1. Family: Fabaceae Lindl.
    1. Pericopsis Thwaites

      1. This genus is accepted, and is native to Asia-Tropical and Africa..

    [LOWO]

    Legumes of the World. Edited by G. Lewis, B. Schrire, B. MacKinder & M. Lock. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. (2005)

    Note

    In Polhill’s (1994) treatment the following informal groups were recognised: the Myroxylon group (11 genera; 10 Neotropics, one Africa); Ormosia group (3 genera; Neotropics, Africa, Asia); Angylocalyx group (4 genera; Neotropics, Africa, Australia); Baphia group (6 genera; Africa to Asia); Dussia group (9 genera; Neotropics) and Sophora group (14 genera; Africa, Asia, Neotropics).

    The only formal change made to the classification of Sophoreae since Polhill (1994) is the transfer of Bowringia and Baphiastrum to Leucomphalos (Breteler, 1994b). In this account we maintain Bowringia and Baphiastrum, not because we disagree with Breteler (1994b), but in the spirit of this volume, to encourage future workers to verify the monophyly of Leucomphalos sens. lat. with new data. We also do not follow Polhill’s (1994) suggestion that Riedeliella, Etaballia and Inocarpus belong in Sophoreae. It has been generally accepted (e.g., Polhill, 1981b) that these belong in Dalbergieae, which is confirmed by the recent study of Lavin et al. (2001a) that places them in the Dalbergioid clade. They are therefore treated as Dalbergieae in this volume (see page 307).

    Cladistic analyses of overall morphology (Chappill, 1995; Herendeen, 1995) and pollen data (Ferguson et al., 1994) showed Sophoreae to be non-monophyletic because Swartzieae genera were mixed in the same monophyletic groups as Sophoreae. These results have been corroborated by molecular studies. Doyle et al. (1996) showed Sophoreae to be heterogeneous for a large inversion in the chloroplast genome. This suggests that Sophoreae is non-monophyletic if it is assumed that the inversion arose only once. Doyle et al.’s (1997) DNA sequencing study of the chloroplast gene rbcL included 18 genera of Sophoreae. Cladistic analysis showed these to be scattered widely across the papilionoid tree. More recently, these results have been corroborated by another chloroplast locus, the trnL intron (Pennington et al., 2001). This study sampled more putatively basal genera of Papilionoideae (26 of 41 Sophoreae; 14 of 15 Swartzieae and all Dalbergieae and Dipterygeae). The trnL tree (summarised in Fig. 29) is also largely congruent with other molecular studies that include some taxa of basal Papilionoideae (e.g., Hu et al., 2000; Ireland et al, 2000; Lavin et al., 2001a; Kajita et al., 2001; Wojciechowski et al., 2004). It clearly shows genera of Sophoreae to be members of disparate papilionoid clades.

    Diverse datasets now indicate Sophoreae to be non-monophyletic as Polhill (1981b; 1994) predicted. If the trnL results are corroborated, it seems likely that Sophoreae will be dismembered with its genera scattered across several tribes. This would entail extensive taxonomic changes. Yakovlev (1972b; 1991) split Sophoreae into five and nine tribes respectively. These classifications have not been widely accepted, and although they are not congruent with the most recent molecular topologies, they will need to be considered in any formalisation of new tribal names. In any new scheme, Sophoreae sens. strict. will comprise a group of genistoid clade genera from among Polhill’s (1994) Sophora group (Fig. 29), but published molecular phylogenetic studies have not yet sampled sufficient genera to suggest its delimitation.

    A new classification for Sophoreae requires sampling of the genera not included by Pennington et al. (2001; see Fig. 29) and other authors, in future molecular systematic studies. Some of the clades discovered by DNA sequence data (Fig. 29) are cryptic in that they are not marked by obvious macro-morphological features, and it is therefore perilous to attempt to determine the affinities of genera based upon macro-morphology alone. It may be that these clades are defined by anatomical or chemical characters. For example, quinolizidine alkaloid accumulation may be a synapomorphy for the Genistoid clade (Pennington et al., 2001; Kite & Pennington, 2003), and lack of these chemicals in Styphnolobium species supports the segregation of this genus from Sophora sens. strict. The presence of quinolizidine alkaloids in Calia, which is not placed amongst the genistoids, suggests that this genus is a strong candidate as sister group to the Genistoid clade, a relationship that might be resolved by more robust molecular phylogenies. Such phylogenies should incorporate information from nuclear genes (Lavin et al., 1998; Doyle & Doyle, 2000) which would be particularly useful to test hypotheses that are currently based solely upon evidence from chloroplast DNA. Careful integration of morphology, preferably as part of a simultaneous cladistic analysis, is also critical. Such morphological study may be best achieved by focusing on separate monophyletic groups because assessment of homology of morphological features across all Papilionoideae is difficult. The monophyletic groups discovered in the trnL analysis provide a framework for starting these future studies. In all 45 genera and (393) – 396 – (398) species are treated here (including c. 76 basally branching, c. 262 genistoid and c. 58 baphioid species of Sophoreae; Fig. 29).

    Traditionally this genus was considered to be close to Ormosia (Sophoreae). This is confirmed by molecular data, which place both genera in the Genistoid clade (Doyle et al., 1997; Pennington et al., 2001)
    Vernacular
    nandu, nedun, obang, afrormosia, satinwood
    Habit
    Trees and shrubs
    Ecology
    Tropical lowland forest (riverine or mangrove in Asian spp.) or seasonally dry woodland and wooded grassland
    Distribution
    Africa (3 spp.; Zambezian/ Sudanian [2 spp.] and Guinea-Congolian WC [1 sp.] regions), Sri Lanka, Malesia to Papuasia (1 sp.)
    [FZ]

    Flora Zambesiaca Leguminosae subfamily Papillionoideae by R.K. Brummitt

    Inflorescences
    Inflorescence a terminal panicle or rarely a simple raceme, sparsely to densely brown- or greyish-pubescent or subglabrous; bracts small, ± linear-oblong, caducous; bracteoles similar, caducous. Inflorescence a terminal panicle or rarely a simple raceme, sparsely to densely brown- or greyish-pubescent or subglabrous; bracts small, ± linear-oblong, caducous; bracteoles similar, caducous.
    Flowers
    Flowers with a small hypanthium (receptacular disc). Flowers with a small hypanthium (receptacular disc).
    Calyx
    Calyx campanulate below, with 5 teeth 2–4 times as long as the campanulate part, the upper 2 remaining connate for most of their length, the whole calyx eventually falling as one piece. Calyx campanulate below, with 5 teeth 2–4 times as long as the campanulate part, the upper 2 remaining connate for most of their length, the whole calyx eventually falling as one piece.
    Corolla
    Petals white, greenish-white or violet, with dark purple veins, the standard with a purple or yellowish blotch near the base; standard suborbicular with a short claw, the limb usually reflexed; wings with a short claw up and a well-developed auricle at the base of the limb; keel petals with a claw up and a well-developed auricle. Petals white, greenish-white or violet, with dark purple veins, the standard with a purple or yellowish blotch near the base; standard suborbicular with a short claw, the limb usually reflexed; wings with a short claw up and a well-developed auricle at the base of the limb; keel petals with a claw up and a well-developed auricle.
    Ovary
    Ovary subsessile, pubescent with a long glabrous stipe. Ovary subsessile, pubescent with a long glabrous stipe.
    Fruits
    Pods indehiscent, variable in size and shape, ± flat, broadly oblong to linear-oblong, ± winged along the upper margin, slightly woody, glabrous and smooth or rarely pubescent, the proximal part often constricted to form a false stipe, the longer pods often also constricted about the middle. Pods indehiscent, variable in size and shape, ± flat, broadly oblong to linear-oblong, ± winged along the upper margin, slightly woody, glabrous and smooth or rarely pubescent, the proximal part often constricted to form a false stipe, the longer pods often also constricted about the middle.
    Seeds
    Seeds flat, oblong to suborbicular, reddish, with a small hilum; radicle short, straight. Seeds flat, oblong to suborbicular, reddish, with a small hilum; radicle short, straight.
    Distribution
    A genus of 4 or 5 species, one occurring in Sri Lanka and the Malay Archipelago to Micronesia, the others restricted to Africa.
    Habit
    Large shrubs or more usually trees. Large shrubs or more usually trees.
    Leaves
    Leaves with (5)7–12(13) leaflets, which usually appear alternate but are occasionally in opposite pairs, lateral leaflets with a single stipel at the base, terminal one with 2 usually unequal stipels. Leaves with (5)7–12(13) leaflets, which usually appear alternate but are occasionally in opposite pairs, lateral leaflets with a single stipel at the base, terminal one with 2 usually unequal stipels.
    [FTEA]

    Leguminosae, J. B. Gillett, R. M. Polhill & B. Verdcourt. Flora of Tropical East Africa. 1971

    Habit
    Trees or less commonly large shrubs
    Leaves
    Leaves (5)7–12(13)-foliolate; leaflets mostly exceeding 3 × 1.5 cm., usually appearing alternate but occasionally in opposite pairs; stipels generally present, single at base of lateral leaflets, paired and unequal at base of terminal one, sometimes obscured or lacking (not in E. Africa)
    Flowers
    Flowers in terminal panicles or rarely simple racemes; bracts and bracteoles ± linear-oblong, up to 3 mm. long, caducous
    Calyx
    Calyx campanulate below, with 5 teeth 2–4 times as long as the tube, the upper 2 remaining connate for most of their length, the whole calyx eventually falling as one piece
    Corolla
    Petals subequal in length, 1.2–2 cm. long; standard suborbicular with a short claw, the limb usually reflexed; wings with a short claw up to 3 mm. long and a well-developed auricle at the base of the limb; keel-petals with a claw up to 5 mm. long and a well-developed auricle, free or lightly coherent along lower margin
    Stamens
    Stamens free; anthers dorsifixed
    Disc
    Intrastaminal disc present
    Pistil
    Ovary stipitate, sometimes shortly so, ± 2–8-ovulate; style incurved, hooked at apex, glabrous, with a small terminal stigma
    Fruits
    Fruit ± flat, oblong to linear-oblong, ± winged along upper margin and generally also along lower margin, the proximal part often constricted to form a false stipe, the larger pods often also constricted about the middle, slightly woody, indehiscent
    Seeds
    Seeds flat, oblong to suborbicular, reddish; hilum small; radicle short, straight.
    [LOWO]
    Use
    Various species ( satinwood; afrormosia, obang, nandu, nedun ) provide excellent timber which is a substitute for teak in cabinet work and furniture making; also used as a popular medicine and as an arrow poison; P. angolensis (Baker) van Meeuwen (muvange, mbanga) is a multi-purpose species, being used for charcoal, crafts, domestic uses (pestles, mortars), fencing (posts), firewood, furniture, gum, land improvement (nitrogen fixing), medicine, rituals (used to chase away witchcraft) and timber (e.g., railway sleepers)

    Images

    Distribution

    Native to:

    Angola, Benin, Borneo, Burkina, Burundi, Cameroon, Central African Repu, Chad, Congo, Gambia, Ghana, Guinea, Guinea-Bissau, Ivory Coast, Lesser Sunda Is., Malawi, Malaya, Mali, Mozambique, New Guinea, Niger, Nigeria, Philippines, Rwanda, Senegal, Sierra Leone, Sri Lanka, Sudan, Sulawesi, Sumatera, Tanzania, Togo, Zambia, Zaïre, Zimbabwe

    Introduced into:

    Uganda

    Pericopsis Thwaites appears in other Kew resources:

    First published in Enum. Pl. Zeyl.: 413 (1864)

    Literature

    Flora Zambesiaca
    • Meeuwen in Bull. Jard. Bot. État 32: 213–219 (1962).
    • —Meeuwen in Bull. Jard. Bot. État 32: 213–219 (1962).
    • Enum. Pl. Zeyl.: 413 (1864).
    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    • van Meeuwen in B.J.B.B. 32: 213–219 (1962)
    • Enum. Pl. Zeyl.: 413 (1864)

    Sources

    Flora Zambesiaca
    Flora Zambesiaca
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Kew Backbone Distributions
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2018. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

    Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2018. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

    Legumes of the World Online
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0