1. Family: Apocynaceae Juss.
    1. Carvalhoa K.Schum.

      1. This genus is accepted, and its native range is E. & S. Tropical Africa.

    [FZ]

    Apocynaceae, A. J. M. Leeuwenberg & F. K. Kupicha et al. Flora Zambesiaca 7:2. 1985

    Habit
    Shrub or small tree, repeatedly dichotomously branched and with 2 inflorescences in the forks when flowering, with white latex.
    Stem
    Branchlets terete.
    Leaves
    Leaves opposite, those of a pair equal or unequal, shortly petiolate or sometimes sessile; petioles or leaf–bases of a pair united at the base and forming a very short ocrea, with a single row of colleters in the axils; lamina elliptic, narrowly elliptic, or narrowly obovate, cuneate, rounded or subcordate at the base.
    Inflorescences
    Inflorescence pedunculate, corymbose, lax.
    Bracts
    Bracts caducous before the flowers open.
    Flowers
    Flowers actinomorphic except for the slightly curved corolla tube.
    Calyx
    Calyx pale green, persistent, even under the fruit.
    Corolla
    Corolla white, creamy, or pale yellow, with many red longitudinal lines at the base of the lobes and at the apex of the tube; tube longer than the calyx; lobes spreading(?) or suberect in bud overlapping to the left.
    Stamens
    Stamens included; anthers sessile, narrowly triangular, acuminate at the sterile apex, sagittate at the base, hirto-pubescent outside on the connective and inside between the tails, introrse.
    Pistil
    Pistil glabrous; ovary broadly ovoid, composed of 2 free carpels, surrounded by an entire disk, which is united with the distal sides of the ovary; style only slightly widened at the apex; clavuncula composed of an entire, thin, slightly recurved ring and a subglobose head, topped by 2 parallel linear erect stigma-lobes.
    Style
    Style and stigma remaining on the ovary when the corolla is shed.
    Fruits
    Fruit composed of 2 free carpels which usually both develop and which dehisce adaxially; wall soft, orange inside.
    Seeds
    Seeds surrounded by a darker orange pulpy aril, few, rather large, obliquely ellipsoid or ovoid; at the hilar side with one deep groove to half their width, less deeply grooved at the other sides, minutely pustulate; endosperm copious, starchy, creamy, ruminate, surrounding the spathulate embryo.
    [FTEA]

    Apocynaceae, E.A. Omino. Flora of Tropical East Africa. 2002

    Habit
    Shrub repeatedly dichotomously branched; white latex present in most parts
    Leaves
    Leaves opposite; petiole or leaf bases of a pair united at the base, forming a very short ochrea, with a single row of colleters in the axils
    Inflorescences
    Inflorescence in pairs in the forks, pedunculate, corymbose, lax
    Corolla
    Corolla white, creamy or pale yellow, with many red longitudinal lines at the base of the lobes and at the apex of the tube; lobes in bud overlapping to the left.
    Stamens
    Stamens included; anthers introrse, sessile, narrowly triangular, acuminate, apex sterile, sagittate at the base.
    Pistil
    Pistil glabrous; ovary broadly ovoid, of 2 free carpels, surrounded at the base by an entire disk; pistil head composed of a stigmatic subglobose basal part surrounded by an entire, thin, slightly recurved ring and a bifid stigmoid apex
    Fruits
    Fruit of 2, free pod-like follicles, dehiscent adaxially; pericarp soft, orange inside; seeds surrounded by a darker orange pulpy aril, obliquely ellipsoid or ovoid; endosperm copious, starchy, creamy, ruminate, surrounding the spatulate embryo.

    Images

    Distribution

    Native to:

    Kenya, Malawi, Mozambique, Tanzania, Zambia

    Carvalhoa K.Schum. appears in other Kew resources:

    First published in H.G.A.Engler & K.A.E.Prantl, Nat. Pflanzenfam. 4(2): 189 (1895)

    Accepted by

    • Govaerts, R. (2003). World Checklist of Selected Plant Families Database in ACCESS: 1-216203. The Board of Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Govaerts, R. (1999). World Checklist of Seed Plants 3(1, 2a & 2b): 1-1532. MIM, Deurne.

    Literature

    Flora Zambesiaca
    • in Engler & Prantl, Nat. Pflanzenfam. 4, 2: 189 (1895).
    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    • Leeuwenberg in F.Z. 7, 2: 444 (1985)
    • in Agric. Univ. Wageningen Papers 85 (2): 49–55 (1985)
    • in E. & P. Pf. 4, 2: 189 (1895)

    Sources

    Flora Zambesiaca
    Flora Zambesiaca
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Kew Backbone Distributions
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2018. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

    Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2018. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0