1. Family: Fabaceae Lindl.
    1. Mundulea (DC.) Benth.

      1. This genus is accepted, and its native range is Tropical & S. Africa, Madagascar, India, Sri Lanka.

    [FTEA]

    Leguminosae, J. B. Gillett, R. M. Polhill & B. Verdcourt. Flora of Tropical East Africa. 1971

    Habit
    Small trees or shrubs
    Leaves
    Leaves imparipinnate, without stipels, the leaflets entire, reticulately veined and usually widest below the middle
    Flowers
    Flowers in terminal pseudoracemes, bluish-purple; standard silky outside, its short claw sharply differentiated from the blade; wings and keel pubescent at the margins near the base
    Filaments
    Vexillary filament free and sharply bent near the base, then connate with the other 9; filament-tips somewhat widened
    Pistil
    Style glabrous, tapering; stigma terminal, minute, free from hairs
    Fruits
    Pod densely pubescent, several-seeded, not, or very tardily, dehiscent
    Seeds
    Seeds without arils.
    [FZ]

    Flora Zambesiaca Leguminosae subfamily Papillionoideae by B. Verdcourt

    Stamens
    Upper filament free and sharply bent near to base, often connate with sheath above; tips of free parts of filaments sometimes ± widened. Upper filament free and sharply bent near to base, often connate with sheath above; tips of free parts of filaments sometimes ± widened.
    Ovary
    Ovary sessile, many-ovuled; style hardened, tapering, glabrous; stigma terminal, minute.
    Fruits
    Pod linear, usually under 1 cm wide, densely hairy, pubescent (or glabrous in some Madagascan species), several-seeded, not or very tardily dehiscent or breaking irregularly (in some Madagascan species splitting into flat or spiralling valves), margins thickened. Pod linear, usually under 1 cm wide, densely hairy, pubescent (or glabrous in some Madagascan species), several-seeded, not or very tardily dehiscent or breaking irregularly (in some Madagascan species splitting into flat or spiralling valves), margins thickened.
    Seeds
    Seeds reniform, with aril. Seeds reniform, with aril.
    Habit
    Small, silky-pubescent trees and shrubs. Small, silky-pubescent trees and shrubs.
    Leaves
    Leaves imparipinnate; leaflets reticulately veined (rarely with numerous parallel nerves as in Tephrosia spp.), the blades mostly widest below the middle; stipules small; stipels absent. Leaves imparipinnate; leaflets reticulately veined (rarely with numerous parallel nerves as in Tephrosia spp.), the blades mostly widest below the middle; stipules small; stipels absent.
    Flowers
    Flowers sometimes scented, blue-purple, red or rarely white, in terminal pseudoracemes; bracts small; bracteoles absent. Flowers sometimes scented, blue-purple, red or rarely white, in terminal pseudoracemes; bracts small; bracteoles absent.
    Calyx
    Calyx teeth short, ± unequal, the upper 2 ± connate. Calyx teeth short, ± unequal, the upper 2 ± connate.
    Corolla
    Standard silky outside, with transverse basal callus, the claw short but sharply defined from the blade; wings falcate-oblong and keel incurved, obtuse, both pubescent at the margins near the base. Standard silky outside, with transverse basal callus, the claw short but sharply defined from the blade; wings falcate-oblong and keel incurved, obtuse, both pubescent at the margins near the base.
    Pistil
    Ovary sessile, many-ovuled; style hardened, tapering, glabrous; stigma terminal, minute.
    [LOWO]

    Legumes of the World. Edited by G. Lewis, B. Schrire, B. MacKinder & M. Lock. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. (2005)

    Habit
    Shrubs or trees
    Ecology
    Seasonally dry tropical forest (sometimes in more humid evergreen forest), woodland, grassland, bushland, thicket and xerophytic shrubland, in sand and on rocky outcrops
    Distribution
    Madagascar, 1 widespread sp. (M. sericea (Willd.) A. Chev.) also in Africa, India and Sri Lanka
    Note
    Mundulea is very closely related to Tephrosia and it is doubtful whether it should be maintained as a distinct genus (Du Puy & Labat in Du Puy et al., 2002)

    Relationships among genera of Millettieae have been notoriously difficult to unravel based on traditional morphological evidence and this is exemplified by the alphabetical arrangement of genera in the tribal treatments of Geesink (1981; 1984) and Polhill (1994). Geesink (1981) recognised 44 genera and c. 870 species in tribe Millettieae (as ‘Tephrosieae’) while 43 genera were accounted for in Geesink (1984) and Polhill (1994). The genera recognised, however, varied considerably with only 33 genera in common to both treatments of Geesink, while the list of Polhill (1994) combined elements of Geesink (1981, 1984) with new data accumulated since then. Tephrosia has traditionally comprised some 400 species but this is re-estimated at c. 350 species here.

    The traditional circumscription of the predominantly pantropical and subtropical tribe Millettieae is followed here (Fig. 45), with 45 genera and (904)–909–(914) species being recognised, (i.e. excluding the two genera and 11 species transferred to Brongniartieae, see Table 8), although the concept of what comprises Millettieae sens. strict. is changing rapidly based on evidence from molecular phylogenies. Sequence data for millettioid genera comes from the plastid rbcL gene (Doyle et al., 1997; 2000; Kajita et al., 2001; Hu & Chang, 2003), phytochrome nucleotide genes (Lavin et al., 1998), the plastid trnK-matK region (Hu et al., 2000) and the nuclear ITS region (Hu, 2000; Hu et al., 2002). Molecular data, together with reinterpreted evidence based on chemistry (Evans et al., 1985) and wood anatomy (Gasson et al., 2004), have been the basis for recognising a number of informal suprageneric groupings and for transferring Cyclolobium and Poecilanthe to tribe Brongniartieae (Table 8; Fig. 45).

     The most far-reaching result of the above molecular analyses was that a substantial part of the traditionally circumscribed tribe Phaseoleae is more closely allied to the core-Millettieae than to the Phaseoleae sens. lat. clade (see page 393). Circumscription of a revised tribe Millettieae is not possible at present until genera are more comprehensively sampled; however, a Millettioid sens. strict. group might be expected to include some genera in the basal millettioid and phaseoloid group, Phaseoleae subtribes Diocleinae, Ophrestiinae and in small part the Erythrininae, tribe Abreae and the core-Millettieae (Fig. 45). The basal millettioid and phaseoloid group comprises 17 genera (94 species) that may belong either in the Millettioids sens. strict. or Phaseoleae sens. lat., or to a clade sister to both these groups (e.g., Kajita et al., 2001). The core-Millettieae clade comprises c. 22 genera and c. 777 spp., with some additional generic segregates being necessary within the ‘canavanine group’ (Evans et al., 1985), to accommodate species of Millettia sens. lat. and Fordia sens. lat., which on the basis of molecular and chemical evidence are excluded from Millettia and Fordia sens. strict.

    Relationships between the major groups of genera centred on Lonchocarpus, Derris, Millettia and Tephrosia remain obscure, and still reflect a geographical bias in segregating them, i.e. distributions are limited largely to the New World in the Lonchocarpus group, and the Old World in the other groups. The suggestion that the Andean South American genus Apurimacia might be sister to the largely Old World Tephrosia rather than to Lonchocarpus (e.g., Kajita et al., 2001) is possibly indicative of other Old World–New World sister groups yet to be found. Further molecular evidence will probably result in an overall reduction in the number of genera recognised, particularly in the Tephrosia and Lonchocarpus groups where various small or monotypic ‘one-organ’ genera may be better placed within larger genera. Ptycholobium, Requienia and Paratephrosia, for example, are difficult to distinguish from Tephrosia, but for the emphasis traditionally placed on their atypical pods.

    [LOWO]
    Use
    Used as fish poisons, dye plants, medicine and ornamentals

    Images

    Distribution

    Native to:

    Angola, Benin, Botswana, Cameroon, Caprivi Strip, Central African Repu, India, Ivory Coast, Kenya, KwaZulu-Natal, Madagascar, Malawi, Mozambique, Namibia, Nigeria, Northern Provinces, Somalia, Sri Lanka, Sudan, Swaziland, Tanzania, Togo, Uganda, Zambia, Zimbabwe

    Introduced into:

    Guinea, Jawa, Mali, New Guinea

    Mundulea (DC.) Benth. appears in other Kew resources:

    First published in F.A.W.Miquel, Pl. Jungh.: 248 (1852)

    Literature

    Flora of West Tropical Africa
    • —F.T.A. 2: 126.
    Flora Zambesiaca
    • in Miquel, Pl. Jungh.: 248 (1852).
    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    • in Miq., Pl. Jungh.: 248 (1852)

    Sources

    Flora Zambesiaca
    Flora Zambesiaca
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Kew Backbone Distributions
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2018. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

    Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2018. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

    Legumes of the World Online
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0