1. Family: Asparagaceae Juss.
    1. Chlorophytum Ker Gawl.

      1. This genus is accepted, and its native range is Trop & Subtropical Old World.

    [FZ]

    Flora Zambesiaca Anthericaceae by S. Kativu, G. Hoell, C.S. Bjorå & I. Nordal

    Habit
    Perennial geophytic rhizomatous herbs. Plants very variable in size and robustness, 5–150 cm high.
    Rhizomes
    Rhizome reduced or prominent, sometimes moniliform (consisting of attached corms in a chain), often bearing fibrous remains of old leaf bases.
    Roots
    Roots thick to thin and wiry with or without tubers.
    Leaves
    Leaves (with few exceptions) in a basal rosette or in 2 rows, appearing with the inflorescence (rarely afterwards), linear (rarely filiform) to broadly lanceolate, sometimes narrowed towards the base to a pseudopetiole, glabrous or pubescent; margins glabrous, scabrid, to ciliate.
    Peduncles
    Peduncles central or axillary, reduced or elongated up to 150 cm, terete or ± flat, and then with wings, glabrous or pubescent, leafless or with ± bractlike leaves.
    Inflorescences
    Inflorescence spicate, racemose or paniculate, always multibracteate at nodes, the floral bracts unequal, 1–9 flowers per node, mostly more than 1. Pedicels mostly with a distinct joint (articulated). Flowers open, star-shaped with exposed ovary, urceolate (tepals joined at the base) to bell-shaped with ovary enclosed; tepals generally white, sometimes pink, green, yellow or brownish, colours often restricted to stripes on the outside; outer tepals slightly narrower than inner.
    Stamens
    Stamens straight or curved down; filaments filiform or fusiform, glabrous or papillate, longer or shorter than anthers.
    Ovary
    Ovary sessile, rarely stipitate; style curved down or straight; stigma punctate to slightly capitate, minutely papillose.
    Fruits
    Capsule rounded or triangular to deeply 3-lobed in cross-section, with 3-valved loculicidal opening.
    Seeds
    Seeds black, disk-shaped, saucer-shaped to irregularly folded.
    Ecology
    An Old World tropical to subtropical genus with c.150 species in Africa, SE Asia and Australia, with the centre of diversity in tropical Africa; 56 species in the Flora Zambesiaca area. One species, Chlorophytum comosum (Thunb.) Jacques, is often cultivated, especially a form with variegated leaves and small plantlets at the inflorescence nodes ('Spider Plant').
    [FTEA]

    Anthericaceae, Nordal (University of Oslo), Shakkie Kativu (University of Zimbabwe) & Axel D. Poulsen (University of Copenhagen). Flora of Tropical East Africa. 1997

    Habit
    Plants very variable in size and robustness, from 5 cm. to more than 1 m.
    Leaves
    Leaves in a basal rosette, rosulate or distichous, linear to broadly lanceolate, sometimes narrowed towards the base to a petiole
    Inflorescences
    Inflorescence spicate, racemose or paniculate, with multibracteate nodes Pedicels, with very few exceptions, with a distinct joint (articulated), sometimes only one at each node, but in most species several (multi-nate) Peduncles reduced or elongated up to 50 cm., leafless or with ± bract-like leaves
    Flowers
    Flowers open, star-shaped, urceolate to almost bell-shaped
    Tepal
    Tepals white to yellowish green, with or without greenish or reddish stripes on the outside
    Stamens
    Stamens straight or declinate; filaments filiform or fusiform, glabrous or papillate
    Pistil
    Ovary sessile, rarely stipitate; style declinate or straight
    Fruits
    Capsule, ± triangular (trigonous) to deeply 3-lobed (triquetrous) in cross-section
    Seeds
    Seeds thin, flat or sharply folded.
    Rhizomes
    Rhizome reduced or prominent, sometimes moniliform (that is consisting of a series of attached corms in a chain); roots either swollen without tubers or ± wiry with distinct tubers Rhizome reduced or prominent, sometimes moniliform (that is consisting of a series of attached corms in a chain); roots either swollen without tubers or ± wiry with distinct tubers

    Images

    Distribution

    Native to:

    Angola, Assam, Bangladesh, Benin, Borneo, Botswana, Burkina, Burundi, Cameroon, Cape Provinces, Caprivi Strip, Central African Repu, Chad, China South-Central, China Southeast, Congo, East Himalaya, Equatorial Guinea, Eritrea, Ethiopia, Free State, Gabon, Gambia, Ghana, Guinea, Guinea-Bissau, Gulf of Guinea Is., Hainan, India, Ivory Coast, Jawa, Kenya, KwaZulu-Natal, Lesotho, Liberia, Madagascar, Malawi, Malaya, Mali, Mozambique, Myanmar, Namibia, Nepal, Niger, Nigeria, Northern Provinces, Northern Territory, Oman, Queensland, Rwanda, Senegal, Sierra Leone, Socotra, Somalia, Sri Lanka, Sudan, Sumatera, Swaziland, Tanzania, Tasmania, Thailand, Tibet, Togo, Uganda, Vietnam, Western Australia, Yemen, Zambia, Zaïre, Zimbabwe

    Introduced into:

    Andaman Is., Azores, Ecuador, Juan Fernández Is., Korea, Madeira, Marianas, Mauritius, Mexico Central, Mexico Gulf, Mexico Northeast, Mexico Northwest, Mexico Southeast, Mexico Southwest, Nauru, New South Wales, Norfolk Is., Réunion, Seychelles, St.Helena, Tristan da Cunha

    Chlorophytum Ker Gawl. appears in other Kew resources:

    Date Reference Identified As Barcode Type Status
    Jan 1, 2010 Tchouto (Mbatchou), P. [445], Cameroon K000542351
    Aug 1, 2002 Mackinder, B. [307 B], Cameroon K000008008
    16712.000
    Verdcourt, B. [138], Tanzania 2403.000
    Verdcourt, B. [388], Kenya 2404.000
    Verdcourt, B. [477], Kenya 4444.000
    Tweedie, E.M. [2135], Kenya 3694.000
    Gillett, J.B. [14109], Kenya 2402.000
    Gillett, J.B. [13968], Kenya 2408.000
    Gillett, J.B. [12819], Kenya 2413.000
    Dawkins, H.C. [367], Uganda 5449.000
    Wild, H. [2280], Zimbabwe 15163.000
    Wild, H. [27079], Zimbabwe 15164.000
    Wild, H. [35275], Zimbabwe 2406.000
    Wild, H. [44550], Zimbabwe 4441.000
    Wild, H. [40798], Zimbabwe 4442.000
    Wild, H. [3953], Zimbabwe 5446.000
    Wild, H. [2277], Zimbabwe 5452.000
    Drummond, R.B. [3584], Tanzania 15165.000
    Drummond, R.B. [1478], Tanzania 2410.000
    Drummond, R.B. [4435], Kenya 2412.000
    Cruse, A.W. [428], Zambia 2407.000
    Rayner, R.W. [282], Kenya 16700.000
    Rayner, R.W. [284], Kenya 16701.000
    Rayner, R.W. [439], Kenya 2401.000
    Rayner, R.W. [424], Kenya 2409.000
    Keay, R.W.J. [25913], Nigeria 4440.000
    Bally, P.R.O. [8186], Kenya 5448.000
    Polhill, R. [384], Kenya 1268.000
    Polhill, R. [795], Kenya 3692.000
    Chandler, P. [2138], Uganda 4445.000
    Napier, E.R. [3565], Kenya 2405.000
    Napier, E.R. [3564], Kenya 2411.000
    Tanner, R. [476], Tanzania 4443.000
    Harris, D.J. [2460], Cameroon 60036.000
    Rayner [342], Kenya 5447.000

    First published in Bot. Mag. 27: t. 1071 (1807)

    Accepted by

    • Meerts, P. & Bjorå, C.S. (2012). Synopsis of the genus Chlorophytum (Asparagaceae) in Central Africa (Democratic Republic of the Congo, Rwanda, Burundi) Plant ecology and evolution 145: 373-409.
    • Govaerts, R. (1999). World Checklist of Seed Plants 3(1, 2a & 2b): 1-1532. MIM, Deurne.

    Literature

    Flora of West Tropical Africa
    • F.T.A. 7: 493.
    • in Bot. Mag. t. 1071 (1807)
    Flora Zambesiaca
    • ―Bjorå, Hoell, Kativu & Nordal in Bot. J. Linn. Soc. 157: 223–238 (2008).
    • ―Stedje & Nordal in Seyani & Chikuni, Proc. 12th AETFAT Congress: 513–524 (1994).
    • in Bot. Mag. 27: t.107 (1807), amended Kativu & Nordal in Nordic J. Bot. 13: 61 (1993).
    • ―Nordal, Eriksen & Fosby in Mitt. Inst. Allg. Bot. Hamburg 23b: 535 (1990).
    • ―Marais & Reilly in Kew Bull. 32: 653 (1978).
    • ―Obermeyer in Bothalia 7: 690 (1962).
    • ―Krause in Engler & Prantl, Nat. Pflanzenfam., ed.2 15a: 284 (1930).
    • in F.T.A. 7: 493 (1898).
    • ―Baker in J. Linn. Soc., Bot. 15: 321 (1876);
    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    • Stedje & Nordal in Seyani & Chikuni, Proc. XIII AETFAT, Malawi, 1991: 513–524 (1994)
    • Kativu & Nordal in Nordic Journ. Bot. 13: 59–65 (1993)
    • emend. Nordal in Nordic Journ. Bot. 13: 61 (1993)
    • Nordal & Thulin in Nordic Journ. Bot. 13: 257–280 (1993)
    • Nordal et al. in Mitt. Inst. Allg. Bot. Hamburg 23: 535–559 (1990)
    • Marais & Reilly in K.B. 32: 653–663 (1978)
    • Oberm. in Bothalia 7: 690 (1962)
    • Baker in F.T.A. 7: 493 (1898)
    • in Bot. Mag. 27, t. 1071 (1807)

    Sources

    Flora Zambesiaca
    Flora Zambesiaca
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Herbarium Catalogue Specimens
    'The Herbarium Catalogue, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Published on the Internet http://www.kew.org/herbcat [accessed on Day Month Year]'. Please enter the date on which you consulted the system.

    Kew Backbone Distributions
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2018. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

    Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2018. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

    Plants and People Africa
    Common Names from Plants and People Africa http://www.plantsandpeopleafrica.com/
    © Plants and People Africa http://www.plantsandpeopleafrica.com http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/