1. Family: Asteraceae Bercht. & J.Presl
    1. Genus: Lactuca L.
      1. Lactuca serriola L.

        This species is accepted, and its native range is Europe to SW. Siberia and NW. China, NW. Africa.

    [FZ]

    Compositae, G. V. Pope. Flora Zambesiaca 6:1. 1992

    Habit
    An erect annual or biennial herb up to 2.5 m. tall.
    Stem
    Stems solitary, robust, simple below and branching above, glabrous to ± densely spinulose in the lower part, sometimes strongly so, leafy.
    Leaves
    Leaves ± appressed to the stem, sessile, usually up to 10 x 6 cm., exceptionally to 20 x 10 cm., broadly elliptic in outline and runcinate-pinnate, or some leaves undivided and oblong-oblanceolate; lateral lobes 2–6, narrowly to broadly oblong, recurved; apices rounded to obtuse mucronate; margins irregularly denticulate and ± sinuate-dentate; bases sagittate-auriculate, the auricle lobes up to c. 2 cm. long and narrowly pointed; lamina glabrous but midribs beneath often weakly to strongly spinulose.
    Synflorescence
    Synflorescences paniculate, divaricately branched; branches up to 23 cm. long, glabrous; capitula on slender, bracteate stalks up to c. 4 cm. long.
    Involucre
    Involucre 6–8 mm. long and cylindric at time of flowering, increasing to 13 x 3.5 mm. and becoming conical in fruiting capitula.
    Phyllaries
    Phyllaries glabrous, c. 2 mm. long outside increasing to c. 13 mm. long inside becoming narrowly lanceolate, margins becoming involute.
    Florets
    Florets c. 14 per capitulum; corollas yellow, c. 9 mm. long, tubes slender, ± densely pilose about the mouth; ligules erect, c. 5 mm. long, lorate.
    Fruits
    Achenes pale- or greyish-brown; beaks paler, equalling or exceeding the achene in length; achene 3 x 1 mm., oblanceolate, somewhat laterally compressed, broadly-ribbed on the margins and narrowly c. 5-ribbed on each face, hispidulous towards the apices; pappus several-seriate of numerous white, barbellate setae c. 4 mm. long, free on the apically expanded beak.

    Images

    Distribution

    Native to:

    Afghanistan, Albania, Algeria, Altay, Assam, Austria, Azores, Baleares, Baltic States, Belarus, Belgium, Bulgaria, Canary Is., Central European Rus, Corse, Cyprus, Czechoslovakia, Denmark, East Aegean Is., East European Russia, Egypt, Eritrea, Ethiopia, Finland, France, Germany, Great Britain, Greece, Hungary, Iran, Iraq, Ireland, Italy, Kazakhstan, Kirgizstan, Kriti, Krym, Lebanon-Syria, Libya, Madeira, Mongolia, Morocco, Netherlands, North Caucasus, North European Russi, Northwest European R, Norway, Pakistan, Palestine, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Sardegna, Saudi Arabia, Sicilia, Sinai, Somalia, South European Russi, Spain, Sudan, Sweden, Switzerland, Tadzhikistan, Transcaucasus, Tunisia, Turkey, Turkey-in-Europe, Turkmenistan, Tuva, Ukraine, Uzbekistan, Vietnam, West Himalaya, West Siberia, Xinjiang, Yemen, Yugoslavia

    Introduced into:

    Alabama, Alberta, Arizona, Arkansas, Bolivia, Botswana, Brazil South, British Columbia, California, Cape Provinces, Colorado, Connecticut, Delaware, District of Columbia, Dominican Republic, Florida, Free State, Georgia, Gulf States, Haiti, Idaho, Illinois, Indiana, Iowa, Kansas, Kentucky, Korea, KwaZulu-Natal, Lesotho, Louisiana, Maine, Manitoba, Maryland, Masachusettes, Michigan, Minnesota, Mississippi, Missouri, Montana, Namibia, Nebraska, Nevada, New Brunswick, New Hampshire, New Jersey, New Mexico, New South Wales, New York, North Carolina, North Dakota, Northern Provinces, Northern Territory, Nova Scotia, Ohio, Oklahoma, Ontario, Oregon, Paraguay, Pennsylvania, Prince Edward I., Queensland, Québec, Rhode I., Saskatchewan, Seychelles, South Australia, South Carolina, South Dakota, Taiwan, Tasmania, Tennessee, Texas, Tristan da Cunha, Uruguay, Utah, Vermont, Victoria, Virginia, Washington, West Virginia, Western Australia, Wisconsin, Wyoming, Zimbabwe

    Lactuca serriola L. appears in other Kew resources:

    Date Reference Identified As Barcode Type Status
    Nov 4, 2011 Day, C.D. [948], Turkey K000341514
    Jan 1, 1985 Dobson, A.T. [100], Afghanistan K000809324
    Jan 1, 1967 Rawi, A. [23528], Iraq K000809321
    Cope, T.A. [RBG 199], United Kingdom K000914421
    Khatib, A. [19458], Syria K000809322
    Dieterle, A. [732], Afghanistan K000809323
    Wallich, N. [Cat. no. 3243], Nepal Lactuca bracteata K001118908
    Jordan, A. [s.n.], France Lactuca scariola K000815031 syntype
    s.coll. [s.n.], Spain Lactuca scariola K000815030

    First published in Cent. Pl. II: 29 (1756)

    Accepted by

    • Wu, Z. & Raven, P.H. (eds.) in Flora of China Editorial Committee (2011). Asteraceae Flora of China 20-21: 1-992. Science Press (Beijing) & Missouri Botanical Garden Press (St. Louis).
    • GCC in GCC (2011). Global Compositae Checklist Global Compositae Checklist http://compositae.landcareresearch.co.nz/.
    • von Raab-Straube, E. (ed.) (2011). Compositae. Euro+Med Plantbase The Euro+Med PlantBase - the information resource for Euro-Mediterranean plant diversity http://ww2.bgbm.org/EuroPlusMed/query.asp.
    • Krasnoborov, I.M. (ed.) (2007). Flora of Siberia 13: 1-499. Scientific Publishers, Inc., Enfield, Plymouth.
    • Aver'ianov, L.V. & al. (2006). Illyustrirovannyi opredelitel' rastenii Leningradskoi oblasti: 1-799. Nauka, Moskva.
    • Flora of North America Editorial Committee in Flora of North America Editorial Committee (2006). Asteraceae, part 1 Flora of North America North of Mexico 19: 1-579. Oxford University Press, New York, Oxford.
    • Liogier, A.H. (1996). Flora de la Española 8: 1-588. Instituto Tecnológico de Santo Domingo.

    Literature

    Kew Backbone Distributions
    • Forzza, R.C., Zappi, D. & Souza, V.C. (2016-continuously updated). Flora do Brasil 2020 em construção http://reflora.jbrj.gov.br/reflora/listaBrasil/ConsultaPublicaUC/ResultadoDaConsultaNovaConsulta.do.
    • Krasnoborov, I.M. (ed.) (2007). Flora of Siberia 13: 1-499. Scientific Publishers, Inc., Enfield, Plymouth.
    • Aver'ianov, L.V. & al. (2006). Illyustrirovannyi opredelitel' rastenii Leningradskoi oblasti: 1-799. Nauka, Moskva.

    Sources

    Flora Zambesiaca
    Flora Zambesiaca
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Herbarium Catalogue Specimens
    'The Herbarium Catalogue, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Published on the Internet http://www.kew.org/herbcat [accessed on Day Month Year]'. Please enter the date on which you consulted the system.
    Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/

    Kew Backbone Distributions
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2018. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

    Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2018. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0