1. Family: Plantaginaceae Juss.
    1. Genus: Scoparia L.
      1. Scoparia dulcis L.

        This species is accepted, and its native range is Tropical & Subtropical America.

    [FWTA]

    Scrophulariaceae, F. N. Hepper. Flora of West Tropical Africa 2. 1963

    Habit
    Erect shrubby weed 1-3 ft.
    Flowers
    Flowers white or bluish, usually 4 petals, densely bearded inside.
    [FTEA]

    Scrophulariaceae, S.A. Ghazanfar, F.N. Hepper & D. Philcox. Flora of Tropical East Africa. 2008

    Type
    Type: West Indies, Herb. Clifford (BM, holo.)
    Habit
    Herb or a branched sub-shrub, 30–60(–90) cm high, woody at base.
    Stem
    Stems obtusely angled, glabrous
    Leaves
    Leaves opposite, often 3 per node, elliptic-lanceolate to linearlanceolate, 1–4 cm long, 0.3–11 cm broad, long-cuneate at base into a short petiole, acute or obtuse at apex, margins coarsely serrate in the upper half, glabrous, densely glandular-punctate beneath
    Flowers
    Flowers 2–4 in all upper axils of leaf-like bracts; pedicels filiform, 4–6 mm, glabrous
    Calyx
    Calyx 2–3 mm long, lobed nearly to the base; lobes ovate, ± 1.5 mm broad, shortly ciliate towards the apex
    Corolla
    Corolla white, 4-lobed, lobes ovate, 2.5–3.5 mm, with conspicuous white hairs in throat
    Fruits
    Capsule ovoid, yellowish brown, 2–4 mm, beaked by ± persistent style
    Figures
    Fig 29, p 99
    Ecology
    In cultivated and waste ground, gardens and coconut groves especially on sandy soil; 0–1300 m
    Conservation
    Least Concern (LC); widespread
    Distribution
    Range: Widespread in tropical Africa Flora districts: U1 K7 T1 T3 T4 T5 T6 T 8ZP
    [FZ]

    Scrophulariaceae, D. Philcox. Flora Zambesiaca 8:2. 1990

    Habit
    Woody perennial or subshrub to 60 cm. tall, erect, much-branched, glabrous or minutely hairy especially at nodes; stem and branches angular or ribbed.
    Leaves
    Leaves 1.2–4.5(5.5) x 0.2–0.9 cm., usually ternately whorled or occasionally opposite, narrowly oblanceolate to elliptic-lanceolate, narrowed towards base, apex acute or obtuse, crenate to clearly and sometimes deeply serrate in upper half, almost entire below, glabrous, densely punctate, nerves prominent below.
    Flowers
    Flowers solitary or more rarely paired in axils of leaf-like bracts, forming branched, many-flowered raceme-like inflorescence; pedicels up to 0.7 cm. long, filiform, glabrous.
    Calyx
    Calyx 1.5–2.5 mm. long, 4-lobed, lobes ovate to oblong, obtuse, shortly ciliate towards apex.
    Corolla
    Corolla 2.5–3.5 mm. long, white to pale mauve.
    Fruits
    Capsule 2–3.5 mm. long, ripening pale brown.
    [FTEA]
    Use
    None recorded on specimens from our area

    Images

    Distribution

    Native to:

    Alabama, Argentina Northeast, Argentina Northwest, Aruba, Bahamas, Belize, Bolivia, Brazil North, Brazil Northeast, Brazil South, Brazil Southeast, Brazil West-Central, Cayman Is., Colombia, Costa Rica, Cuba, Dominican Republic, Ecuador, El Salvador, French Guiana, Galápagos, Guatemala, Guyana, Haiti, Honduras, Jamaica, Leeward Is., Mexico Central, Mexico Gulf, Mexico Northeast, Mexico Northwest, Mexico Southeast, Mexico Southwest, Netherlands Antilles, Nicaragua, Panamá, Paraguay, Peru, Puerto Rico, Southwest Caribbean, Suriname, Trinidad-Tobago, Uruguay, Venezuela, Venezuelan Antilles, Windward Is., Yemen

    Introduced into:

    Andaman Is., Angola, Assam, Bangladesh, Benin, Burkina, Cambodia, Cameroon, Central African Repu, Central American Pac, Chad, Chagos Archipelago, Christmas I., Cocos (Keeling) Is., Comoros, Congo, East Himalaya, Ethiopia, Fiji, Gabon, Gambia, Ghana, Guinea, Guinea-Bissau, Gulf of Guinea Is., India, Ivory Coast, Kenya, KwaZulu-Natal, Lesser Sunda Is., Liberia, Madagascar, Malawi, Mali, Mauritania, Mauritius, Mozambique, Nauru, Nicobar Is., Niger, Nigeria, Palestine, Senegal, Seychelles, Sierra Leone, Sudan, Tanzania, Togo, Uganda, Zambia, Zaïre

    Scoparia dulcis L. appears in other Kew resources:

    Date Reference Identified As Barcode Type Status
    Jan 1, 2014 Wardi [BOHK 524], Indonesia K000734785
    Aug 7, 2013 Villarouco, F.M. [20], Brazil K001072129
    Jan 1, 2013 Hassler, E. [6025], Paraguay K000533541 isolectotype
    May 1, 2010 Wiriadinata [13363], Sulawesi K000450821
    May 1, 2010 N.V. Du [HNK 2997], Vietnam K000612087
    Aug 1, 2006 Etuge, M. [5247], Cameroon K000023311
    Dec 1, 2003 Cheek, M. [10221], Cameroon K000198183
    Dec 1, 2003 Etuge, M. [1649], Cameroon K000198185
    Dec 1, 2003 Etuge, M. [1780], Cameroon K000198184
    Feb 6, 2001 Pearson, H.P.N. [25], Brazil K001072124
    Feb 6, 2001 Pirani, J.R. [CFCR2084], Brazil K001048596
    Feb 5, 2001 Heringer, E.P. [14240], Brazil K001072121
    Feb 5, 2001 Eden, M.J. [EM58], Brazil K001072130
    Jan 1, 1998 Acworth, J.M. [240], Cameroon K000011870
    Jul 1, 1990 Agra, M.F. [1159], Brazil K001072119
    Nov 15, 1988 Jürgensen, C. [777], Mexico K001072074
    Jan 1, 1982 Lyra-Lemos, R.P. [447], Brazil K001072122
    Jan 1, 1979 Jangoux, J. [34], Brazil K001072126
    Jan 1, 1971 Irwin, H.S. [48346], Brazil K001072091
    Jan 1, 1970 Argent, G.C.G. [6363], Brazil K001072082
    Jan 1, 1969 Philcox, D. [4491], Brazil K001072098
    Jan 1, 1969 Philcox, D. [4284], Brazil K001072099
    Jan 1, 1966 Irwin, H.S. [17376], Brazil K001072102
    Jan 1, 1966 Irwin, H.S. [12440], Brazil K001072103
    Jan 1, 1966 Skvortzov, B. [212], Brazil K001072081
    Jan 1, 1965 Eiten, G. [4837], Brazil K001072066
    Dec 7, 1941 Hoehne, W. [s.n.], Brazil K001072101
    Feb 1, 1824 s.coll. [s.n.], Brazil K001072054
    Harley, R.M. [11100], Brazil K001072090
    Harley, R.M. [16263], Brazil K001072125
    Harley, R.M. [15622], Brazil K001048597
    Harley, R.M. [16492], Brazil K001048598
    Harley, R.M. [22717], Brazil K001048599
    Harley, R.M. [27348], Brazil K001048601
    Harley, R.M. [27348], Brazil K001048602
    Harley, R.M. [s.n.], Brazil K001048603
    Gossweiler, J. [199/152], Angola K001008377
    Philcox, D. [3791], Brazil K001072092
    Philcox, D. [3157], Brazil K001072093
    Ridley, H.N. [75], Brazil K001072118
    Thomas, D.W. [1476], Cameroon K000028770
    Goodenough, S. [s.n.] K001072747
    Milliken, W. [1929], Brazil K001072127
    Ratter, J.A. [3646], Brazil K001072123
    Mori, S.A. [11730], Brazil K001048595
    Hind, D.J.N. [H/50452], Brazil K001048592
    Giulietti, A.M. [PCD801], Brazil K001048589
    Welwitsch [5921], Angola K001008373
    Welwitsch [5915], Angola K001008374
    Welwitsch [5892], Angola K001008375
    Welwitsch [5922], Angola K001008376
    Carvalho, A.M. [922], Brazil K001048600
    Funch, R. [56], Brazil K001048594
    Irwin, H.S. [23765], Brazil K001072089
    Irwin, H.S. [6447], Brazil K001072100
    Irwin, H.S. [25873], Brazil K001072114
    Irwin, H.S. [13287], Brazil K001072115
    Irwin, H.S. [6817], Brazil K001072116
    Irwin, H.S. [25612], Brazil K001072117
    Irwin, H.S. [30385], Brazil K001072128
    Ule, E. [7418], Brazil K001072079
    Eiten, G. [10321], Brazil K001072088
    Eiten, G. [10133], Brazil K001072065
    Preston, T.A. [s.n.], Brazil K001072086
    Pickersgill, B. [RU72-260], Brazil K001072120
    Pickersgill, B. [Ro/72/456], Brazil K001048604
    Ridley [74], Brazil K000533510
    Silva, A. [185], Brazil K001072080
    Barbosa da Silva, M. [12], Brazil K001072111
    Usteri, A. [142], Brazil K001072071
    Nelson, B.W. [779], Brazil K001072131
    Fonseca, M.L. [2686], Brazil K001048590
    Gardner, G. [90], Brazil K001072058
    Gardner, G. [90], Brazil K001072059
    Riedel [s.n.], Brazil K001072113
    Riedel [s.n.], Brazil K001072744
    Sello [s.n.], Brazil K001072076
    Burchell, W.J. [7952], Brazil K001072112
    Veitch [14], Costa Rica K001072068
    Moseley, H.N. [s.n.], Brazil K001072055
    Richards, Mrs H.M. [17143], Angola K001008379
    Staudt, A. [598], Cameroon K000028772
    Migeod, F.W.H. [269], Cameroon K000028773
    Sellow [s.n.], Brazil K001072075
    Sellow [s.n.], Brazil K001072745
    Rolland, G. [16], Brazil K001072078
    Prance, G.T. [3343], Brazil K001072087
    Rambo, B. [46614], Brazil K001072083
    Rambo, B. [46945], Brazil K001072084
    Rambo, B. [46885], Brazil K001072085
    Rambo, B. [46701], Brazil K001072094
    Rambo, B. [43265], Brazil K001072095
    Rambo, B. [42297], Brazil K001072096
    Rambo, B. [45112], Brazil K001072097
    Ribeiro, T. [69], Brazil K001048591
    Mueller, F.J.H. von [161], Brazil K001072052
    Cunningham [1000] K001072077
    Adebusuyi, E. [44024], Cameroon K000028771
    Saint-Hilaire, A.F.C.P. [A2/96B], Brazil K001072108
    Saint-Hilaire, A.F.C.P. [s.n.], Brazil K001072109
    Vaughan, D.J.G. [16], Brazil K001072072
    s.coll. [s.n.], Brazil K001072053
    s.coll. [s.n.], Brazil K001072060
    s.coll. [s.n.] K001072070
    s.coll. [s.n.], Brazil K001072746
    s.coll. [8457], Cuba K001072753
    s.coll. [s.n.], Brazil K001072062
    s.coll. [6417], Cuba K001072063
    s.coll. [22] K001072064
    Burchell [1591], Brazil K001072104
    Burchell [6601-2], Brazil K001072105
    Burchell [8647], Brazil K001072106
    Luis, T. [18], Brazil K001072110
    Spruce, R. [s.n.], Brazil K001072073
    Spruce, R. [691], Brazil K001072061
    Trail, J.W. [614], Brazil K001072056
    Trail, J.W. [616], Brazil K001072057
    Trail, J.W. [615], Brazil K001072067
    Trail, J.W. [614], Brazil K001072069
    Funch, F. [56], Brazil K001048593
    Mendes dos Santos, R. [1180], Angola K001008378
    Aug 7, 2013 Ridley, H.N. [74], Fernando de Noronha Scoparia purpurea K001067053 isotype
    Jamaica Scoparia dulcis var. tenuifolia K000533512

    First published in Sp. Pl.: 116 (1753)

    Accepted by

    • Sosef, M.S.M. & al. (eds.) (2016). Flore du Gabon 48: 1-158. Muséum National d'Histoire Naturelle, Paris.
    • Kliment, J., Turis, P. & Janišová, M. (2016). Taxa of vascular plants endemic to the Carpathian Mts Preslia. Casopsi Ceské Botanické Spolecnosti 88: 19-76.
    • Villaseñor, J.L. (2016). Checklist of the native vascular plants of Mexico Revista Mexicana de Biodiversidad 87: 559-902.
    • de Moura Júnior, E.G. & al. (2015). Updated checklist of aquatic macrophytes from Northern Brazil Acta Amazonica 45: 111-132.
    • Hammel, B.E., Grayum, M.H., Herrera, C. & Zamora, N. (eds.) (2015). Manual de Plantas de Costa Rica. Volumen VIII. Dicotyledóneas (Sabiaceae-Zygophyllaceae) Monographs in Systematic Botany from the Missouri Botanical Garden 131: 1-657. Missouri Botanical Garden.
    • Darbyshire, I., Kordofani, M., Farag, I., Candiga, R. & Pickering, H. (eds.) (2015). The Plants of Sudan and South Sudan: 1-400. Kew publishing, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Sikarwar, R.L.S. (2014). Angiosperm diversity assessment of Chitrakootthe legendary place of Vindhyan range, India Journal of Economic and Taxonomic Botany 38: 563-619.
    • Velayos, M., Barberá, P., Cabezas, F.J., de la Estrella, M., Fero, M. & Aedo, C. (2014). Checklist of the vascular plants of Annobón (Equatorial Guinea) Phytotaxa 171: 1-78.
    • Jørgensen, P.M., Nee, M.H. & Beck., S.G. (eds.) (2013). Catálogo de las plantas vasculares de Bolivia Monographs in Systematic Botany from the Missouri Botanical Garden 127: 1-1741. Missouri Botanical Garden.
    • Goodwin, Z.A. & al. (2013). A checklist of the vascular plants of the lowland savannas of Belize, Central America Phytotaxa 101: 1-119.
    • Wiriadinata, H., Girmansyah, D., Hunter, J.M., Hoover, W.S. & Kartawinata, K. (2013). Floristic study of West Sumbawa, Indonesia Reinwardtia 13: 391-404.
    • Girmansyah, D. & al. (eds.) (2013). Flora of Bali an annotated checklist: 1-158. Herbarium Bogorensis, Indonesia.
    • Mostaph, M.K. & Uddin, S.B. (2013). Dictionary of plant names of Bangladesh, Vasc. Pl.: 1-434. Janokalyan Prokashani, Chittagong, Bangladesh.
    • Rodrigues Furtado, M.N., de Souza Secco, R. & Sousa Rocha, A.E. (2012). Sinopse das espécies de Lamiales Bromhead ocorrentes nas restingas do estado do Pará, Brasil Hoehnea 39: 529-547.
    • Choudhary, R.K., Srivastava, R.C., Das, A.K. & Lee, J. (2012). Floristic diversity assessment and vegetation analysis of Upper Siang district of eastern Himalaya in North East India Korean Journal of Plant Taxonomy 42: 222-246.
    • Acevedo-Rodríguez, P. & Strong, M.T. (2012). Catalogue of seed plants of the West Indies Smithsonian Contributions to Botany 98: 1-1192.
    • Greuter, W. & Raus, T. (eds.) (2012). Med-Checklist Notulae, 31 Willdenowia 42: 287-295.
    • Garcia-Mendoza, A.J. & Meave, J.A. (eds.) (2012). Diversidad florística de Oaxaca: de musgos a angiospermas (colecciones y listas de especies), ed. 2: 1-351. Instituto de Biología, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México.
    • van Proosdij, A.S.J. (2012). Arnoldo's Zakflora, ed. 4: 1-318. Walburg Pers, Zutphen.
    • Figueiredo, E., Paiva, J., Stévart, T., Oliveira, F. & Smith, G.F. (2011). Annotated catalogue of the flowering plants of São Tomé and Príncipe Bothalia, A Journal of Botanical Research 41: 41-82.
    • Idárraga-Piedrahita, A., Ortiz, R.D.C., Callejas Posada, R. & Merello, M. (eds.) (2011). Flora de Antioquia: Catálogo de las Plantas Vasculares 2: 1-939. Universidad de Antioquia, Medellín.
    • Kral, R., Diamond, A.R., Ginzbarg, S.L., Hansen, C.J., Haynes, R.R., Keener, B.R., Lelong, M.G., Spaulding, D.D. & Woods, M. (2011). Annotated checklist of the vascular plants of Alabama: 1-112. Botanical reseach institute of Texas.
    • Onana, J.M. (2011). The vascular plants of Cameroon a taxonomic checklist with IUCN assessments: 1-195. National herbarium of Cameroon, Yaoundé.
    • Maliya, S.D. & Datt, B. (2010). A contribution to the flora of Katarniyaghat wildlife sanctuary, Baharaich district, Uttar Pradesh Journal of Economic and Taxonomic Botany 34: 42-68.
    • Paña-Chocarro, M.C., Espada-Mateos, C., Vera, M., Céspedes, G. & Knapp, S. (2010). Updated checklist of vascular plants of the Mbaracayú Forest Nature Reserve (Reserva Natural del Bosque Mbaracayú), Paraguay Phytotaxa 12: 1-224.
    • Lejoy, J., Ndjele, M.-B. & Geerinck, D. (2010). Catalogue-flore des plantes vasculaires des districts de Kisangani et de la Tshopo (RD Congo) Taxonomania 30: 1-307.
    • Barua, K.N. & Khatry, P.K. (2009). Alien forest weeds in upper Brahmaputra valler and hill zones of Assam Journal of Economic and Taxonomic Botany 33: 414-422.
    • Pandey, R.P. (2009). Floristic diversity of Ferrargunj forest area in South Andaman Journal of Economic and Taxonomic Botany 33: 747-768.
    • Buragohain, S. & Sarma, G.C. (2009). The exotic weeds of Guwahati, Assam and their role in employment generation Pleione 3(1): 45-49.
    • Sarmah, K.K. & Borthakur, S.K. (2009). A checklist of angiospermic plants of Manas national park in Assam, India Pleione 3: 190-200.
    • Lisowski, S. (2009). Flore (Angiospermes) de la République de Guinée Scripta Botanica Belgica 41: 1-517.
    • Ghazanfar, S.A., Hepper, F.N. & Philcox, D. (2008). Flora of Tropical East Africa, Scrophulariaceae: 1-211.
    • Pandey, R.P. & Dilwakar, P.G. (2008). An integrated check-list flora of Andaman and Nicobar islands, India Journal of Economic and Taxonomic Botany 32: 403-500.
    • Zuloaga, F.O., Morrone, O. , Belgrano, M.J., Marticorena, C. & Marchesi, E. (eds.) (2008). Catálogo de las Plantas Vasculares del Cono Sur Monographs in Systematic Botany from the Missouri Botanical Garden 107: 1-3348. Missouri Botanical Garden.
    • Kamilya, P. (2008). Survey of weed flora of Atrai river bed in Dakshin-Dinajpur in District of West Bengal, India Pleione 2: 77-86.
    • Figueiredo, E. & Smith, G.F. (2008). Plants of Angola Strelitzia 22: 1-279. National Botanical Institute, Pretoria.
    • Hokche, O., Berry, P.E. & Huber, O. (eds.) (2008). Nuevo Catálogo de la Flora Vascular de Venezuela: 1-859. Fundación Instituto Botánico de Venezuela.
    • Nelson Sutherland, C.H. (2008). Catálogo de las plantes vasculares de Honduras. Espermatofitas: 1-1576. SERNA/Guaymuras, Tegucigalpa, Honduras.
    • Hedberg, I., Kelbessa, E., Edwards, S., Demissew, S. & Persson, E. (eds.) (2006). Flora of Ethiopia and Eritrea 5: 1-690. The National Herbarium, Addis Ababa University, Ethiopia & The Department of Systematic Botany, Upps.
    • Catarino, L., Martins, E.S., Diniz, M.A. & Pinto-Basto, M.F. (2006). Check-list da flora vascular do parque natural das Lagos de Cufada (Guiné-Bissau) Garcia de Orta, Série de Botânica 17: 97-141.
    • Trusty, J.L., Kesler, H.C. & Delgado, G.H. (2006). Vascular flora of Isla del Coco, Costa Rica Proceedings of the California Academy of Sciences, ser. 4, 57: 247-355.
    • Sosef, M.S.M. & al. (2006). Check-list des plantes vasculaires du Gabon Scripta Botanica Belgica 35: 1-438.
    • Akoègninou, A., van der Burg, W.J. & van der Maesen, L.J.G. (eds.) (2006). Flore Analytique du Bénin: 1-1034. Backhuys Publishers.
    • Catarino, L., Sampaio Martins, E., Pinto-Basto, M.F. & Diniz, M.A. (2006). Plantas Vasculares e Briófitos da Guiné-Bissau: 1-298. Instituto de investigação científica tropical, Instituto Português de apoio ao desenvolvimento.
    • Sita, P. & Moutsambote, J.-M. (2005). Catalogue des plantes vasculaires du Congo, ed. sept. 2005: 1-158. ORSTOM, Centre de Brazzaville.
    • Correa A., Mireya D. Galdames, Carmen Correa A., M. D., C. Galdames & M. S. de Stapf (2004). Catálogo de las Plantas Vasculares de Panamá: 1-599. Smithsonian Tropical Research Institute.
    • Germishuizen, G. & Meyer, N.L. (eds.) (2003). Plants of Southern Africa an annotated checklist Strelitzia 14: 1-1231. National Botanical Institute, Pretoria.
    • Aké Assi, L. (2002). Flore de la Côte-d'Ivoire: catalogue systématique, biogéographie et écologie. II Boissiera 58: 1-401.
    • Harris, D.J. (2002). Vasc. Pl. Dzanga-Sangha: 1-274. National Botanic Garden (Belgium), Meise.
    • Stevens, W.D., Ulloa U., C., Pool, A. & Montiel, O.M. (2001). Flora de Nicaragua Monographs in Systematic Botany from the Missouri Botanical Garden 85: i-xlii, 1-2666. Missouri Botanical Garden.
    • Bosser, J. & al. (eds.) (2000). Flore des Mascareignes 127-135: 1. IRD Éditions, MSIRI, RBG-Kew, Paris.
    • Dy Phon, P. (2000). Dictionnaire des plantes utilisées au Cambodge: 1-915. chez l'auteur, Phnom Penh, Cambodia.
    • Fischer, E. (1999). Flore d'Afrique Centrale (Zaire-rwanda-Burundi), Scrophulariaceae: 1-217. Jardin Botanique National de Belgique.
    • Jørgensen, P.M. & León-Yánez, S. (eds.) (1999). Catalogue of the Vascular Plants of Ecuador Monographs in Systematic Botany from the Missouri Botanical Garden 75: i-viii, 1-1181. Missouri Botanical Garden.
    • Boggan, J. Funck, V. & Kelloff, C. (1997). Checklist of the Plants of the Guianas (Guyana, Surinam, Franch Guiana) ed. 2: 1-238. University of Guyana, Georgetown.
    • Wood, J.R.I. (1997). A handbook of the Yemen Flora: 1-434. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Thaman, R.R., Fosberg, F.R., Manner, H.I. & Hassall, D.C. (1994). The Flora of Nauru Atoll Research Bulletin 392: 1-223.
    • Castle, G.E. (1994). Flore des Seychelles Dicotylédones: 1-663. Orstom Editions.
    • George, A.S., Orchard, A.E. & Hewson, H.J. (eds.) (1993). Oceanic islands 2 Flora of Australia 50: 1-606. Australian Government Publishing Service, Canberra.
    • Brako, L. & Zarucchi, J.L. (1993). Catalogue of the Flowering Plants and Gymnosperms of Peru Monographs in Systematic Botany from the Missouri Botanical Garden 45: i-xl, 1-1286. Missouri Botanical Garden.
    • Barry, J. P. & Celles, J.S. (1991). Flore de Mauritanie 1: 1-359. Centre Regional de Documentation Pedagogique, Nice.
    • Lebrun, J.p., Toutain, B., Gaston, A. & Boudet, G. (1991). Catalogue des Plantes Vasculaires du Burkina Faso: 1-341. Institut d' Elevage et de Médecine Vétérinaire des Pays Tropicaux, Maisons Alfort.
    • Smith, A.C. (1991). Flora Vitiensis Nova. A new flora for Fiji (Spermatophytes only) 5: 1-626. Pacific Tropical Botanical Garden, Lawai.
    • Boudet, G., Lebrun, J.P. & Demange, R. (1986). Catalogue des plantes vasculaires du Mali: 1-465. Etudes d'Elevage et de Médecine Vétérinaire des Pays Tropicaux.
    • Boulvert, Y. (1977). Catalogue de la Flore de Centrafrique 2(1): 1-85. ORSTROM, Bangui.
    • Peyre de Fabregues, B. & Lebrun, J.-P. (1976). Catalogue des Plantes Vascularies du Niger: 1-433. Institut d' Elevage et de Médecine Vétérinaire des Pays Tropicaux, Maisons Alfort.
    • Exell, A.W. (1973). Angiosperms of the islands of the gulf of Guinea (Fernando Po, Príncipe, S.Tomé, and Annobon) Bulletin of the British Museum (Natural History). Botany 4: 325-411.
    • Lebrun, J.-P., Audru, J., Gaston, A. & Mosnier, M. (1972). Catalogue des Plantes Vasculaires du Tchad Méridional: 1-289. Institut d' Elevage et de Médecine Vétérinaire des Pays Tropicaux, Maisons Alfort.
    • Hepper, F.N. (ed.) (1963). Flora of West Tropical Africa, ed. 2, 2: 1-544.
    • Hutchinson, J., Dalziel, J.M. & Keay, R.W.J. (1954-1958). Flora of West Tropical Africa, ed. 2, 1: 1-828.

    Literature

    Flora of West Tropical Africa
    • Berhaut Fl. Sén. 61, 74.
    • Chev. Bot. 474
    • F.T.A. 4, 2: 354
    • Sp. Pl. 116 (1753)
    Kew Backbone Distributions
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    Sources

    Flora Zambesiaca
    Flora Zambesiaca
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    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Flora of West Tropical Africa
    Flora of West Tropical Africa
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Herbarium Catalogue Specimens
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    Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2018. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
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