1. Family: Fabaceae Lindl.
    1. Leptoderris Dunn

      1. This genus is accepted, and its native range is Tropical Africa.

    [LOWO]

    Legumes of the World. Edited by G. Lewis, B. Schrire, B. MacKinder & M. Lock. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. (2005)

    Note

    Relationships among genera of Millettieae have been notoriously difficult to unravel based on traditional morphological evidence and this is exemplified by the alphabetical arrangement of genera in the tribal treatments of Geesink (1981; 1984) and Polhill (1994). Geesink (1981) recognised 44 genera and c. 870 species in tribe Millettieae (as ‘Tephrosieae’) while 43 genera were accounted for in Geesink (1984) and Polhill (1994). The genera recognised, however, varied considerably with only 33 genera in common to both treatments of Geesink, while the list of Polhill (1994) combined elements of Geesink (1981, 1984) with new data accumulated since then. Tephrosia has traditionally comprised some 400 species but this is re-estimated at c. 350 species here.

    The traditional circumscription of the predominantly pantropical and subtropical tribe Millettieae is followed here (Fig. 45), with 45 genera and (904)–909–(914) species being recognised, (i.e. excluding the two genera and 11 species transferred to Brongniartieae, see Table 8), although the concept of what comprises Millettieae sens. strict. is changing rapidly based on evidence from molecular phylogenies. Sequence data for millettioid genera comes from the plastid rbcL gene (Doyle et al., 1997; 2000; Kajita et al., 2001; Hu & Chang, 2003), phytochrome nucleotide genes (Lavin et al., 1998), the plastid trnK-matK region (Hu et al., 2000) and the nuclear ITS region (Hu, 2000; Hu et al., 2002). Molecular data, together with reinterpreted evidence based on chemistry (Evans et al., 1985) and wood anatomy (Gasson et al., 2004), have been the basis for recognising a number of informal suprageneric groupings and for transferring Cyclolobium and Poecilanthe to tribe Brongniartieae (Table 8; Fig. 45).

     The most far-reaching result of the above molecular analyses was that a substantial part of the traditionally circumscribed tribe Phaseoleae is more closely allied to the core-Millettieae than to the Phaseoleae sens. lat. clade (see page 393). Circumscription of a revised tribe Millettieae is not possible at present until genera are more comprehensively sampled; however, a Millettioid sens. strict. group might be expected to include some genera in the basal millettioid and phaseoloid group, Phaseoleae subtribes Diocleinae, Ophrestiinae and in small part the Erythrininae, tribe Abreae and the core-Millettieae (Fig. 45). The basal millettioid and phaseoloid group comprises 17 genera (94 species) that may belong either in the Millettioids sens. strict. or Phaseoleae sens. lat., or to a clade sister to both these groups (e.g., Kajita et al., 2001). The core-Millettieae clade comprises c. 22 genera and c. 777 spp., with some additional generic segregates being necessary within the ‘canavanine group’ (Evans et al., 1985), to accommodate species of Millettia sens. lat. and Fordia sens. lat., which on the basis of molecular and chemical evidence are excluded from Millettia and Fordia sens. strict.

    Relationships between the major groups of genera centred on Lonchocarpus, Derris, Millettia and Tephrosia remain obscure, and still reflect a geographical bias in segregating them, i.e. distributions are limited largely to the New World in the Lonchocarpus group, and the Old World in the other groups. The suggestion that the Andean South American genus Apurimacia might be sister to the largely Old World Tephrosia rather than to Lonchocarpus (e.g., Kajita et al., 2001) is possibly indicative of other Old World–New World sister groups yet to be found. Further molecular evidence will probably result in an overall reduction in the number of genera recognised, particularly in the Tephrosia and Lonchocarpus groups where various small or monotypic ‘one-organ’ genera may be better placed within larger genera. Ptycholobium, Requienia and Paratephrosia, for example, are difficult to distinguish from Tephrosia, but for the emphasis traditionally placed on their atypical pods.

    Evans et al. (1985) provide chemical evidence that Leptoderris may be among a basal millettioid and phaseoloid group of genera, a position supported by the analysis of Kajita et al. (2001)
    Habit
    Lianas, sometimes shrubs
    Ecology
    Tropical rain forest to seasonally dry forest, woodland and bushland
    Distribution
    mostly WC Africa (Guineo-Congolian to Lake Victoria regions); 2 spp. in the Zambezian and one in the Zanzibar-Inhambane regions
    [FZ]

    Flora Zambesiaca Leguminosae subfamily Papillionoideae by J.M. Lock*

    Habit
    Lianes. Lianes.
    Leaves
    Leaves imparipinnate, stipulate; leaflets opposite, stipellate. Leaves imparipinnate, stipulate; leaflets opposite, stipellate.
    Inflorescences
    Inflorescence a terminal or axillary and terminal contracted racemose panicle, the flowers clustered at nodes or on short spurs (pseudoracemes); bracts and bracteoles present. Inflorescence a terminal or axillary and terminal contracted racemose panicle, the flowers clustered at nodes or on short spurs (pseudoracemes); bracts and bracteoles present.
    Hypanthium
    Hypanthium present; disk absent. Hypanthium present; disk absent.
    Calyx
    Calyx campanulate, shortly denticulate. Calyx campanulate, shortly denticulate.
    Corolla
    Corolla usually persistent in fruit. Standard oblong-cymbiform; wings adhering slightly to the keel above the claw; keel petals oblong-cucullate, as long as the standard. Corolla usually persistent in fruit. Standard oblong-cymbiform; wings adhering slightly to the keel above the claw; keel petals oblong-cucullate, as long as the standard.
    Ovary
    Ovary few-ovulate, stipitate; style filiform, stigma terminal.
    Stamens
    Stamens connate into a tube, the upper one free at the base but fused to the claw of the standard, the rest fused to the bases of the other petals; anthers versatile. Stamens connate into a tube, the upper one free at the base but fused to the claw of the standard, the rest fused to the bases of the other petals; anthers versatile.
    Pistil
    Ovary few-ovulate, stipitate; style filiform, stigma terminal.
    Fruits
    Pod flat, indehiscent, papyraceous, winged along the upper margin, 1–2-seeded. Pod flat, indehiscent, papyraceous, winged along the upper margin, 1–2-seeded.
    [FTEA]

    Leguminosae, J. B. Gillett, R. M. Polhill & B. Verdcourt. Flora of Tropical East Africa. 1971

    Habit
    Woody climbers, less commonly erect to scandent shrubs or trees with slender liane-like branches
    Leaves
    Leaves imparipinnate, rarely (and not in East Africa) pinnately 3-foliolate; stipules present, usually caducous; stipels usually present, sometimes lacking; leaflets opposite
    Flowers
    Flowers fairly small, crowded on very short ultimate branches of the mostly large terminal and axillary panicles (the terminal panicles at least usually well branched); bracts subtending the panicle-branches mostly similar to stipules; flower-bracts small; pedicels short with small mostly caducous bracteoles at the top
    Calyx
    Calyx narrowly campanulate, small, shortly 5-toothed with the 2 upper teeth united practically to the tips, hairy on both surfaces
    Corolla
    Corolla usually white, cream or pale yellowish, often marked red, pink or violet; petals narrow, subequal in length or the wings a little shorter, often auriculate at base of blade, glabrous to sparsely hairy or ciliolate at the tips; standard narrowly oblong or oblanceolate, with incurved margins, with or without thickenings at base of blade; wings adhering to keel-petals and often with a well-formed lateral fold or pocket; keel-petals oblong-elliptic, a little more curved and lightly coherent towards the tips on the lower side
    Stamens
    Stamens united into a tube generally closed above but with openings at the base either side of the vexillary stamen (the latter may be free in young bud and is often adnate to the claw of the standard); anthers dorsifixed
    Pistil
    Ovary shortly stipitate, few-ovulate; style curved, tapered to a very small terminal stigma, glabrous or with scattered hairs like those of the ovary on the lower part
    Fruits
    Fruits flattened, indehiscent, elliptic to linear-oblong, with or more rarely without a relatively narrow wing along the upper edge, papery, usually venose, 1–few-seeded
    Seeds
    Seeds reniform, usually finely wrinkled, with a small hilum; rim-aril detaching with the rather persistent funicle.
    [LOWO]
    Use
    Used as medicine and fish poisons

    Images

    Distribution

    Native to:

    Angola, Benin, Burkina, Burundi, Cameroon, Central African Repu, Congo, Equatorial Guinea, Gabon, Ghana, Guinea, Guinea-Bissau, Gulf of Guinea Is., Ivory Coast, Liberia, Malawi, Nigeria, Rwanda, Senegal, Sierra Leone, Tanzania, Togo, Uganda, Zambia, Zaïre

    Leptoderris Dunn appears in other Kew resources:

    Date Reference Identified As Barcode Type Status
    Jul 1, 2008 Cheek, M. [12446], Cameroon K000436985
    Oct 1, 2005 Cheek, M. [11931], Cameroon K000338227
    Jan 1, 1996 Harris, D.J. [3715], Cameroon K000086091
    Le Testu, G. [2941] K000040226
    Hepper, F.N. [1902], Cameroon K000092558
    Hepper, F.N. [1902], Cameroon K000092559
    Hepper, F.N. [1902], Cameroon K000092560
    Hepper, F.N. [1902], Cameroon K000092561
    Hepper, F.N. [1902], Cameroon K000092562
    Tuley, P. [5002], Cameroon K000092563
    Tuley, P. [5002], Cameroon K000092564
    McPherson, G. [15103], Gabon K000040230
    Langdale-Brown, I. [2593], Guinea K000040240

    First published in Bull. Misc. Inform. Kew 1910: 386 (1910)

    Literature

    Flora of West Tropical Africa
    • in Kew Bull. 1910: 386.
    Flora Zambesiaca
    • in Bull. Misc. Inform., Kew 1910: 387 (1910).
    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    • in K.B. 1910: 387 (1910)

    Sources

    Flora Zambesiaca
    Flora Zambesiaca
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Herbarium Catalogue Specimens
    'The Herbarium Catalogue, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Published on the Internet http://www.kew.org/herbcat [accessed on Day Month Year]'. Please enter the date on which you consulted the system.

    Kew Backbone Distributions
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2018. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

    Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2018. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

    Legumes of the World Online
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0