1. Family: Fabaceae Lindl.
    1. Parochetus Buch.-Ham. ex D.Don

      1. This genus is accepted, and is native to Asia-Tropical, Africa and Asia-Temperate..

    [LOWO]

    Legumes of the World. Edited by G. Lewis, B. Schrire, B. MacKinder & M. Lock. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. (2005)

    Note

    Trifolieae forms a morphologically distinctive tribe, although the position of both Ononis and Parochetus has been questioned (see below). In total there are 6 genera and c. 485 species, of which more than half belong to Trifolium (Fig. 56). The distribution of the tribe is centred in the N temperate regions of the Old World, particularly in areas of winter rainfall. Trifolium itself has spread into the tropics on mountains, where there has been considerable diversification, particularly in Ethiopia. It is also the only genus of the tribe to occur naturally in the New World. Parochetus occurs only on palaeotropical mountains. The importance of some genera as fodder legumes, particularly Trifolium and Medicago, has led to their introduction to many parts of the world.

    Ononis was placed in a tribe of its own, Ononideae, by Hutchinson (1964) and this has been followed by some (e.g., Yakovlev et al., 1996). The distinctness of Parochetus (and of Ononis) was emphasised by Small & Jomphe (1989), and Chaudhary & Sanjappa (1998a) have placed Parochetus in its own subtribe Parochetinae.

    Within the core of Trifolieae, there are some problems in generic delimitation, particularly between Trigonella, Medicago and Melilotus, with some (e.g., Yakovlev et al., 1996) recognising the intermediate genus Melilotoides. Distinctive species here placed in Medicago have been variously segregated as Radiata (Pseudomelissitus), Rhodusia, Crimea, Kamiella and Factorovskya. This treatment follows Small (1987) and Small et al. (1987) in recognising an expanded Medicago including all those species with explosively tripping flowers. In Trifolium, on the other hand, the generic boundaries are reasonably clear, but the unit can be treated either as a large genus with several well-defined sections (the course followed here), or as the separate genera Amoria, Chrysaspis, Lupinaster and Trifolium sens. strict. (see below).

    Trifolieae forms part of the ‘temperate epulvinate series’ of Polhill (1981a). In the same volume Heyn (1981) was unable to suggest a clear relationship to any other tribe. The morphological cladistic analysis of the whole family by Chappill (1995) placed Trifolieae next to Cicer. Kupicha (1977) had earlier suggested that Cicer is closest to Trifolieae, with the adnation of the stipules to the petiole in Trifolieae being the only differential character; the tribes Cicereae and Trifolieae also share the characters of long-stalked glandular hairs and serrate leaflets with craspedodromous venation. Doyle (1995) placed Trifolieae, along with Carmichaelieae, Cicereae, Galegeae, Hedysareae, Fabeae and some Millettieae in a group characterised by the loss of the inverted repeat (IR) (Liston, 1995). Endo & Ohashi (1997) placed Trifolieae as sister to the Cicereae and Fabeae (as Vicieae) in a cladistic analysis based on a range of non-molecular characters. Wojciechowski et al. (2000) distinguish a Vicioid clade that includes Trifolieae, Cicereae and Fabeae (as Vicieae), as well as Galega. Within this clade, Parochetus is basally branching to the rest of the taxa, and Galega plus Cicereae form a sister group to a paraphyletic Trifolieae, with Fabeae emerging as sister to Trifolium. In a clade sister to Trifolium and Fabeae, Wojciechowski et al. (2000) and Steele & Wojciechowski (2003) place Ononis basally branching to the sister monophyletic clades Medicago, and Melilotus-Trigonella (Fig. 56). The latter three genera comprise tribe Trigonelleae of Schulz (1901).

    Given that molecular phylogenies do not support a monophyletic Trifolieae in its current form, further study may reinforce the pattern of relationships suggested so far by these analyses. A tribe Trigonelleae could be recognised including the genus Ononis, and tribe Trifolieae would then only include the genus Trifolium, sister to tribe Fabeae. The Trifolieae in its broader paraphyletic sense is maintained here pending further study. The ‘supertree’ of Wojciechowski et al. (2001) is not supportive of the segregate genera of Trifolium; more thorough sampling of Trifolium and other large genera is desirable before any final conclusions can be drawn.

    Parochetus africanus Polhill has been treated by Vidigal in Pope et al. (2003) at species level and by Chaudhary & Sanjappa (1998b) as P. communis Buch.-Ham. ex D.Don subsp. africanus (Polhill) L.B.Chaudhary & Sanjappa
    Vernacular
    blue clover, shamrock pea
    Habit
    Herbs
    Ecology
    Tropical montane grassland and forest edges in damp places
    Distribution
    1 sp. each on mountains of Tropical Asia (Indian Subcontinent, Indo-China, China, Malesia) and E Africa
    [FZ]

    Leguminosae, various authors. Flora Zambesiaca 3:7. 2003

    Habit
    Creeping herbs, usually rooting (and also forming small tubers in P. communis)at the nodes.
    Leaves
    Leaves digitately 3-foliolate, long-petiolate; stipules free from the petiole.
    Inflorescences
    Inflorescence axillary, 1–3-flowered, pedunculate; bracts present; bracteoles absent.
    Flowers
    Flowers pedicellate.
    Calyx
    Calyx with the 2 upper lobes connate almost to their tips.
    Corolla
    Petals not adnate to the stamens, caducous; standard shortly clawed; wings with the upper proximal corner of the blade extended into a short auricle; keel shorter than the wings, upcurved, rather acute.
    Stamens
    Stamens with free portions of filaments abruptly upcurved, not dilated at the apex; vexillary filament free; anthers uniform.
    Pistil
    Ovary sessile; ovules many; style slender, tapering, abruptly bent upwards; stigma minute, terminal.
    Fruits
    Pod 3–4 times as long as the calyx, oblong, acute, beaked, not septate inside, many-seeded.
    Seeds
    Seeds with tuberculate testa; funicle filiform.
    [FTEA]

    Leguminosae, J. B. Gillett, R. M. Polhill & B. Verdcourt. Flora of Tropical East Africa. 1971

    Habit
    Prostrate herb, rooting at the nodes
    Leaves
    Leaves digitately 3-foliolate, with long petioles; stipules almost free from the petiole, their bases forming a ring round the stem
    Flowers
    Flowers in axillary few-flowered umbels; bracts present; bracteoles absent
    Calyx
    Calyx 5-lobed, the 2 upper lobes fused almost to the tip
    Corolla
    Corolla glabrous, caducous
    Stamens
    Filaments abruptly bent upwards through 90°, not dilated at the tip, not attached to the corolla, the upper one free, the other 9 united; anthers uniform
    Pistil
    Ovary glabrous; ovules many; style abruptly bent upwards
    Fruits
    Pod 3–4 times as long as calyx, linear, acute, somewhat inflated when ripe, not septate, many-seeded.
    [LOWO]
    Use
    Moderately tender ornamentals ( blue clover , shamrock pea ) in horticulture

    Images

    Distribution

    Native to:

    Assam, Bangladesh, Burundi, China South-Central, East Himalaya, Ethiopia, India, Jawa, Kenya, Lesser Sunda Is., Malawi, Mozambique, Myanmar, Nepal, Rwanda, Sri Lanka, Tanzania, Thailand, Tibet, Uganda, Vietnam, West Himalaya, Zaïre, Zimbabwe

    Introduced into:

    New Zealand North, New Zealand South

    Parochetus Buch.-Ham. ex D.Don appears in other Kew resources:

    Date Reference Identified As Barcode Type Status
    Beckett, K.A. [s.n.] 53678.000

    First published in Prodr. Fl. Nepal.: 240 (1825)

    Literature

    Flora Zambesiaca
    • Prodr. Fl. Nepal.: 240 (1825).
    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    • Prodr. Fl. Nepal.: 240 (1825)

    Sources

    Flora Zambesiaca
    Flora Zambesiaca
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Herbarium Catalogue Specimens
    'The Herbarium Catalogue, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Published on the Internet http://www.kew.org/herbcat [accessed on Day Month Year]'. Please enter the date on which you consulted the system.

    Kew Backbone Distributions
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2018. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

    Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2018. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

    Legumes of the World Online
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0