1. Family: Amaranthaceae Juss.
    1. Genus: Achyranthes L.
      1. Achyranthes aspera L.

        This species is accepted, and its native range is Tropical & Subtropical Old World.

    [FWTA]

    Amaranthaceae, Hutchinson and Dalziel. Flora of West Tropical Africa 1:1. 1954

    Habit
    A common weed of waste places, very variable, much-branched, 1–6 ft. high, sometimes subscandent, sometimes woody
    Flowers
    Flowers green or pinkish.
    [FTEA]

    Amaranthaceae, C.C. Townsend. Flora of Tropical East Africa. 1985

    Habit
    Perennial herb (sometimes woody and somewhat suffrutescent), occasionally flowering in the first year, 0.2–2 m., stiffly erect to subscandent or straggling and ± prostrate, simple to much branched, stems stout to very weak, distinctly to obscurely 4-angled, striate or sulcate, subglabrous to densely tomentose, the nodes ± shrunken when dry.
    Leaves
    Leaves elliptic, oblong or ovate, acute or acuminate to almost round and very obtuse, gradually or abruptly narrowed below, (2–)5–22(–28) × 1.3–8(–10) cm., indumentum varying from subglabrous through subglabrous above and densely appressed-canescent below to ± densely tomentose on both surfaces; petioles of main stem leaves 3–25(–30) mm., shortening above and below.
    Inflorescences
    Inflorescences at first dense, finally elongating to (5–)8–34(–40) cm., peduncles (0.6–)1–6(–7.5) cm.
    Bracts
    Bracts lanceolate or narrowly deltoid-lanceolate, pale or brownish-membranous, 1.75–5(–6) mm., glabrous.
    Bracteoles
    Bracteoles 1.5–4.5(–6) mm., the basal wings 1/3–1/4 the length of the spine and ± adnate to it (sometimes free above or tearing free), typically tapering off above but not rarely rounded or truncate.
    Perianth
    Perianth whitish or pale green to red or purple; segments 5, 3–7(–10) mm., the outer pair longest, narrowly lanceolate to lanceolate, very acute, with a distinct midrib and 2 obscure to distinct lateral nerves, narrowly or moderately pale-margined.
    Stamens
    Stamens 5, the filaments 1.5–4.5(–6) mm., alternating with subquadrate pseudostaminodes; typically the apex of the latter curves slightly inwards as a narrow, crenate or entire, often very delicate flap, while from the dorsal surface arises afimbriate-ciliate scale extending across the width of the pseudostaminode; not rarely, however, this is reduced to a “stag’s-horn” process at the centre of the dorsal surface or a shallow, dentate rim, or even becomes small and filiform – or else subapical or apical so that the pseudostaminode appears simple (this usually in small forms of var. sicula).
    Style
    Style slender, 1–4(–6) mm.
    Fruits
    Capsule oblong-ovoid, 1–3(–5) mm.
    Seeds
    Seed filling the capsule, oblong-ovoid, smooth.
    Distribution
    Found practically throughout the world in tropical and warmer regions generally. Some forms may have originated in more restricted areas (e.g. var. sicula in the Mediterranean region, where it still appears to be the only form occurring, and var. indica in India), but these have now become sufficiently widely dispersed to make this a matter of conjecture
    [FZ]

    Amaranthaceae, C. C. Townsend. Flora Zambesiaca 9:1. 1988

    Habit
    Perennial herb (sometimes woody and somewhat suffrutescent), occasionally flowering in the first year, 0.2–2 m., stiffly erect to subscandent or straggling and more or less prostrate, simple to much-branched, stems stout to very weak, distinctly to obscurely 4-angled, striate or sulcate, subglabrous to densely tomentose, the nodes more or less shrunken when dry.
    Leaves
    Leaves elliptic, oblong or ovate, acute or acuminate to almost circular and very obtuse, gradually or abruptly narrowed below, (2)5–22 (28) × 1.3–8 (10) cm., indumentum varying from subglabrous on both surfaces through subglabrous above and densely appressed-canescent below to more or less densely tomentose on both surfaces; petioles of main stem leaves 3–25( 30) mm., shortening above and below.
    Inflorescences
    Inflorescences at first dense, finally elongating to (5)8–34 (40) cm.; peduncles (0.6–1)1–6 (7.5) cm. long.
    Bracts
    Bracts lanceolate or narrowly deltoid-lanceolate, pale or brownish-membranous, 1.75–5(6) mm. long, glabrous.
    Bracteoles
    Bracteoles 1.5–4.5(6) mm., the basal wings one third to one quarter the length of the spine and more or less adnate to it (sometimes free above or tearing free), typically tapering off above but not rarely rounded or truncate.
    Perianth
    Perianth whitish or pale green to red or purple, segments 5, 3–7 (10) mm. long, the outer pair longest, narrowly lanceolate to lanceolate, very acute, with a distinct midrib and 2 obscure to distinct lateral nerves, narrowly or moderately pale-margined.
    Stamens
    Stamens 5, the filaments 1.5–4.5(6) mm. long, alternating with subquadrate pseudostaminodes. Typically the apex of the latter curves slightly inwards as a narrow, crenate or entire, often very delicate flap, while from the dorsal surface arises a fimbriate-ciliate scale extending across the width of the pseudostaminode; not rarely, however, this is reduced to a “stag's horn”process at the centre of the dorsal surface or a shallow, dentate rim, or even becomes small and filiform, or else subapical or apical so that the pseudostaminode appears simple (this usually in small forms of var. sicula).
    Style
    Style slender, 1–4(6) mm. long.
    Fruits
    Capsule oblong-ovoid, 1–3(5) mm. long.
    Seeds
    Seed filling the capsule, oblong-ovoid, smooth.

    Images

    Distribution

    Native to:

    Andaman Is., Angola, Assam, Bangladesh, Benin, Bismarck Archipelago, Borneo, Botswana, Burkina, Burundi, Cambodia, Cameroon, Canary Is., Cape Provinces, Cape Verde, Central African Repu, Chad, China South-Central, China Southeast, Christmas I., Cocos (Keeling) Is., Congo, Djibouti, East Himalaya, Free State, Gabon, Gambia, Ghana, Guinea, Guinea-Bissau, Gulf of Guinea Is., Gulf States, Hainan, India, Ivory Coast, Jawa, Kazan-retto, Kenya, KwaZulu-Natal, Laccadive Is., Laos, Lesotho, Lesser Sunda Is., Liberia, Malaya, Maldives, Mali, Maluku, Mauritania, Mauritius, Mozambique, Mozambique Channel I, Myanmar, Namibia, Nansei-shoto, Nepal, New Guinea, Nicobar Is., Nigeria, Norfolk Is., Northern Provinces, Ogasawara-shoto, Oman, Pakistan, Panamá, Philippines, Queensland, Rodrigues, Réunion, Saudi Arabia, Senegal, Sierra Leone, Socotra, Solomon Is., Somalia, Sri Lanka, Sudan, Sulawesi, Sumatera, Swaziland, Taiwan, Tanzania, Thailand, Uganda, Vietnam, Wallis-Futuna Is., Yemen, Zaïre

    Introduced into:

    Alabama, Aruba, Austria, Azores, Belize, Bolivia, Brazil North, Brazil Northeast, Brazil Southeast, Brazil West-Central, Colombia, Cook Is., Cuba, Dominican Republic, El Salvador, Fiji, Florida, French Guiana, Galápagos, Gilbert Is., Guatemala, Guyana, Haiti, Hawaii, Honduras, Jamaica, Kermadec Is., Leeward Is., Louisiana, Marquesas, Mexico Central, Mexico Gulf, Mexico Northeast, Mexico Northwest, Mexico Southeast, Mexico Southwest, Netherlands Antilles, New Caledonia, New Zealand North, Nicaragua, Niue, Peru, Puerto Rico, Samoa, Sardegna, Seychelles, Sicilia, Society Is., South Carolina, Southwest Caribbean, Spain, St.Helena, Suriname, Tokelau-Manihiki, Tonga, Tuamotu, Tubuai Is., Tunisia, Vanuatu, Venezuela, Venezuelan Antilles, Windward Is.

    Achyranthes aspera L. appears in other Kew resources:

    Date Reference Identified As Barcode Type Status
    Jan 1, 2013 I Made Maduarta (Pung) [IMM 30], Lesser Sunda Is. K000734517
    Jan 1, 2008 Wood, D. [1455], Seychelles K000449635
    Jul 1, 2007 Katende [1012], Uganda K000449322
    Jan 1, 1996 Thomas, D.W. [9425], Cameroon K000381447
    Jan 1, 1996 Tchouto (Mbatchou), P. [313], Cameroon K000381448
    Jan 1, 1963 Akpabla, G.K. [0s.n.1], Cameroon K000025632
    Jan 1, 1953 Morton, J.K. [6910], Cameroon K000025630
    Jan 1, 1953 Morton, J.K. [6741], Cameroon K000025631
    Jan 1, 1953 Morton, J.K. [6706], Cameroon K000025636
    Jan 1, 1949 Mann, G. [1977], Cameroon K000025619
    Jan 1, 1949 Dunlap [72], Cameroon K000025618
    Apr 17, 1905 Vogel, T. [65], Cape Verde K001134168
    Jan 1, 1905 Mann, G. [1307], Cameroon K000025617
    Jan 1, 1905 Johnston, H.H. [94], Cameroon K000025616
    Keay, R.W.J. [FHI 28335], Cameroon K000025623
    Deighton, F.C. [2584], Sierra Leone K000243721
    Boughey, A.S. [10692], Cameroon K000025633
    Hooker, J.D. [170], Cape Verde K001134162
    Breteler, F.J. [202], Cameroon K000025642
    Brown, R. [s.n.], Australia K000357379
    Ridley [s.n.], Australia K000357387
    Wallich [6924] K000848077
    Schomburgk, R. [245], Australia K000357384
    Schomburgk, R. [S62], Australia K000357386
    Mueller, F. [s.n.], Australia K000357380
    Mueller, F. [s.n.], Australia K000357381
    Mueller, F. [s.n.], Australia K000357382
    Mueller, F. [s.n.], Australia K000357383
    Moore, C., Australia K000357378
    Cardoso, J. [27], Cape Verde K001134167
    MacGillivray, J. [715], Australia K000357376
    Dundas J. [20381], Cameroon K000025628
    Wallich, N. [Cat. no. 6924], Nepal K001126242
    Wallich, N. [Cat. no. 6924], Myanmar K001126244
    Wallich, N. [Cat. no. 6924], Myanmar K001126245
    Wallich, N. [Cat. no. 6924], Myanmar K001126246
    Harris, T. [428], Mozambique K000613864
    Thompson, T. [41], India K001134163
    Timberlake, J. [5075], Mozambique K000613455
    Damel [s.n.], Australia K000357385
    Milne [?] [s.n.], Australia K000357377
    De Silva, F. [Cat. no. 6924] K001126241
    Migeod, F. W. H. [0s.n.], Cameroon K000025626
    Ogu [50323], Cameroon K000025637
    s.coll. [Cat. no. 6924] K001126234
    s.coll. [Cat. no. 6924] K001126235
    s.coll. [Cat. no. 6924] K001126236
    s.coll. [Cat. no. 6924], India K001126237
    s.coll. [Cat. no. 6924] K001126238
    s.coll. [Cat. no. 6924] K001126239
    s.coll. [Cat. no. 6924] K001126240
    s.coll. [Cat. no. 6924] K001126243
    unknown [408], South Africa Achyranthes robusta K000243728 Unknown type material
    unknown [544], South Africa Achyranthes robusta K000243730 isotype
    Medley Wood [7202], South Africa Achyranthes robusta K000243729 Unknown type material
    Cunningham, A. [173], Australia Achyranthes australis K000357272

    First published in Sp. Pl.: 204 (1753)

    Accepted by

    • von Raab-Straube, E. & Raus, T. (eds.) (2019). Euro+Med-Checklist Notulae, 9 Willdenowia 48: 195-220.
    • Sykes, W.R. (2016). Flora of the Cook Islands: 1-973. National Tropical Botanical Garden, Hawaii.
    • Hohla, M., Diewald, W. & Király, G. (2015). Limonium gmelinii - eine Steppenpflanze an österreichischen Autobahnen sowie weitere Neuigkeiten zur Flora Österreichs Stapfia 103: 127-150.
    • Darbyshire, I., Kordofani, M., Farag, I., Candiga, R. & Pickering, H. (eds.) (2015). The Plants of Sudan and South Sudan: 1-400. Kew publishing, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Sikarwar, R.L.S. (2014). Angiosperm diversity assessment of Chitrakootthe legendary place of Vindhyan range, India Journal of Economic and Taxonomic Botany 38: 563-619.
    • Shaheen, H., Qureshi, R., Akram, A., Gulfraz, M. & Potter, D. (2014). A preliminary floristic checklist of Thal desert Punjab, Pakistan Pakistn Journal of Botany 46: 13-18.
    • Velayos, M., Barberá, P., Cabezas, F.J., de la Estrella, M., Fero, M. & Aedo, C. (2014). Checklist of the vascular plants of Annobón (Equatorial Guinea) Phytotaxa 171: 1-78.
    • Cossu, T.A, Camarda, I. & Brundu, G. (2014). A catalogue of non-native weeds in irrigated crops in Sardinia (Italy) Webbia; Raccolta de Scritti Botanici 69: 145-156.
    • Jørgensen, P.M., Nee, M.H. & Beck., S.G. (eds.) (2013). Catálogo de las plantas vasculares de Bolivia Monographs in Systematic Botany from the Missouri Botanical Garden 127: 1-1741. Missouri Botanical Garden.
    • Sánchez-del Pino, I., Espadas, C. & Pool, R. (2013). Taxonomy and richness of nine genera of Amaranthaceae s.s. (Caryophyllales) in the Yucatan peninsula biotic province Phytotaxa 107: 1-74.
    • Thiombiano, A., Schmidt, M., Dressler, S., Ouédraogo, A., Hahn, K. & Zizka, G. (2012). Catalogue des plantes vasculaires du Burkina Faso Boissiera 65: 1-391.
    • Pérez-Farrera, M.Á., Martínez-Camilo, R., Martínez-Meléndez, N., Farrera-Sarmiento, O. & Maza-Villalobos, S. (2012). Listado florístico del Cerro Quetzal (Polígono III) de la reserva de la biosfera El Triunfo, Chiapas, México Botanical Sciences 90: 113-142.
    • Meena, S.L. (2012). A checklist of the vascular plants of Banaskantha district, Gujarat, India Nelumbo 54: 39-91.
    • Mosti, S., Raffaelli, M. & Tardelli, M. (2012). Contributions to the flora of central-southern Dhofar (Sultanate of Oman) Webbia; Raccolta de Scritti Botanici 67: 65-91.
    • Garcia-Mendoza, A.J. & Meave, J.A. (eds.) (2012). Diversidad florística de Oaxaca: de musgos a angiospermas (colecciones y listas de especies), ed. 2: 1-351. Instituto de Biología, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México.
    • Figueiredo, E., Paiva, J., Stévart, T., Oliveira, F. & Smith, G.F. (2011). Annotated catalogue of the flowering plants of São Tomé and Príncipe Bothalia, A Journal of Botanical Research 41: 41-82.
    • Gardner, R.O. (2011). Trees and shrubs of Niue: an identification guide to the island's indigenous and naturalised woody plants: 1-244. R.O. Gardner, Auckland, New Zealand.
    • Kral, R., Diamond, A.R., Ginzbarg, S.L., Hansen, C.J., Haynes, R.R., Keener, B.R., Lelong, M.G., Spaulding, D.D. & Woods, M. (2011). Annotated checklist of the vascular plants of Alabama: 1-112. Botanical reseach institute of Texas.
    • Fischer, E., Rembold, K., Althof, A. & Obholzer, J. (2010). Annotated checklist of the vascular plants of Kakamega forest, Western province, Kenya Journal of East African Natural History 99: 129-226.
    • Maliya, S.D. & Datt, B. (2010). A contribution to the flora of Katarniyaghat wildlife sanctuary, Baharaich district, Uttar Pradesh Journal of Economic and Taxonomic Botany 34: 42-68.
    • Ramos Senna, L., Giulietti, A.M. & Rapini, A. (2010). Flora da Bahia: Amaranthaceae - Amaranthoideae e Gomphrenoideae Sitientibus Sérrie Ciências Biológicas 10: 3-73.
    • Lejoy, J., Ndjele, M.-B. & Geerinck, D. (2010). Catalogue-flore des plantes vasculaires des districts de Kisangani et de la Tshopo (RD Congo) Taxonomania 30: 1-307.
    • Sarmah, K.K. & Borthakur, S.K. (2009). A checklist of angiospermic plants of Manas national park in Assam, India Pleione 3: 190-200.
    • Lisowski, S. (2009). Flore (Angiospermes) de la République de Guinée Scripta Botanica Belgica 41: 1-517.
    • Figueiredo, E. & Smith, G.F. (2008). Plants of Angola Strelitzia 22: 1-279. National Botanical Institute, Pretoria.
    • Hokche, O., Berry, P.E. & Huber, O. (eds.) (2008). Nuevo Catálogo de la Flora Vascular de Venezuela: 1-859. Fundación Instituto Botánico de Venezuela.
    • Nelson Sutherland, C.H. (2008). Catálogo de las plantes vasculares de Honduras. Espermatofitas: 1-1576. SERNA/Guaymuras, Tegucigalpa, Honduras.
    • Akoègninou, A., van der Burg, W.J. & van der Maesen, L.J.G. (eds.) (2006). Flore Analytique du Bénin: 1-1034. Backhuys Publishers.
    • Sita, P. & Moutsambote, J.-M. (2005). Catalogue des plantes vasculaires du Congo, ed. sept. 2005: 1-158. ORSTOM, Centre de Brazzaville.
    • Correa A., Mireya D. Galdames, Carmen Correa A., M. D., C. Galdames & M. S. de Stapf (2004). Catálogo de las Plantas Vasculares de Panamá: 1-599. Smithsonian Tropical Research Institute.
    • Miller, A.G. & Morris, M. (2004). Ethnoflora of Soqotra Archipelago: 1-759. The Royal Botanic Garden, Edinburgh.
    • Germishuizen, G. & Meyer, N.L. (eds.) (2003). Plants of Southern Africa an annotated checklist Strelitzia 14: 1-1231. National Botanical Institute, Pretoria.
    • Flora of North America Editorial Committee (2003). Flora of North America North of Mexico 4: 1-559. Oxford University Press, New York, Oxford.
    • Dy Phon, P. (2000). Dictionnaire des plantes utilisées au Cambodge: 1-915. chez l'auteur, Phnom Penh, Cambodia.
    • Boggan, J. Funck, V. & Kelloff, C. (1997). Checklist of the Plants of the Guianas (Guyana, Surinam, Franch Guiana) ed. 2: 1-238. University of Guyana, Georgetown.
    • Wood, J.R.I. (1997). A handbook of the Yemen Flora: 1-434. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Govaerts, R. (1995). World Checklist of Seed Plants 1(1, 2): 1-483, 529. MIM, Deurne.
    • Cirilo, N. & Proctor, G.R. (1994). Vascular plants of the Caribbean Swan islands of Honduras Brenesia 41-42: 73-80.
    • Orchard, A.E. (ed.) (1994). Oceanic Islands 1 Flora of Australia 49: 1-681. Australian Government Publishing Service, Canberra.
    • MacKee, H.S. (1994). Catalogue des plantes introduites et cultivées en Nouvelle-Calédonie, ed. 2: 1-164. Museum national d'histoire naturelle, Paris.
    • George, A.S., Orchard, A.E. & Hewson, H.J. (eds.) (1993). Oceanic islands 2 Flora of Australia 50: 1-606. Australian Government Publishing Service, Canberra.
    • Brako, L. & Zarucchi, J.L. (1993). Catalogue of the Flowering Plants and Gymnosperms of Peru Monographs in Systematic Botany from the Missouri Botanical Garden 45: i-xl, 1-1286. Missouri Botanical Garden.
    • Hansen, A. & Sunding, P. (1993). Flora of Macaronesia. Checklist of vascular plants. 4. revised edition Sommerfeltia 17: 1-295.
    • Thulin, M. (ed.) (1993). Flora of Somalia 1: 1-493. The Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Tutin, T.G. & al. (eds.) (1993). Flora Europaea ed. 2, 1: 1-581. Cambridge University Press.
    • Ghazanfar, S.A. (1992). An Annotated Catalogue of the Vascular Plants of Oman and their Vernacular names Scripta Botanica Belgica 2: 1-153.
    • Barry, J. P. & Celles, J.S. (1991). Flore de Mauritanie 1: 1-359. Centre Regional de Documentation Pedagogique, Nice.
    • Jones, M. (1991). A checklist of Gambian plants: 1-33. Michael Jones, The Gambia College.
    • Lebrun, J.p., Toutain, B., Gaston, A. & Boudet, G. (1991). Catalogue des Plantes Vasculaires du Burkina Faso: 1-341. Institut d' Elevage et de Médecine Vétérinaire des Pays Tropicaux, Maisons Alfort.
    • Boudet, G., Lebrun, J.P. & Demange, R. (1986). Catalogue des plantes vasculaires du Mali: 1-465. Etudes d'Elevage et de Médecine Vétérinaire des Pays Tropicaux.
    • Townsend, C.C. (1985). Flora of Tropical East Africa, Amaranthaceae: 1-136.
    • Boulvert, Y. (1977). Catalogue de la Flore de Centrafrique 1: 1-114. ORSTROM, Bangui.
    • Lebrun, J.-P., Audru, J., Gaston, A. & Mosnier, M. (1972). Catalogue des Plantes Vasculaires du Tchad Méridional: 1-289. Institut d' Elevage et de Médecine Vétérinaire des Pays Tropicaux, Maisons Alfort.
    • Berhaut, J. (1971). Flore illustrée du Sénégal 1: 1-626. Gouvernement du Sénégal, Ministère du développement rural direction des eaux et forêta, Dakar.
    • Sykes, W.R. (1970). Contributions to the flora of Niue Bulletin, New Zealand Department of Scientific and Industrial Research 200: 1-321.

    Literature

    Flora of West Tropical Africa
    • —F.T.A. 6, 1: 63.
    Kew Backbone Distributions
    • von Raab-Straube, E. & Raus, T. (eds.) (2019). Euro+Med-Checklist Notulae, 9 Willdenowia 48: 195-220.
    • Jaramillo Díaz, P. & Guézou, A. (2017). CDF Checklist of Galapagos Vascular Plants - FCD Lista de especies de Plantas Vasculares de Galápagos http://www.darwinfoundation.org/datazone/checklists/vascular-plants/.
    • Forzza, R.C., Zappi, D. & Souza, V.C. (2016-continuously updated). Flora do Brasil 2020 em construção http://reflora.jbrj.gov.br/reflora/listaBrasil/ConsultaPublicaUC/ResultadoDaConsultaNovaConsulta.do.
    • Sykes, W.R. (2016). Flora of the Cook Islands: 1-973. National Tropical Botanical Garden, Hawaii.
    • Hohla, M., Diewald, W. & Király, G. (2015). Limonium gmelinii - eine Steppenpflanze an österreichischen Autobahnen sowie weitere Neuigkeiten zur Flora Österreichs Stapfia 103: 127-150.
    • Darbyshire, I., Kordofani, M., Farag, I., Candiga, R. & Pickering, H. (eds.) (2015). The Plants of Sudan and South Sudan: 1-400. Kew publishing, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Shaheen, H., Qureshi, R., Akram, A., Gulfraz, M. & Potter, D. (2014). A preliminary floristic checklist of Thal desert Punjab, Pakistan Pakistn Journal of Botany 46: 13-18.
    • Velayos, M., Barberá, P., Cabezas, F.J., de la Estrella, M., Fero, M. & Aedo, C. (2014). Checklist of the vascular plants of Annobón (Equatorial Guinea) Phytotaxa 171: 1-78.
    • Cossu, T.A, Camarda, I. & Brundu, G. (2014). A catalogue of non-native weeds in irrigated crops in Sardinia (Italy) Webbia; Raccolta de Scritti Botanici 69: 145-156.
    • Jongkind, C. (2014). Fauna & Flora of Liberia, flowering plant species list www.liberianfaunaflora.org.
    • Jørgensen, P.M., Nee, M.H. & Beck., S.G. (eds.) (2013). Catálogo de las plantas vasculares de Bolivia Monographs in Systematic Botany from the Missouri Botanical Garden 127: 1-1741. Missouri Botanical Garden.
    • Thiombiano, A., Schmidt, M., Dressler, S., Ouédraogo, A., Hahn, K. & Zizka, G. (2012). Catalogue des plantes vasculaires du Burkina Faso Boissiera 65: 1-391.
    • Pérez-Farrera, M.Á., Martínez-Camilo, R., Martínez-Meléndez, N., Farrera-Sarmiento, O. & Maza-Villalobos, S. (2012). Listado florístico del Cerro Quetzal (Polígono III) de la reserva de la biosfera El Triunfo, Chiapas, México Botanical Sciences 90: 113-142.
    • Acevedo-Rodríguez, P. & Strong, M.T. (2012). Catalogue of seed plants of the West Indies Smithsonian Contributions to Botany 98: 1-1192.
    • Mosti, S., Raffaelli, M. & Tardelli, M. (2012). Contributions to the flora of central-southern Dhofar (Sultanate of Oman) Webbia; Raccolta de Scritti Botanici 67: 65-91.
    • Garcia-Mendoza, A.J. & Meave, J.A. (eds.) (2012). Diversidad florística de Oaxaca: de musgos a angiospermas (colecciones y listas de especies), ed. 2: 1-351. Instituto de Biología, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México.
    • Gardner, R.O. (2011). Trees and shrubs of Niue: an identification guide to the island's indigenous and naturalised woody plants: 1-244. R.O. Gardner, Auckland, New Zealand.
    • Idárraga-Piedrahita, A., Ortiz, R.D.C., Callejas Posada, R. & Merello, M. (eds.) (2011). Flora de Antioquia: Catálogo de las Plantas Vasculares 2: 1-939. Universidad de Antioquia, Medellín.
    • Kral, R., Diamond, A.R., Ginzbarg, S.L., Hansen, C.J., Haynes, R.R., Keener, B.R., Lelong, M.G., Spaulding, D.D. & Woods, M. (2011). Annotated checklist of the vascular plants of Alabama: 1-112. Botanical reseach institute of Texas.
    • Fischer, E., Rembold, K., Althof, A. & Obholzer, J. (2010). Annotated checklist of the vascular plants of Kakamega forest, Western province, Kenya Journal of East African Natural History 99: 129-226.
    • Lisowski, S. (2009). Flore (Angiospermes) de la République de Guinée Scripta Botanica Belgica 41: 1-517.
    • GBIF (2008-continuously updated). Global Biodiversity Information Facility http://www.gbif.org/.
    • Pandey, R.P. & Dilwakar, P.G. (2008). An integrated check-list flora of Andaman and Nicobar islands, India Journal of Economic and Taxonomic Botany 32: 403-500.
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    Sources

    Art and Illustrations in Digifolia
    Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/

    Flora Zambesiaca
    Flora Zambesiaca
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Flora of West Tropical Africa
    Flora of West Tropical Africa
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Herbarium Catalogue Specimens
    'The Herbarium Catalogue, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Published on the Internet http://www.kew.org/herbcat [accessed on Day Month Year]'. Please enter the date on which you consulted the system.
    Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/

    Kew Backbone Distributions
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2018. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

    Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2018. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0