1. Family: Malvaceae Juss.
    1. Genus: Sida L.
      1. Sida rhombifolia L.

        This species is accepted, and its native range is Tropical & Subtropical Old World.

    [FWTA]

    Malvaceae, Hutchinson and Dalziel. Flora of West Tropical Africa 1:2. 1958

    Habit
    A widespread perennial weed
    Note
    Requiring further taxonomical study throughout its range.There appear to be three varieties in our area: — Sida rhombifolia var. α, Sida rhombifolia var. β and Sida rhombifolia var. γ
    [FZ]

    Malvaceae, A. W. Exell. Flora Zambesiaca 1:2. 1961

    Habit
    Annual or biennial herb or suffrutex or shrublet, up to c. 1 m. tall; erect, often ± virgate, usually not much branched; stems terete, grey or brown, stellate-pubescent to stellate-tomentose, ultimately glabrescent.
    Leaves
    Leaf-lamina 2–6 × 0·5–2·5 cm., oblong to lanceolate-oblong or somewhat rhomboid, shortly and sparsely stellate-pubescent or almost glabrous on the darker upper surface, shortly stellate-pubescent to velutinous on the pale lower surface, apex usually obtuse to rounded or rarely acute, margin finely crenate or subserrate, base broadly cuneate to rounded; petiole usually less than 5 mm. long; stipules c. 5. mm. long.
    Flowers
    Flowers pale yellow to cream, axillary, solitary; pedicels rarely exceeding 20 mm. long in flower and 35 mm. long in fruit.
    Calyx
    Calyx 4–5 mm. long, saucer- to cup-shaped, divided to about 1/3, stellate-velutinous or more sparsely pubescent, 10-nerved; lobes triangular, acute, sometimes mucronate.
    Corolla
    Petals c. 8 mm. long.
    Stamens
    Staminal tube glabrous or sparsely glandular-papillose.
    Fruits
    Mericarps 8–12, c. 4 mm. long, birostrate, with awns usually connivent until dehiscence of the fruit, glabrous except for the usually shortly pubescent awns.
    Seeds
    Seeds smooth and glabrous except for the pubescent area around the hilum.
    [FTEA]

    Malvaceae, Bernard Verdcourt & Geoffrey Mwachala. Pavonia, B Verdcourt; Kosteletzkya, OJ Blanchard Jr.; Gossypium, P Fryxell & B Verdcourt. Flora of Tropical East Africa. 2009

    Type
    Type: ? Jamaica, Linn. Herb. 886.3 (LINN!, lecto.) (left hand side fruiting specimen) (see note)
    Habit
    Perennial often subshrubby herb 0.3–2(–3) m tall.
    Stem
    Stems usually erect or ascending, stellate-pubescent or tomentose
    Leaves
    Leaves oblanceolate to ovate, elliptic or rhombic (some Asiatic infraspecific taxa have obcuneate leaves with a retuse apex), 0.5–13 × 0.3–6 cm, rounded to acuminate at the apex, cuneate to rounded at base, finely stellate-pubescent, with simple hairs or almost glabrous above, usually more densely so beneath, the hairs often of different sizes (densely tomentose in some New World varieties), serrate except near base sometimes; petiole 0.2–2.5 cm long; stipules linear, 3–8(–12) mm long
    Flowers
    Flowers solitary and/or in short axillary cymes sometimes aggregated at apex of shoots; pedicel 0.2–3.5(–6) cm long including up to 1.3 cm long joint; calyx 5–8 mm long, always 10-ribbed at base, the ribs distinctly yellowish, at least when dry, with scattered small and larger stellate hairs and sometimes long hairs, divided to middle into broadly ovate-triangular lobes, sometimes ciliate, glabrous inside
    Corolla
    Petals white or pale yellow to apricot, sometimes reddish or purplish at base, 6–12 mm long.
    Stamens
    Staminal column 1–3 mm long, with stalked glands and simple hairs
    Fruits
    Mericarps (7–)8–14, (2–)3–3.5 mm long, ± smooth to slightly or strongly reticulate-ribbed on back and sides and the outer margins often ± serrate in some varieties, glabrous, glandular or puberulous, dehiscent or indehiscent, the beak part with 1–2 short or long awns or without awns but splitting and appearing birostrate but with nothing or scarcely anything projecting beyond the outline of the mericarp (in one South American variety the awns are very long, pubescent and flexuous).
    [FWTA]

    Malvaceae, Hutchinson and Dalziel. Flora of West Tropical Africa 1:2. 1958

    Habit
    Woody herb, to 18 in. high, or procumbent
    Flowers
    Flowers pale orange, larger than the other related species.

    Images

    Distribution

    Native to:

    Angola, Bangladesh, Benin, Botswana, Burkina, Burundi, Cambodia, Cameroon, Cape Provinces, Cape Verde, Central African Repu, Chad, China South-Central, China Southeast, Christmas I., Congo, East Himalaya, Eritrea, Ethiopia, Free State, Gabon, Gambia, Ghana, Guinea, Guinea-Bissau, Gulf of Guinea Is., Hainan, India, Ivory Coast, Japan, Kazan-retto, KwaZulu-Natal, Laos, Lesotho, Lesser Sunda Is., Liberia, Malawi, Mali, Mauritania, Mozambique, Nansei-shoto, Nepal, Niger, Nigeria, Northern Provinces, Ogasawara-shoto, Philippines, Rwanda, Senegal, Sierra Leone, Sudan, Swaziland, Taiwan, Thailand, Togo, Vietnam, Yemen, Zambia, Zaïre, Zimbabwe

    Introduced into:

    Alabama, Aldabra, Andaman Is., Argentina Northeast, Argentina Northwest, Arkansas, Azores, Bahamas, Belize, Bermuda, Bolivia, Brazil North, Brazil Northeast, Brazil South, Brazil Southeast, Brazil Southeast, Brazil West-Central, Canary Is., Central American Pac, Chile Central, Colombia, Cook Is., Costa Rica, Cuba, Czechoslovakia, Dominican Republic, Easter Is., Ecuador, El Salvador, Fiji, Florida, French Guiana, Galápagos, Georgia, Gilbert Is., Guatemala, Guyana, Haiti, Honduras, Jamaica, Kansas, Korea, Leeward Is., Louisiana, Madeira, Marianas, Mauritius, Mexican Pacific Is., Mexico Central, Mexico Gulf, Mexico Northeast, Mexico Northwest, Mexico Southeast, Mexico Southwest, Mississippi, Mozambique Channel I, Nauru, New Caledonia, Nicaragua, Niue, Norfolk Is., North Carolina, Oklahoma, Panamá, Paraguay, Peru, Portugal, Puerto Rico, Réunion, Samoa, Sinai, Solomon Is., South Carolina, Suriname, Tennessee, Texas, Tokelau-Manihiki, Tonga, Trinidad-Tobago, Turks-Caicos Is., Tuvalu, Uruguay, Vanuatu, Venezuela, Venezuelan Antilles, Virginia, Wallis-Futuna Is., Windward Is.

    Sida rhombifolia L. appears in other Kew resources:

    Date Reference Identified As Barcode Type Status
    Jan 7, 2017 Hinton, G.B. [11445], Mexico K001105265
    Jan 7, 2017 Hinton, G.B. [10745], Mexico K001105289
    May 16, 2016 Hawkes, J.G. [2063], Honduras K001259182
    Jan 1, 2016 Hooker, J.D. [186], Cape Verde K001134098
    May 27, 2008 Clunie-Ross [126], Vanuatu K000224918 Unknown type material
    May 27, 2008 Phuong, V.X. et al. [595], Vietnam K000224916 Unknown type material
    Dec 1, 2006 Amith, J. [1050], Mexico K001105232
    Dec 1, 2006 Amith, J. [1173], Mexico K001105231
    Jan 1, 2004 Sanders, A.C. [11788], Mexico K001105259
    Nov 1, 2003 Cheek, M. [9308], Cameroon K000198135
    Nov 1, 2003 Cheek, M. [7917 A], Cameroon K000198136
    Dec 1, 2000 Etuge, M. [3426], Cameroon K000337657
    Dec 1, 2000 Etuge, M. [2337], Cameroon K000337660
    Dec 1, 2000 Pollard, B.J. [378], Cameroon K000337655
    Dec 1, 2000 Zapfack, L. [827], Cameroon K000337654
    Dec 1, 2000 Zapfack, L. [828], Cameroon K000337659
    Dec 1, 2000 Kamundi, D. [631], Cameroon K000337656
    Mar 1, 1997 Buzgo, M. [633], Cameroon K000337658
    Jan 1, 1993 Tchouto (Mbatchou), P. [357], Cameroon K000086077
    Jan 1, 1987 Tenorio L., P. [9820], Mexico K001105260
    Jan 1, 1937 Matuda, E. [96], Mexico K001105234
    Bally, P.R.O. [5376], Kenya 8860.000
    Harley, R.M. [1122], Brazil K001214821
    Darko, K.O. [521], Ghana 8858.000
    Hinton, G.B. [5721], Mexico K001105224
    Hinton, G.B. [5852], Mexico K001105223
    Hinton, G.B. [4659], Mexico K001105222
    Hinton, G.B. [1770], Mexico K001105220
    Hinton, G.B. [1685], Mexico K001105219
    Hinton, G.B. [4033], Mexico K001105221
    Hinton, G.B. [109], Mexico K001105218
    Hinton, G.B. [471], Mexico K001105217
    Hinton, G.B. [12490], Mexico K001105261
    Hinton, G.B. [13136], Mexico K001105264
    Morton, J.K. [0s.n.], Cameroon K000105312
    Sands, M.J.S. [1371], Papua New Guinea K000607642
    Gourlay, W.B. [48], Mexico K001105263
    Maitland, T.D. [118], Cameroon K000105296
    Maitland, T.D. [254], Cameroon K000105300
    Maitland, T.D. [0s.n.7], Cameroon K000105305
    Maitland, T.D. [809], Cameroon K000105310
    Griffith [s.n.], Brazil K001214853
    Lindeman, J.C. [13221], Brazil K001214860
    Armstrong [s.n.], Brazil K001214831
    Krapovickas, A. [42051], Brazil K001214820
    Krapovickas, A. [43959], Brazil K001214823
    Hage, J.L. [231], Brazil K001214858
    Virgo, K.J. [181], Mexico K001105262
    Irwin, H.S. [3804], Brazil K001214822
    Irwin, H.S. [15635], Brazil K001214812
    Salzmann [s.n.], Brazil K001214849
    Eiten, G. [1698], Brazil K001214843
    Eiten, G. [10326], Brazil K001214859
    Swainson [s.n.], Brazil K001214827
    Lima, A. [s.n.], Brazil K001214845
    Rose, J.N. [5352], Mexico K001105268
    Bourgeau, E. [1571], Mexico K001105244
    Bourgeau, E. [1721], Mexico K001105245
    Bourgeau, E. [2907], Mexico K001105241
    Bourgeau, E. [2641], Mexico K001105242
    Bourgeau, E. [562], Mexico K001105236
    Bourgeau, E. [34], Mexico K001105237
    Pringle, C.G. [4291], Mexico K001105286
    Pringle, C.G. [8490], Mexico K001105288
    Friedrichsthal [s.n.], Guatemala K001105269
    Cervi, A.C. [7161], Brazil K001214800
    Riedel [259], Brazil K001214844
    Krukoff, B.A. [1230], Brazil K001214815
    Mueller, F. [42], Brazil K001214852
    Gay, J. [s.n.], Peru K001105240
    Rogers [20463] K000240413
    Botteri [756], Mexico K001105225
    Botteri [758], Mexico K001105239
    Botteri [757], Mexico K001105271
    Botteri [759], Mexico K001105273
    Botteri [762], Mexico K001105274
    Botteri [761], Mexico K001105272
    Dusén, P. [9150], Brazil K001214828
    Harris [3000], Brazil K001214817
    Lowe, J. [4168], Brazil K001214824
    Migeod, F. [245], Cameroon K000105313
    Dunlap [30], Cameroon K000105309
    Wallich, N. [Cat. no. 1862], Myanmar K001114481
    Wallich, N. [Cat. no. 1862], India K001114486
    Wallich, N. [Cat. no. 1862], India K001114487
    Langlassé, E. [649], Mexico K001105227
    Hoehne, W. [13448], Brazil K001214803
    Anthony, A.W. [327], Mexico K001105247
    Morton, C.V. [2533], Mexico K001105283
    Ortega, R. [30], Mexico K001105280
    Chazaro B., M. [147], Mexico K001105277
    Fryxell, P.A. [728], Mexico K001105282
    Hora, F.M.D. [16], Brazil K001214816
    Marquez R., W. [281], Mexico K001105276
    Marquez R., W. [519], Mexico K001105279
    Hill, S.R. [12906], Brazil K001214855
    Lyonnet [215], Mexico K001105233
    Rambo, B. [46596], Brazil K001214842
    Rambo, B. [46071], Brazil K001214861
    Rambo, B. [45777], Brazil K001214863
    Costa, M.A.S. [500], Brazil K001214801
    Frame, D. [145], Brazil K001214864
    González Ortega, J. [5336], Mexico K001105229
    González Ortega, J. [530], Mexico K001105226
    Gouin [s.n.], Mexico K001105238
    Galeotti, H. [4076], Mexico K001105284
    Drumond [s.n.], USA K001105243
    Palmer, E. [202], Mexico K001105287
    Parry, C.C. [86], Mexico K001105270
    Mexia, Y. [4513], Brazil K001214825
    Mexia, Y. [4513], Brazil K001214826
    De Silva, F. [Cat. no. 1862] K001114480
    Sachet, M.-H. [315], Mexico K001105275
    Bartolomeu, J.G. [15198], Brazil K001214802
    Pabst, G.F. [9257], Brazil K001214818
    Santoro, J. [816], Brazil K001214819
    Gardner [323], Brazil K001214851
    Brunt, M.A. [696], Cameroon K000105294
    Brunt, M.A. [251], Cameroon K000105295
    Arséne, F. [s.n.], Mexico K001105246
    s.coll. [Cat. no. 1862] K001114482
    s.coll. [Cat. no. 1862] K001114483
    s.coll. [Cat. no. 1862] K001114484
    s.coll. [Cat. no. 1862] K001114485
    s.coll. [7], Cape Verde K001134099
    s.coll. [s.n.], Brazil K001214846
    s.coll. [1305], Brazil K001214850
    s.coll. [1305], Brazil K001214854
    s.coll. [s.n.], Brazil K001214856
    s.coll. [1310], Brazil K001214857
    s.coll. [s.n.], Brazil K001214862
    Burchell [4585], Brazil K001214813
    Burchell [s.n.], Brazil K001214814
    Burchell [8696], Brazil K001214829
    Burchell [s.n.], Brazil K001214830
    Burchell [s.n.], Brazil K001214832
    Burchell [4512], Brazil K001214833
    Burchell [2448], Brazil K001214804
    Burchell [2448], Brazil K001214805
    Burchell [8643], Brazil K001214806
    Burchell [9766], Brazil K001214807
    Burchell [9010], Brazil K001214808
    Burchell [739], Brazil K001214809
    Burchell [9765], Brazil K001214810
    Burchell [828], Brazil K001214811
    Burchell [8652], Brazil K001214834
    Burchell [8680], Brazil K001214835
    Burchell [2160], Brazil K001214836
    Burchell [4511], Brazil K001214837
    Burchell [6971], Brazil K001214838
    Burchell [6971], Brazil K001214839
    Burchell [8688], Brazil K001214840
    Burchell [8688], Brazil K001214841
    Tweedie [s.n.], Argentina K001214848
    Meissner [14], Mexico K001105235
    Moseley [s.n.], Cape Verde K001035834
    Moseley [s.n.], Cape Verde K001035835
    Nicolás, F. [817], Mexico K001105228
    Nicolás, F. [768], Mexico K001105267
    Gómez Chalaga, B. [387], Mexico K001105230
    Arsene, G. [5560], Mexico K001105266
    Nash, G.B. [2399], USA K001105285
    Hernández A., C. [124], Mexico K001105278
    Rosa R., M. [1], Mexico K001105281
    s.coll. [Cat. no. 1863] Sida rhomboidea K001114488
    s.coll. [Cat. no. 1863] Sida rhomboidea K001114489
    s.coll. [Cat. no. 1863] Sida rhomboidea K001114490
    Wallich, N. [Cat. no. 1866], Nepal Sida compressa K001114494
    Pradeep, A.K. [6018], Kerala Sida fryxellii K000659351 holotype
    s.coll. [Cat. no. 1869] Sida philippica K001114504
    Barson [276] Sida adjusta K000240428
    Ayres, P. B. [s.n.], Mauritius Sida adjusta K000240429 holotype

    First published in Sp. Pl.: 684 (1753)

    Accepted by

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    • Cervantes Aceves, N. (1992). La Familia Malvaceae en el Estado de Jalisco, Mexico: 1-393. Editorial Universidad de Guadalajara.
    • Zizka, G. (1991). Flowering plants of Easter island Palmarum Hortus Francofurtensis 3: 1-108.
    • Barry, J. P. & Celles, J.S. (1991). Flore de Mauritanie 1: 1-359. Centre Regional de Documentation Pedagogique, Nice.
    • Jones, M. (1991). A checklist of Gambian plants: 1-33. Michael Jones, The Gambia College.
    • Lebrun, J.p., Toutain, B., Gaston, A. & Boudet, G. (1991). Catalogue des Plantes Vasculaires du Burkina Faso: 1-341. Institut d' Elevage et de Médecine Vétérinaire des Pays Tropicaux, Maisons Alfort.
    • Levin, G.A. & Moran, R. (1989). The vascular flora of isla Socorro, Mexico: 1-71. Dept. of Botany, San Diego Natural History Museum, San Diego.
    • Hancock, I.R. & Henderson, C.P. (1988). Flora of the Solomon Islands Research Bulletin Dodo Creek Research Station 7: 1-203.
    • Fosberg, F.R. & Sachet, M.-H. (1987). Flora of the Gilbert Island, Kiribati, Checklist Atoll Research Bulletin 295: 1-33.
    • Bosser, J. & al. (eds.) (1987). Flore des Mascareignes 51-62: 1. IRD Éditions, MSIRI, RBG-Kew, Paris.
    • Kobayashi, S. & Ono, M. (1987). A Revised List of Vascular Plants Indigenous and Introduced to the Bonin (Ogasawara) and the Volcano (Kazan) Islands Ogasawara Research 13: 1-55.
    • Boudet, G., Lebrun, J.P. & Demange, R. (1986). Catalogue des plantes vasculaires du Mali: 1-465. Etudes d'Elevage et de Médecine Vétérinaire des Pays Tropicaux.
    • Morat, P. & Veillon, J.-M. (1985). Contributions à la conaissance de la végétation et de la flore de Wallis et Futuna Bulletin du Muséum National d'Histoire Naturelle. Section B, Adansonia 7: 259-329.
    • Troupin, G. (ed.) (1983). Flora du Rwanda 2: 1-603. Musee Royal de l'Afrique Centrale.
    • Smith, A.C. (1981). Flora Vitiensis Nova. A new flora for Fiji (Spermatophytes only) 2: 1-810. Pacific Tropical Botanical Garden, Lawai.
    • Berhaut, J. (1979). Flore illustrée du Sénégal 6: 1-636. Gouvernement du Sénégal, Ministère du développement rural direction des eaux et forêta, Dakar.
    • Boulvert, Y. (1977). Catalogue de la Flore de Centrafrique 1: 1-114. ORSTROM, Bangui.
    • Peyre de Fabregues, B. & Lebrun, J.-P. (1976). Catalogue des Plantes Vascularies du Niger: 1-433. Institut d' Elevage et de Médecine Vétérinaire des Pays Tropicaux, Maisons Alfort.
    • Fosberg, F.R. (1975). Vascular plants of Aitutaki Atoll Research Bulletin 190: 73-84.
    • Lebrun, J.-P., Audru, J., Gaston, A. & Mosnier, M. (1972). Catalogue des Plantes Vasculaires du Tchad Méridional: 1-289. Institut d' Elevage et de Médecine Vétérinaire des Pays Tropicaux, Maisons Alfort.
    • Sykes, W.R. (1970). Contributions to the flora of Niue Bulletin, New Zealand Department of Scientific and Industrial Research 200: 1-321.
    • Lewalle, J. (1970). Liste floristique et répartition altitudinale de la flore du Burundi occidental: 1-84. Université officielle de Bujumbura.
    • Tutin, T.G. & al. (eds.) (1968). Flora Europaea 2: 1-469. Cambridge University Press.
    • Exell, A.W. & Wild, H. (eds.) (1961). Flora Zambesiaca 1(2): 337-581. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Hutchinson, J., Dalziel, J.M. & Keay, R.W.J. (1954-1958). Flora of West Tropical Africa, ed. 2, 1: 1-828.
    • Robyns, W. & al. (eds.) (1948-1963). Flore du Congo Belge et du Ruanda-Urundi 1-10.

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    Sources

    Art and Illustrations in Digifolia
    Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/

    Flora Zambesiaca
    Flora Zambesiaca
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Flora of West Tropical Africa
    Flora of West Tropical Africa
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Herbarium Catalogue Specimens
    'The Herbarium Catalogue, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Published on the Internet http://www.kew.org/herbcat [accessed on Day Month Year]'. Please enter the date on which you consulted the system.
    Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/

    Kew Backbone Distributions
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2018. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

    Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2018. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

    Kew Science Photographs
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