1. Family: Fabaceae Lindl.
    1. Genus: Senna Mill.
      1. Senna obtusifolia (L.) H.S.Irwin & Barneby

        This species is accepted, and its native range is Tropical & Subtropical America.

    [ILDIS]

    International Legume Database and Information Service

    Conservation
    Not Threatened
    Ecology
    Africa: Guinea-Congolia/Sudania regional transition zone; anthropic landscapes., Somalia-Masai anthropic landscapes, Sahel regional transition zone - wooded grassland., Zambezian anthropic landscapes., Sudanian anthropic landscapes
    Habit
    Annual/Perennial, Not climbing, Herb/Shrub
    Vernacular
    Akondrondolo, Brusca Cimarrona, Brusca Hembra, Chakwar, Charamazca, Coffee Weed, Coffeeweed, Dormidera, Fedegosa, Fedegoso, Hediondilla, Low Senna, Matapasto, Pistache Marron, Sicklepod, Taperiva
    [FZ]

    Leguminosae, R.K. Brummitt, A.C. Chikuni, J.M. Lock and R.M. Polhill. Flora Zambesiaca 3:2. 2007

    Habit
    Annual or short-lived perennial shrub or woody herb 0.5–2 m tall.
    Branches
    Branchlets pale grey-brown, glabrous, longitudinally ridged when young, later terete.
    Leaves
    Leaves paripinnate; stipules 7–9 mm long, linear, with ciliate margins, caducous; petiole 2.5–3.9 cm long, sparsely pubescent; rachis 1.5–2.6 cm long, sparsely pubescent, glabrescent, with a terete reddish gland 1–1.5 mm long between the proximal leaflet pair and sometimes a similar but smaller gland between the middle leaflet pair; leaflets in (2)3 pairs, 2.9–5.7 × 1.8–2.9 cm (smaller in stunted or dry-season material), the distal largest, broadly elliptic to broadly obovate, base cuneate or rounded, slightly asymmetric, apex obtuse to rounded or retuse, often mucronate, glabrous except for the pubescent margin and scattered hairs on the midrib beneath; petiolules 1–2 mm long, pubescent.
    Inflorescences
    Inflorescences axillary, 1–2-flowered; bracts 3–4 mm long, linear, with ciliate margins, caducous; peduncle very short; pedicels 1.2–2 cm long at anthesis.
    Hypanthium
    Hypanthium with reddish glands.
    Calyx
    Sepals 5, two c.8 × 5 mm, three 5–6 × 3–4 mm, elliptic to obovate, glabrous except for the ciliate margins which also bear scattered reddish glands.
    Corolla
    Petals orange to yellow, 14–16 × 7–9 mm, including a claw c.2 mm long, obovate, slightly unequal.
    Androecium
    Stamens 10; three fertile with anthers 4–5 mm long and filaments 3–4 mm long, four fertile with anthers c.2 mm long and filaments c.2 mm long; two trumpet-shaped staminodes 2–3 mm long and one linear staminode c.2 mm long.
    Pistil
    Ovary c.15 mm long, terete, appressed pubescent; style 2–2.5 mm long, glabrous; stigma terminal, oblique, trumpet-shaped.
    Fruits
    Pod 13–20 × 0.5–0.7 cm, linear, falcately curved or straight, elliptic in section, acuminate at apex, tardily dehiscent along both sutures.
    Seeds
    Seeds olive-brown, c.5 × 2–3 mm, rhomboid, with a linear areole on each broad face.
    [FTEA]

    Leguminosae, J. B. Gillett, R. M. Polhill & B. Verdcourt. Flora of Tropical East Africa. 1971

    Habit
    Annual or perennial herb or undershrub 0.6–2(–2.4) m. high.
    Stem
    Stems ± pubescent.
    Leaves
    Leaves:petiole eglandular; rhachis with a prominent cylindrical gland between each of the 1–2 lower pairs of leaflets. Stipules linear or filiform. Leaflets in 3 pairs, obovate, (1–)1.5–5(–6) cm. long, (0.5–)1–3(–3.9) cm. wide, rounded or abruptly narrowed above to a usually mucronate apex, ± pubescent to subglabrous on surfaces.
    Inflorescences
    Racemes 1–2-flowered, the peduncle usually (not always) very short, the flowers thus usually appearing axillary.
    Pedicel
    Pedicels (0.5–)1.5–3.5 cm. long in flower, 1.5–4.5 cm. long in fruit.
    Calyx
    Sepals rounded at apex.
    Corolla
    Petals yellow, obovate, 0.95–1.9 cm. long.
    Stamens
    Stamens:3 lower largest, with anthers 3–4.5(–7) mm. long and narrowed shortly below their apex like the neck of a bottle; 4 stamens somewhat smaller; 3 very small and reduced.
    Fruits
    Pods linear, straight or ± curved, tapering at base and apex, (6–)13–23 cm. long, (0.4–)0.5–0.6(–0.7) cm. wide, dehiscent, subterete and ± angled longitudinally.
    Seeds
    Seeds many, brown, ± rhombic or ovoid, 4.5–6.5 × 2–4 mm.; areoles linear, very narrow, 3–4.5 × 0.3–0.5 mm.
    Habitat
    Grassland, and a weed in cultivated ground, by roadsides and on waste ground near habitations; often recorded as growing near pools, in river-beds and near water; ? near sea-level to 1680 m.
    Distribution
    K2 K3 K4 K5 K7 P T1 T2 T3 T4 T5 T6 T7 T8 pantropical, extending northwards into southern U.S.A.
    [ILDIS]
    Use
    Chemical products, Food and Drink, Medicine, Miscellaneous, Weed

    Images

    Distribution

    Native to:

    Argentina Northeast, Argentina Northwest, Bahamas, Belize, Bolivia, Brazil North, Brazil Northeast, Brazil South, Brazil Southeast, Brazil West-Central, Cayman Is., Colombia, Costa Rica, Dominican Republic, Ecuador, French Guiana, Galápagos, Guyana, Haiti, Honduras, Jamaica, Kentucky, Leeward Is., Mexican Pacific Is., Mexico Central, Mexico Gulf, Mexico Northeast, Mexico Northwest, Mexico Southeast, Mexico Southwest, Netherlands Antilles, Nicaragua, Panamá, Paraguay, Peru, Puerto Rico, Southwest Caribbean, Suriname, Trinidad-Tobago, Venezuela, Venezuelan Antilles, Windward Is.

    Introduced into:

    Alabama, Angola, Bangladesh, Benin, Botswana, Burkina, Burundi, Cameroon, Cape Verde, Central African Repu, Chad, Comoros, Congo, Djibouti, Eritrea, Ethiopia, Gabon, Gambia, Ghana, Guinea, Guinea-Bissau, Gulf of Guinea Is., Hawaii, Illinois, India, Iraq, Ivory Coast, Jawa, Kenya, Liberia, Libya, Madagascar, Malawi, Malaya, Mali, Mauritania, Missouri, Mozambique, Namibia, New Guinea, Niger, Nigeria, North Carolina, Northern Provinces, Northern Territory, Oman, Pakistan, Queensland, Rwanda, Réunion, Saudi Arabia, Senegal, Sierra Leone, Socotra, Somalia, Sri Lanka, Sudan, Tanzania, Tennessee, Texas, Togo, Uganda, West Himalaya, Western Australia, Yemen, Zambia, Zaïre, Zimbabwe

    Senna obtusifolia (L.) H.S.Irwin & Barneby appears in other Kew resources:

    Date Reference Identified As Barcode Type Status
    Apr 1, 2014 Maggs, C.M. [I.85], Ecuador K001088300
    Jan 1, 2014 Sprague, T.A. [s.n.], Venezuela K000967405
    Jan 1, 2014 Fendler, A. [92] K000966921
    Jan 1, 2014 Fendler, A. [s.n.] K000966922
    Jan 1, 2014 Fendler, A. [s.n.] K000966923
    Jan 1, 2014 Fendler, A. [1856], Venezuela K000967404
    Jan 1, 2014 Fendler [1856], Venezuela K000966919
    Jan 1, 2014 Bernoulli [1267], Guatemala K000966918
    Jan 1, 2014 Anderson, B. [1804], Colombia K000967406
    Jan 1, 2014 Howell, John Thomas [9730], Ecuador K001088301
    Jan 1, 2014 Smith, Herbert H. [31], Colombia K000967408
    Jan 1, 2014 Smith, Herbert H. [71], Colombia K000967409
    Jan 1, 2014 Heywood, V. [30/76] K000966924
    Jan 1, 2014 Jameson [569 (units digit indistinct)], Ecuador K000967403
    Jan 1, 2014 Prior, Alexander [s.n.], Jamaica K000966920
    Jan 1, 2014 Allen, Cyril [90], Colombia K000967407
    Jan 1, 2014 Sandeman, Christopher [2258], Peru K000966917
    Dec 5, 2012 Guillen, R. [4224], Bolivia K001088168
    Jan 1, 2012 Tollervey, F.E. [1777], Bolivia K001088299
    Apr 14, 2008 Ramiro Fonnegra, G. [#8899], Colombia K000967410
    Jan 1, 2006 Steinbach, Jose [6575], Bolivia K001088296
    May 1, 2005 Etuge, M. [5115], Cameroon K000338202
    Jan 1, 2005 Neill, D. [11174], Ecuador K001088178
    Jan 1, 2005 Barthelat, F. [1354], Mayotte K000564927
    Nov 1, 1999 Klitgaard, B.B. [431], Ecuador K001088176
    Nov 1, 1999 Klitgaard, B.B. [509], Ecuador K001088179
    Nov 1, 1999 Klitgaard, B.B. [s.n.], Ecuador K001088180
    Nov 1, 1999 Folli, D.A. [2729], Espírito Santo K000840700
    Jan 1, 1998 Vasquez, Yanira [s.n.], Venezuela K001088183
    Jan 1, 1998 Stannard, Brian L. [44], Venezuela K001088294
    Jan 1, 1998 Stannard, Brian L. [s.n.], Venezuela K001088295
    Jul 1, 1997 Leeuwenberg, A.J.M. [8495], Cameroon K000092594
    Jan 1, 1997 Castroviejo, S. [7227MV], Panama K001088181
    Jan 1, 1997 Castroviejo, S. [13118 SC], Panama K001088182
    Jan 1, 1996 Jardim, A. [394], Bolivia K001088336
    Jan 1, 1996 Guillen, R. [3656], Bolivia K001088171
    Jan 1, 1996 Guillen, R. [3342], Bolivia K001088172
    Jan 1, 1996 Killeeen, T.J. [6325], Bolivia K001088169
    Jul 1, 1995 Nascimento, M.S.B. [1043], Piauí K000055459
    Jul 1, 1995 Nascimento, M.S.B. [1043], Piauí K000055538
    Jan 1, 1995 Saldias, M. [2956], Bolivia K001088174
    Jan 1, 1995 Guareco, Ignacio [247], Bolivia K001088175
    Jun 1, 1994 Filho, F.G.A. [321], Piauí K000055537
    Nov 1, 1988 Queiroz, L.P. [1710], Bahia K000055822
    Sep 8, 1988 Eden, M.J. [60], Roraima K000840696
    Jan 1, 1988 Vargas, E. [2028], Bolivia K001088170
    Jan 1, 1988 Neill, D. [7834], Ecuador K001088177
    Jan 1, 1984 Pedra do Cavalo, G. [87], Bahia K000055819
    Dec 1, 1983 Zarucchi, J.L. [3227], Amazonas K000840698
    Jun 14, 1983 Coradin, L. [5681], Goiás K000840699
    Jan 1, 1983 Hatschbach, G. [46345], Bahia K000055820
    Jan 1, 1983 Hage, J.L. [771], Bahia K000055824
    Jun 7, 1982 Winder, J.A. [s.n.], Rio de Janeiro K000840711
    May 1, 1981 St. G. Beck [6571], Bolivia K001088173
    Jan 1, 1981 Harley, R.M. [21095], Bahia K000055823
    Jan 1, 1978 Harley, R.M. [19988], Bahia K000055825
    Jan 1, 1923 Lützelburg, P. [437], Rio de Janeiro K000840705
    Hinton, G.B. [11617], Mexico K000119624
    Hinton, G.B. [6021], Mexico K000119626
    Hinton, G.B. [9360], Mexico K000119627
    Trail, J.W.H. [171], Brazil K000055816
    Hooker [s.n.] K000840710
    Hooker, J.D. [s.n.], Bahia K000055817
    Lewis, G.P., Brazil 51489.000
    Rico, L. [1375], Bolivia K000295426
    Rico, L. [1386], Bolivia K000295398
    Rico, L. [1500], Bolivia K000295345
    Burchell [10063], Brazil K000840712
    Burchell [1198], Brazil K000840713
    Burchell [6931], Brazil K000840714
    Burchell [899], Rio de Janeiro K000840715
    Burchell [8749], Brazil K000840719
    Burchell [9079], Brazil K000840720
    Burchell [8648], Brazil K000840721
    Burchell [1013], Rio de Janeiro K000840722
    Tweedie [1162], Rio de Janeiro K000840707
    Vogel [21], Niger K000417524
    Irwin, H.S. [15320], Brazil K000840694
    Irwin, H.S. [6852], Mato Grosso K000840695
    Eiten, G. [4514], Maranhão K000840690
    Eiten, G. [4514], Maranhão K000840691
    Eiten, G. [3567], Tocantins K000840692
    Eiten, G. [4052], Maranhão K000840716
    Preston, T.A. [s.n.], Pernambuco K000055826
    Anderson, W.R. [7699], Goiás K000840701
    Anderson, W.R. [9047], Minas Gerais K000840702
    Castellanos, A. [26002], Bahia K000055821
    Bolland, G. [s.n.], Ceará K000055818
    Moseley [s.n.], Pernambuco K000840708
    Montes, J.E. [s.n.], Argentina K001259327
    Krukoff, B.A. [1091], Brazil K000840706
    Archer, W.A. [7775], Pará K000840689
    Blanchet, J.S. [3012], Bahia K000055815
    Harris [s.n.], Minas Gerais K000840718
    Brande, [P.] [309], Congo, DRC K000232487
    Millett [s.n.], Madagascar K000417525
    Boteler [s.n.], Gambia K000417526
    Prance, G.T. [9516], Roraima K000840693
    Prance, G.T. [12521], Acre K000840697
    Mexia, Y. [4542], Minas Gerais K000840688
    Williams, R.S. [537], Bolivia K001088298
    Glaziou, A. [13749], Rio de Janeiro K000840717
    s.coll. [s.n.], Bahia K000840709
    Lützelburg, P. [437], Rio de Janeiro K000840703
    Lützelburg, P. [437], Rio de Janeiro K000840704
    Belshaw, Charles M. [3258], Peru K000967411
    Steinbach, Jose [7019], Bolivia K001088297
    Petersen, Troels Myndel [2628], Argentina K001259326
    Gossweiler, Johannes [1341], Angola K001276449

    First published in Mem. New York Bot. Gard. 35: 252 (1982)

    Accepted by

    • Forzza, R.C., Zappi, D. & Souza, V.C. (2016-continuously updated). Flora do Brasil 2020 em construção http://reflora.jbrj.gov.br/reflora/listaBrasil/ConsultaPublicaUC/ResultadoDaConsultaNovaConsulta.do.
    • Souza, V.C. & al. (2016). Flora dos Estados de Goiás e Tocantins 48: 1-147. Universidade federal de Goiás.
    • Baksh-Comeau, Y., Maharaj, S.S., Adams, C.D., Harris, S.A., Filer, D.L. & Hawthorne, W.D. (2016). An annotated checklist of the vascular plants of Trinidad and Tobago with analysis of vegetation types and botanical 'hotspots' Phytotaxa 250: 1-431.
    • Villaseñor, J.L. (2016). Checklist of the native vascular plants of Mexico Revista Mexicana de Biodiversidad 87: 559-902.
    • de Moura Júnior, E.G. & al. (2015). Updated checklist of aquatic macrophytes from Northern Brazil Acta Amazonica 45: 111-132.
    • Bailey, C. & al. (2015). Guide to the Vascular Plants of Tennessee: 1-813. University of Tennessee press.
    • Lepschi, B. & Monro, A. (Project Coordinators) (2014). Australian Plant Census (APC) Council of Heads of Australian Herbaria. http://www.anbg.gov.au/chah/apc/index.html.
    • Filimban, F.Z. & al. (2014). Studies in the flora of Arabia: XXX Edinburgh Journal of Botany 71: 117-132.
    • Sikarwar, R.L.S. (2014). Angiosperm diversity assessment of Chitrakootthe legendary place of Vindhyan range, India Journal of Economic and Taxonomic Botany 38: 563-619.
    • Velayos, M., Barberá, P., Cabezas, F.J., de la Estrella, M., Fero, M. & Aedo, C. (2014). Checklist of the vascular plants of Annobón (Equatorial Guinea) Phytotaxa 171: 1-78.
    • Mohlenbrock, R.H. (2014). Vascular Flora of Illinois. A Field Guide, ed. 4: 1-536. Southern Illinois University Press, Carbondale.
    • da Silva e Silva, W.L., Cajueiro Gurgel, E.S., Moreira dos Santos, J.U. & Falcão da Silva, M. (2013). Inventário e distribuição geográfica de Leguminosae no arquipélago de Marajó, PA, Brazil Hoehnea 40: 627-647.
    • Jørgensen, P.M., Nee, M.H. & Beck., S.G. (eds.) (2013). Catálogo de las plantas vasculares de Bolivia Monographs in Systematic Botany from the Missouri Botanical Garden 127: 1-1741. Missouri Botanical Garden.
    • Goodwin, Z.A. & al. (2013). A checklist of the vascular plants of the lowland savannas of Belize, Central America Phytotaxa 101: 1-119.
    • Mostaph, M.K. & Uddin, S.B. (2013). Dictionary of plant names of Bangladesh, Vasc. Pl.: 1-434. Janokalyan Prokashani, Chittagong, Bangladesh.
    • Acevedo-Rodríguez, P. & Strong, M.T. (2012). Catalogue of seed plants of the West Indies Smithsonian Contributions to Botany 98: 1-1192.
    • Garcia-Mendoza, A.J. & Meave, J.A. (eds.) (2012). Diversidad florística de Oaxaca: de musgos a angiospermas (colecciones y listas de especies), ed. 2: 1-351. Instituto de Biología, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México.
    • Oppenheimer, H. (2011). New Hawaiian plant records for 2009 Bishop Museum Occasional Papers 110: 5-10.
    • Idárraga-Piedrahita, A., Ortiz, R.D.C., Callejas Posada, R. & Merello, M. (eds.) (2011). Flora de Antioquia: Catálogo de las Plantas Vasculares 2: 1-939. Universidad de Antioquia, Medellín.
    • Kral, R., Diamond, A.R., Ginzbarg, S.L., Hansen, C.J., Haynes, R.R., Keener, B.R., Lelong, M.G., Spaulding, D.D. & Woods, M. (2011). Annotated checklist of the vascular plants of Alabama: 1-112. Botanical reseach institute of Texas.
    • Hammel, B.E., Grayum, M.H., Herrera & C. & Zamora, N. (eds.) (2010). Manual de plantas de Costa Rica volumen V. Dicotiledóneas (Clusiaceae-Gunneraceae) Monographs in Systematic Botany from the Missouri Botanical Garden 119: 1-970. Missouri Botanical Garden.
    • Lejoy, J., Ndjele, M.-B. & Geerinck, D. (2010). Catalogue-flore des plantes vasculaires des districts de Kisangani et de la Tshopo (RD Congo) Taxonomania 30: 1-307.
    • Flores-Palacios, A., Martínez-Gómez, J.E. & Curry, R.L. (2009). La vegetación de isla Socorro, archipiélago de Revillagigedo, México Boletin de la Sociedad Botanica de México 84: 13-23.
    • Lisowski, S. (2009). Flore (Angiospermes) de la République de Guinée Scripta Botanica Belgica 41: 1-517.
    • Zuloaga, F.O., Morrone, O. , Belgrano, M.J., Marticorena, C. & Marchesi, E. (eds.) (2008). Catálogo de las Plantas Vasculares del Cono Sur Monographs in Systematic Botany from the Missouri Botanical Garden 107: 1-3348. Missouri Botanical Garden.
    • Figueiredo, E. & Smith, G.F. (2008). Plants of Angola Strelitzia 22: 1-279. National Botanical Institute, Pretoria.
    • Hokche, O., Berry, P.E. & Huber, O. (eds.) (2008). Nuevo Catálogo de la Flora Vascular de Venezuela: 1-859. Fundación Instituto Botánico de Venezuela.
    • Nelson Sutherland, C.H. (2008). Catálogo de las plantes vasculares de Honduras. Espermatofitas: 1-1576. SERNA/Guaymuras, Tegucigalpa, Honduras.
    • Brummitt, R.K., Chikuni, A.C., Lock, J.M. & Polhill, R.M. (2007). 61. Leguminosae Subfamily Caesalpinioideae Flora Zambesiaca 3(2): 1-218. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Ghazanfar, S.A. (2007). Flora of the Sultanate of Oman. volume 2. Crassulaceae - Apiaceae Scripta Botanica Belgica 36: 1-220.
    • Catarino, L., Martins, E.S., Diniz, M.A. & Pinto-Basto, M.F. (2006). Check-list da flora vascular do parque natural das Lagos de Cufada (Guiné-Bissau) Garcia de Orta, Série de Botânica 17: 97-141.
    • Akoègninou, A., van der Burg, W.J. & van der Maesen, L.J.G. (eds.) (2006). Flore Analytique du Bénin: 1-1034. Backhuys Publishers.
    • Jones, R.L. (2005). Plant life of Kentucky. An illustrated guide to the vascular flora: 1-833. The universitry press of Kentucky.
    • Lock, J.M. & Ford, C.S. (2004). Legumes of Malesia a Check-List: 1-295. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Miller, A.G. & Morris, M. (2004). Ethnoflora of Soqotra Archipelago: 1-759. The Royal Botanic Garden, Edinburgh.
    • Germishuizen, G. & Meyer, N.L. (eds.) (2003). Plants of Southern Africa an annotated checklist Strelitzia 14: 1-1231. National Botanical Institute, Pretoria.
    • Kumar, S. & Sane, P.V. (2003). Legumes of South Asia. A Checklist: 1-536. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Du Puy, D.J., Labat, N.-N., Rabevohitra, R., Villiers, J.-F., Bosser, J. & Moat, J. (2002). The Leguminosae of Madagascar: 1-737. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Stevens, W.D., Ulloa U., C., Pool, A. & Montiel, O.M. (2001). Flora de Nicaragua Monographs in Systematic Botany from the Missouri Botanical Garden 85: i-xlii, 1-2666. Missouri Botanical Garden.
    • Balick, M.J., Nee, M.H. & Atha, D.E. (2000). Checklist of the Vascular Plants of Belize with Common Names an Uses: 1-246. New Yourk Botanic Garden Press, New York.
    • Jørgensen, P.M. & León-Yánes, S. (eds.) (1999). Catalogue of the Vascular Plants of Ecuador: 1-1181. Missouri Botanical Garden Press, St. Louis.
    • Isely, D. (1998). Native and Naturalized Leguminosae (Fabaceae) of the United States: 1-1007. Monte L. Bean Life Science Museum. Brigham Young University, Provo, Utah.
    • Boggan, J. Funck, V. & Kelloff, C. (1997). Checklist of the Plants of the Guianas (Guyana, Surinam, Franch Guiana) ed. 2: 1-238. University of Guyana, Georgetown.
    • Cirilo, N. & Proctor, G.R. (1994). Vascular plants of the Caribbean Swan islands of Honduras Brenesia 41-42: 73-80.
    • Brako, L. & Zarucchi, J.L. (1993). Catalogue of the Flowering Plants and Gymnosperms of Peru Monographs in Systematic Botany from the Missouri Botanical Garden 45: i-xl, 1-1286. Missouri Botanical Garden.
    • Thulin, M. (ed.) (1993). Flora of Somalia 1: 1-493. The Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Polhill, R.M. (1990). Flore des Mascareignes 80: 1-235. IRD Éditions, MSIRI, RBG-Kew, Paris.
    • Hedberg, I. & Edwards, S. (eds.) (1989 publ. 1990). Flora of Ethiopia and Eritrea 3: 1-659. The National Herbarium, Addis Ababa University, Ethiopia & The Department of Systematic Botany, Upps.
    • Levin, G.A. & Moran, R. (1989). The vascular flora of isla Socorro, Mexico: 1-71. Dept. of Botany, San Diego Natural History Museum, San Diego.
    • Lock, J.M. (1989). Legumes of Africa a check-list: 1-619. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • D'Arcy, W.G. (1987). Flora of Panama. Checklist and Index. Monographs in Systematic Botany from the Missouri Botanical Garden 17: 1-328. Missouri Botanical Garden.

    Literature

    Kew Backbone Distributions
    • Forzza, R.C., Zappi, D. & Souza, V.C. (2016-continuously updated). Flora do Brasil 2020 em construção http://reflora.jbrj.gov.br/reflora/listaBrasil/ConsultaPublicaUC/ResultadoDaConsultaNovaConsulta.do.
    • Baksh-Comeau, Y., Maharaj, S.S., Adams, C.D., Harris, S.A., Filer, D.L. & Hawthorne, W.D. (2016). An annotated checklist of the vascular plants of Trinidad and Tobago with analysis of vegetation types and botanical 'hotspots' Phytotaxa 250: 1-431.
    • Villaseñor, J.L. (2016). Checklist of the native vascular plants of Mexico Revista Mexicana de Biodiversidad 87: 559-902.
    • Bailey, C. & al. (2015). Guide to the Vascular Plants of Tennessee: 1-813. University of Tennessee press.
    • Lepschi, B. & Monro, A. (Project Coordinators) (2014). Australian Plant Census (APC) Council of Heads of Australian Herbaria. http://www.anbg.gov.au/chah/apc/index.html.
    • Filimban, F.Z. & al. (2014). Studies in the flora of Arabia: XXX Edinburgh Journal of Botany 71: 117-132.
    • Mohlenbrock, R.H. (2014). Vascular Flora of Illinois. A Field Guide, ed. 4: 1-536. Southern Illinois University Press, Carbondale.
    • da Silva e Silva, W.L., Cajueiro Gurgel, E.S., Moreira dos Santos, J.U. & Falcão da Silva, M. (2013). Inventário e distribuição geográfica de Leguminosae no arquipélago de Marajó, PA, Brazil Hoehnea 40: 627-647.
    • Jørgensen, P.M., Nee, M.H. & Beck., S.G. (eds.) (2013). Catálogo de las plantas vasculares de Bolivia Monographs in Systematic Botany from the Missouri Botanical Garden 127: 1-1741. Missouri Botanical Garden.
    • Goodwin, Z.A. & al. (2013). A checklist of the vascular plants of the lowland savannas of Belize, Central America Phytotaxa 101: 1-119.
    • Mostaph, M.K. & Uddin, S.B. (2013). Dictionary of plant names of Bangladesh, Vasc. Pl.: 1-434. Janokalyan Prokashani, Chittagong, Bangladesh.
    • Acevedo-Rodríguez, P. & Strong, M.T. (2012). Catalogue of seed plants of the West Indies Smithsonian Contributions to Botany 98: 1-1192.
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    Flora Zambesiaca
    Flora Zambesiaca
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    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Herbarium Catalogue Specimens
    'The Herbarium Catalogue, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Published on the Internet http://www.kew.org/herbcat [accessed on Day Month Year]'. Please enter the date on which you consulted the system.

    International Legume Database and Information Service
    International Legume Database and Information Service (ILDIS) V10.39 Nov 2011
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

    Kew Backbone Distributions
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2018. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

    Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2018. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

    Plants and People Africa
    Common Names from Plants and People Africa http://www.plantsandpeopleafrica.com/
    © Plants and People Africa http://www.plantsandpeopleafrica.com http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/