, 2: 398–404 (1985)
    • Mant. Pl. Alt. 7: 52 (1767), nom. conserv.
    • Syst. Nat., ed.12, 2: 189 (1767)

    Sources

    Flora Zambesiaca
    Flora Zambesiaca
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Kew Backbone Distributions
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2018. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

    Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2018. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0