1. Family: Fabaceae Lindl.
    1. Sphenostylis E.Mey.

      1. This genus is accepted, and is native to Africa..

    [FZ]

    Leguminosae, B. Mackinder, R. Pasquet, R. Polhill & B. Verdcourt. Flora Zambesiaca 3:5. 2001

    Habit
    Herbs or subshrubs, prostrate, climbing or erect.
    Leaves
    Leaves pinnately 3-foliolate; stipules not spurred, persistent; stipels present.
    Inflorescences
    Inflorescences axillary, falsely racemose, few–many-flowered; rhachis thickened at the insertion of the pedicels.
    Calyx
    Calyx 5-lobed, short, 2-lipped; lower lip of 3 obtuse lobes, upper lip of 2 lobes completely or almost completely joined to form a small rounded or emarginate lip.
    Corolla
    Corolla small or medium-sized, yellow, blue or reddish; standard rounded, auriculate but without appendages, glabrous.
    Stamens
    Vexillary filament free and dilated at the base; 5 dorsifixed anthers alternating with 5 basifixed anthers.
    Pistil
    Ovary linear, many-ovuled; style ± twisted, thickened basally, thinning near the middle and then enlarged, flattened and spathulate at the apex, pubescent inside and along the margins; stigma terminal.
    Fruits
    Pods linear, compressed, 5–many-seeded, ± septate between the seeds, the style often persistent.
    Seeds
    Seeds cylindrical or ellipsoid, sometimes scurfy-pubescent; aril not developed.
    [FTEA]

    Leguminosae, J. B. Gillett, R. M. Polhill & B. Verdcourt. Flora of Tropical East Africa. 1971

    Habit
    Herbs or subshrubs, prostrate, climbing or erect
    Leaves
    Leaves pinnately 3-foliolate; stipules not spurred, persistent; stipels present
    Inflorescences
    Inflorescences axillary, falsely racemose, few-many-flowered; rhachis thickened at the insertion of the pedicels
    Calyx
    Calyx 5-lobed, short, 2-lipped, the lower lip of 3 obtuse lobes, the upper pair of lobes completely or almost completely joined to form a small rounded or emarginate lip
    Corolla
    Corolla small or medium-sized, yellow, blue or reddish; standard rounded, auriculate but without appendages, glabrous
    Stamens
    Vexillary stamen-filament free and dilated at the base; 5 dorsifixed anthers alternating with 5 basifixed anthers
    Pistil
    Ovary linear, many-ovuled; style ± twisted, thickened basally, thinning near the middle and then enlarged, flattened and spatulate at the apex, pubescent inside and along the margins; stigma terminal
    Fruits
    Pods linear, compressed, 5-many-seeded, ± septate between the seeds, the style often persistent
    Seeds
    Seeds cylindrical or ellipsoid; aril not developed.
    [LOWO]

    Legumes of the World. Edited by G. Lewis, B. Schrire, B. MacKinder & M. Lock. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. (2005)

    Habit
    Herbs or subshrubs
    Ecology
    Seasonally dry tropical and subtropical open forest, woodland, bushland and thicket, wooded grassland and grassland
    Distribution
    Africa (mainly Zambezian and Sudanian regions)
    Note
    Placed in subtribe Phaseolinae; basally branching in the Macrotyloma-Dolichos-Nesphostylis clade (Thulin et al., 2004)

    Previous accounts of the Phaseoleae by Baudet (1978) and Lackey (1981) recognised 90 and 84 genera and c. 1540 and 1480 species respectively in the tribe. In an equivalent, i.e. traditionally held view of Phaseoleae, 89 genera and (1554)–1567–(1580) species are treated here (Table 9; Fig. 47). Changes between Baudet (1978) and this treatment are that eleven genera are now in synonymy or have subsequently been placed in Millettieae, two genera have been transferred from Desmodieae and eight new genera have been added. Vigna has traditionally been thought to comprise some 150–200 species, but Vigna sens. strict. may contain fewer than 100.

    Recent molecular analyses of the tribe, however, have emphasised both the polyphyletic and paraphyletic nature of Phaseoleae as traditionally circumscribed (Bruneau & Doyle, 1990; Doyle & Doyle, 1993; Delgado Salinas et al., 1993; Bruneau et al., 1995; Doyle et al., 1997, 2000; Kajita et al., 2001; Goel et al., 2001; Lee & Hymowitz, 2001). This has required a radical realignment of elements of the phaseoloids (Table 9; Fig. 47), with at least two major clades being evident: Phaseoleae subtribes Diocleinae and Ophrestiinae which together with tribe Abreae are allied to the core-Millettieae (Fig. 45), and the remaining groups comprising a Phaseoleae sens. lat. clade. The rbcL phylogeny of Kajita et al. (2001) and the ITS analysis of Hu et al. (2002) are equivocal as to which clade subtribe Clitoriinae belongs. Phaseoleae sens. lat. also includes two traditionally independent tribes, the Desmodieae and Psoraleeae. Delimiting a recircumscribed Phaseoleae sens. strict is thus very problematic. A solution may be to recognise a broad tribe Phaseoleae, comprising the subtribes Kennediinae, Cajaninae, Phaseolinae and Glycininae, assorted basally branching genera, and tribes Desmodieae and Psoraleeae (both treated at subtribal level).

    [LOWO]
    Use
    Sphenostylis stenocarpa (Hochst. ex A.Rich.) Harms is used as human food, the seeds and tubers of the African yam bean are eaten; other species are used as ornamentals and for fibre, gums, resins and famine foods (Huxham et al., 1998)

    Images

    Distribution

    Native to:

    Angola, Benin, Burkina, Burundi, Cameroon, Cape Provinces, Central African Repu, Chad, Congo, Ethiopia, Free State, Gabon, Ghana, Guinea, Ivory Coast, Kenya, KwaZulu-Natal, Malawi, Mali, Mozambique, Niger, Nigeria, Northern Provinces, Sudan, Swaziland, Tanzania, Togo, Uganda, Zambia, Zaïre, Zimbabwe

    Sphenostylis E.Mey. appears in other Kew resources:

    First published in Comm. Pl. Afr. Austr.: 148 (1836)

    Literature

    Flora of West Tropical Africa
    • Harms in Engl. Bot. Jahrb. 26: 308 (1899).
    • Comm. 148 (1835)
    Flora Zambesiaca
    • in Syst. Bot. 19: 389–406 (1994).
    • Potter in Econ. Bot. 46: 262–275 (1992).
    • Potter & Doyle in Econ. Bot. 46: 276–292 (1992)
    • Comment. Pl. Afr. Austr.: 148 (1836).
    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    • Comm. PI. Afr. Austr.: 148 (1836)

    Sources

    Flora Zambesiaca
    Flora Zambesiaca
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Kew Backbone Distributions
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2018. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

    Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2018. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

    Legumes of the World Online
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0