1. Family: Apocynaceae Juss.
    1. Holarrhena R.Br.

      1. This genus is accepted, and its native range is Tropical & S. Africa, Indian Subcontinent to Peninsula Malaysia.

    [FZ]

    Apocynaceae, A. J. M. Leeuwenberg & F. K. Kupicha et al. Flora Zambesiaca 7:2. 1985

    Habit
    Deciduous shrubs or trees with white latex and unarmed branches.
    Leaves
    Leaves opposite or subopposite, those of a pair equal, shortly petiolate, without colleters in the axils; petiole glandular near the base.
    Stipules
    Stipules intrapetiolate and often obscure or absent.
    Inflorescences
    Inflorescences terminal and/or apparently axillary, cymose, many-flowered.
    Flowers
    Flowers sweet-scented, actinomorphic or with sepals only unequal.
    Calyx
    Sepals free or connate at the very base, subequal or sometimes unequal, with colleters inside at the base and alternating with the sepals.
    Corolla
    Corolla hypocrateriform; tube cylindrical, slender, wider near the base and apex; lobes contorted in bud and overlapping to the right.
    Stamens
    Stamens included, inserted at the base of the corolla-tube; anthers glabrous, basifixed, rounded at the base, mucronate at the apex.
    Pistil
    Ovary superior, carpels 2, connate at the very base only, ovoid, gradually narrowed into the style; disk none; style cylindrical; clavuncula ovoid; stigma bifid; placentas adaxial; ovules numerous.
    Fruits
    Fruit composed of 2 scarcely diverging mericarps; mericarps follicular, slender, more or less constricted between the seeds.
    Seeds
    Seeds numerous, linear to very narrowly oblong, striate, grooved, glabrous, with a dense tuft of hairs at the apex; embryo large, surrounded by the very scanty endosperm.
    [FTEA]

    Apocynaceae, E.A. Omino. Flora of Tropical East Africa. 2002

    Habit
    Deciduous shrubs or trees up to 25 m high, with abundant white latex in all parts
    Leaves
    Leaves (sub-)opposite, petiole glandular near the base
    Inflorescences
    Inflorescences terminal, cymose, many-flowered; bracts without colleters
    Flowers
    Flowers fragrant
    Calyx
    Sepals persistent, valvate, with 0–10 colleters at the base
    Corolla
    Corolla salver-shaped; tube cylindrical, pubescent at the throat; lobes white, overlapping to the right
    Stamens
    Stamens inserted at the base of the corolla tube; filaments short, pubescent at the base
    Pistil
    Pistil glabrous or pubescent; disk absent; ovary ovoid, of two carpels, connate at the extreme base, placentas adaxial; ovules numerous, in 4–8 rows; pistil head ovoid; stigmoid apex bifid
    Fruits
    Fruit of two thin-walled slender follicles, dehiscent; seeds glabrous, with a dense tuft of hairs at the apex, 3–6×as long as the seeds; embryo large, with a scanty endosperm; cotyledons large, complicate.

    Images

    Distribution

    Native to:

    Assam, Bangladesh, Benin, Burkina, Cabinda, Cambodia, Cameroon, Central African Repu, Chad, China South-Central, Congo, East Himalaya, Gabon, Gambia, Ghana, Guinea, Guinea-Bissau, India, Ivory Coast, Kenya, Laos, Liberia, Malawi, Malaya, Mali, Mozambique, Myanmar, Nepal, Nigeria, Northern Provinces, Pakistan, Senegal, Sierra Leone, Sri Lanka, Sudan, Tanzania, Thailand, Togo, Vietnam, West Himalaya, Zambia, Zaïre, Zimbabwe

    Introduced into:

    China Southeast, Hainan, Mauritius, Taiwan

    Holarrhena R.Br. appears in other Kew resources:

    Date Reference Identified As Barcode Type Status
    Finlayson, G. [Cat. no. s.n.] K001132392

    First published in Asclepiadeae: 51 (1810)

    Accepted by

    • Govaerts, R. (2003). World Checklist of Selected Plant Families Database in ACCESS: 1-216203. The Board of Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.

    Literature

    Flora of West Tropical Africa
    • Pichon in Mém. Mus. Hist. Nat. Paris, n. sér., B, 1: 157 (1951).
    • —F.T.A. 4, 1: 161
    Flora Zambesiaca
    • De Kruif in Meded. Landb. Wag. 81–2: 4 (1981).
    • in Mem. Wern. Soc. 1: 62 (1811).
    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    • de Kruif in Meded. Landbouwhogeschool 81 (2): 4–36 (1981)
    • in Mem. Wern. Soc. 1: 62 (1811)

    Sources

    Flora Zambesiaca
    Flora Zambesiaca
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Herbarium Catalogue Specimens
    'The Herbarium Catalogue, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Published on the Internet http://www.kew.org/herbcat [accessed on Day Month Year]'. Please enter the date on which you consulted the system.
    Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/

    Kew Backbone Distributions
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2018. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

    Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2018. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0