1. Family: Fabaceae Lindl.
    1. Physostigma Balf.

      1. This genus is accepted, and is native to Africa..

    [FZ]

    Leguminosae, B. Mackinder, R. Pasquet, R. Polhill & B. Verdcourt. Flora Zambesiaca 3:5. 2001

    Leaves
    Leaves pinnately 3-foliolate; stipules persistent, not spurred, ribbed; stipels persistent.
    Inflorescences
    Inflorescences either axillary on leafy stems or appearing terminal on leafless shoots, pseudoracemose, many-flowered; rhachis sometimes swollen at the insertion of the pedicels.
    Flowers
    Flowers mostly showy, white to purple.
    Calyx
    Calyx 5-lobed, 2-lipped, the lower 3 lobes ovate-triangular, the upper pair of lobes united to form an entire or bifid lip.
    Corolla
    Standard auriculate but without appendages, glabrous; keel with marked basal spur, apex beaked, spirally twisted.
    Stamens
    Vexillary stamen free; anthers 5 dorsifixed alternating with 5basifixed.
    Pistil
    Ovary linear, 2–12-ovuled; style long, incurved for over 360°, narrowed below, thickened above, longitudinally barbate near the apex, furnished at the apex above the oblique stigma with a dorsal appendage.
    Fruits
    Pods linear or linear-oblong, often curved, the valves sometimes twisting after dehiscence.
    Seeds
    Seeds large or small, ellipsoid or subcylindrical; hilum linear or elliptic to ovate; aril absent.
    Habit
    Herbs or subshrubs, erect or climbing.
    [FTEA]

    Leguminosae, J. B. Gillett, R. M. Polhill & B. Verdcourt. Flora of Tropical East Africa. 1971

    Habit
    Herbs or subshrubs, erect or climbing
    Leaves
    Leaves pinnately 3-foliolate; stipules persistent, not spurred, ribbed; stipels persistent
    Inflorescences
    Inflorescences either axillary on leafy stems or appearing terminal on leafless shoots, pseudoracemose, many-flowered; rhachis sometimes swollen at the insertion of the pedicels
    Flowers
    Flowers mostly showy, white to purple
    Calyx
    Calyx 5-lobed, 2-lipped, the lower 3 lobes ovate-triangular, the upper pair of lobes united to form an entire or bifid lip
    Corolla
    Standard auriculate but without appendages, glabrous; keel with marked basal spur, apex beaked, spirally twisted
    Stamens
    Vexillary stamen free; anthers 5 dorsifixed alternating with 5 basifixed
    Pistil
    Ovary linear, 2–12-ovuled; style long, incurved for over 360°, narrowed below, thickened above, longitudinally barbate near the apex, furnished at the apex above the oblique stigma with a dorsal appendage
    Fruits
    Pods linear or linear-oblong, often curved, the valves sometimes twisting after dehiscence
    Seeds
    Seeds large or small, ellipsoid or subcylindrical; hilum linear or elliptic to ovate; aril absent.
    [LOWO]

    Legumes of the World. Edited by G. Lewis, B. Schrire, B. MacKinder & M. Lock. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. (2005)

    Note

    Previous accounts of the Phaseoleae by Baudet (1978) and Lackey (1981) recognised 90 and 84 genera and c. 1540 and 1480 species respectively in the tribe. In an equivalent, i.e. traditionally held view of Phaseoleae, 89 genera and (1554)–1567–(1580) species are treated here (Table 9; Fig. 47). Changes between Baudet (1978) and this treatment are that eleven genera are now in synonymy or have subsequently been placed in Millettieae, two genera have been transferred from Desmodieae and eight new genera have been added. Vigna has traditionally been thought to comprise some 150–200 species, but Vigna sens. strict. may contain fewer than 100.

    Recent molecular analyses of the tribe, however, have emphasised both the polyphyletic and paraphyletic nature of Phaseoleae as traditionally circumscribed (Bruneau & Doyle, 1990; Doyle & Doyle, 1993; Delgado Salinas et al., 1993; Bruneau et al., 1995; Doyle et al., 1997, 2000; Kajita et al., 2001; Goel et al., 2001; Lee & Hymowitz, 2001). This has required a radical realignment of elements of the phaseoloids (Table 9; Fig. 47), with at least two major clades being evident: Phaseoleae subtribes Diocleinae and Ophrestiinae which together with tribe Abreae are allied to the core-Millettieae (Fig. 45), and the remaining groups comprising a Phaseoleae sens. lat. clade. The rbcL phylogeny of Kajita et al. (2001) and the ITS analysis of Hu et al. (2002) are equivocal as to which clade subtribe Clitoriinae belongs. Phaseoleae sens. lat. also includes two traditionally independent tribes, the Desmodieae and Psoraleeae. Delimiting a recircumscribed Phaseoleae sens. strict is thus very problematic. A solution may be to recognise a broad tribe Phaseoleae, comprising the subtribes Kennediinae, Cajaninae, Phaseolinae and Glycininae, assorted basally branching genera, and tribes Desmodieae and Psoraleeae (both treated at subtribal level).

    Placed in subtribe Phaseolinae, in a clade basally branching to Vigna (q.v.) (Thulin et al., 2004)
    Habit
    Herbs or subshrubs
    Ecology
    Wet tropical swamp and riverine vegetation, to seasonally dry forest or open woodland and grassland
    Distribution
    Africa (Guinea-Congolian and Zambezian regions)
    [LOWO]
    Use
    The seeds of the calabar or ordeal bean (P. venenosum Balf.) contain alkaloids and are toxic, but they have various medicinal uses; seeds of some species are common drift seeds

    Images

    Distribution

    Native to:

    Angola, Cameroon, Central African Repu, Congo, Equatorial Guinea, Gabon, Ghana, Gulf of Guinea Is., Ivory Coast, Liberia, Malawi, Mali, Mozambique, Nigeria, Sierra Leone, Tanzania, Zambia, Zaïre

    Physostigma Balf. appears in other Kew resources:

    First published in Trans. Roy. Soc. Edinburgh 22: 310 (1861)

    Literature

    Flora of West Tropical Africa
    • —F.T.A. 2: 191.
    Flora Zambesiaca
    • Gillett in Kew Bull. 20: 104 (1966).
    • in Trans. Roy. Soc. Edinburgh 22: 310, t. 16 (1861).
    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    • Gillett in K.B. 20: 104 (1966)
    • in Trans. Roy. Soc. Edinb. 22: 310, t. 16 (1861)

    Sources

    Flora Zambesiaca
    Flora Zambesiaca
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Kew Backbone Distributions
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2018. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

    Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2018. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

    Legumes of the World Online
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0