1. Family: Asteraceae Bercht. & J.Presl
    1. Genus: Sonchus L.
      1. Sonchus luxurians (R.E.Fr.) C.Jeffrey

        This species is accepted, and its native range is Ethiopia to Burundi and Mozambique.

    [FZ]

    Compositae, G. V. Pope. Flora Zambesiaca 6:1. 1992

    Habit
    A somewhat robust perennial herb from a semi-woody rootstock.
    Stem
    Stems trailing or scrambling to c. 2(6) m. long, or erect and up to c. 1 m. tall, 1-several, branched above, leafy throughout or the lowermost leaves withered and the stem leafless below, green or purple-tinged, terete hollow glabrous.
    Leaves
    Leaves glabrous, 5–25 cm. long, the upper cauline being the largest, all leaves runcinate, or pinnately-lobed with a narrowly-winged midrib, or upper leaves and those of the axillary shoots undivided and linear-lanceolate; lateral lobes 2–8, mostly 1–3.5(6.5) x 0.5–1.5(2.3) cm., recurved oblong-lanceolate, asymmetrically tapered, less often 1.5–4 x 0.3–0.5 cm. and narrowly-triangular; midrib lamina 3–14 mm. wide, linear-elliptic; lobe and leaf apices acute to ± attenuate; margins recurved acicular-denticulate; leaf bases amplexicaul and narrowly auriculate-sagittate in lower leaves to rounded-auriculate with sagittate auricle lobes in the upper leaves; ± well developed axillary shoots often present at least in the upper leaves, the young axillary growth densely brown lanate later glabrescent.
    Capitulum
    Capitula many, subsessile or shortly-stalked, 2–10 ± densely aggregated in solitary or corymbiformly cymose globose clusters, or clusters much reduced with fewer capitula laxly arranged, mature capitula subtended by 1 -several subsessile buds; the bases of the capitula as well as the subtending buds and the capitula stalks covered in a white persistent lanate indumentum, the synflorescence branches and capitula stalks not glandular-setose.
    Involucre
    Involucres up to c. 16 x 9 mm. in fruiting capitula, ovoid-cylindric to spreading.
    Phyllaries
    Phyllaries olive-green, few-seriate, imbricate; densely white-lanate outside, later glabrescent towards the apices, rarely also setose outside; the outermost c. 4 mm. long, ovate-lanceolate, eventually swollen below; the innermost 10–15 x 1.5–2.5 mm., oblong-lanceolate, obtuse to rounded at the apices, glabrous, eventually involute.
    Florets
    Florets numerous.
    Corolla
    Corollas yellow c. 12–14 mm. long, pubescent about the junction of tube and ligule; ligule 4.5–5 mm. long, oblong becoming orange outside.
    Fruits
    Achenes pale-brown, 3–4 mm. long, narrowly ellipsoid, ± flattened, c. 4-angular, with ribs on the angles and with smaller ribs in between, the larger ribs becoming thickened and transversely rugulose, glabrous; pappus white, dimorphic, 8–10 mm. long, composed of minutely barbellate setae intermixed with down-like hairs.
    [FTEA]

    Compositae, H. Beentje, C. Jeffrey & D.J.N. Hind. Flora of Tropical East Africa. 2005

    Habit
    Annual or short-lived perennial herb, erect and 0.2–2 m high or climbing to 6 m high; stems 1–several, branched from base, green or reddish, hollow, glabrous except for the most distal parts of the inflorescence, sometimes procumbent and up to 2 m long, sending up erect leafy shoots to 1 m high.
    Leaves
    Leaves grey-green, sessile, ovate or lanceolate in outline, the lower leaves usually pinnately lobed with narrow retrorse lobes, 5–20 cm long, 0.5–1.5 cm wide without the lobes, the lobes linear to triangular, 1–5 cm long, 0.3–2 cm wide, with 2–4 pairs of lobes, base briefly sagittate to auriculate, margins entire to dentate, apex acute to attenuate; the upper leaves usually entire or with few lobes, with a very broad base, 4–19 cm long, widest around the stem and there 1–5 cm wide, sagittate and broadly auriculate, margins (especially of the base) dentate, apex acute to attenuate.
    Capitulum
    Capitula several together in dense clusters, these arranged in lax leafy corymbs or panicles; capitula subsessile or shortly stalked, mature capitula surrounded by bud capitula, their bases and the upper part of the capitulum stalk with a white tomentum; involucre 12–16 mm long; phyllaries green with red-purple tinge on margins and apex, ovate to lanceolate, 3–15 mm long, obtuse, the outer proximally tomentose, the inner glabrous.
    Florets
    Florets many; corolla yellow, the outer orange beneath, tube cylindric, 8–9.5 mm long, distally pilose; ligule 4–6 mm long, 0.5–1 mm wide.
    Fruits
    Achenes pale brown, narrowly ellipsoid, slightly flattened, 3–4 mm long, angular and ribbed, rugulose, glabrous; pappus white, 8–10 mm long.
    Habitat
    Grassland, forest margins, thickets, cultivated land, roadsides; 1200–2650 m
    Distribution
    K3 K4 K5 K6 T2 T3 T4 U2 U3

    Distribution

    Native to:

    Burundi, Ethiopia, Kenya, Mozambique, Rwanda, Tanzania, Uganda, Zaïre

    Sonchus luxurians (R.E.Fr.) C.Jeffrey appears in other Kew resources:

    Date Reference Identified As Barcode Type Status
    Jan 1, 1997 Bally, P.R.O. [1147], Kenya K000334230
    Jan 1, 1997 Bally, P.R.O. [4743], Kenya K000334241
    Jan 1, 1997 Bally, P.R.O. [1019], Kenya K000334249
    Jan 1, 1997 Wimbush, S.H. [3360], Kenya K000334234
    Jan 1, 1997 Copley, H. [426], Kenya K000334240
    Jan 1, 1997 Dowson, W.J. [360], Kenya K000334242
    Jan 1, 1997 Kerfoot, O. [1391], Kenya K000334232
    Jan 1, 1997 Kerfoot, O. [498], Kenya K000334236
    Jan 1, 1997 Mathenge, S.G. [207], Kenya K000334231
    Jan 1, 1997 Hancock, A.D. [29], Kenya K000334239
    Jan 1, 1997 Whittal, E. [3], Kenya K000334248
    Jan 1, 1997 s.coll. [501], Kenya K000334227
    Jan 1, 1997 Albrechtsen, W. [8], Kenya K000334233
    Jan 1, 1997 Someren, C. van [s.n.], Kenya K000334238
    Greenway, P.J. [13849], Kenya K000334247
    Greenway, P.J. [13550], Kenya K000334250
    Gillett, J.B. [19006], Kenya K000334243
    Townsend, C.C. [2197], Kenya K000334244
    Polhill, E. [29], Kenya K000334235
    Perdue, R.E. [8311], Kenya K000334237
    Thomas, B.C. [28248], Kenya K000334245
    Fayad, C. [253], Kenya K000334246

    First published in Kew Bull. 18(3): 480 (1966)

    Accepted by

    • Roskov Y. & al. (eds.) (2018). Species 2000 & ITIS Catalogue of Life Naturalis, Leiden, the Netherlands.

    Literature

    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    • Agnew, A.D.Q. & Agnew, S., Upland Kenya Wild Flowers, ed. 2: 230 (1994).
    • G.V. Pope in Flora Zambesiaca 6: 227, t. 41b (1992).
    • Lawalrée, Dethier & Gilissen in Flore d'Afrique Centrale Compositae: Cichorioideae: 36, t. 6 (1986).
    • Boulos in Bot. Notis. 127: 414 (1974).
    • C. Jeffrey in Kew Bulletin 18: 480 (1966).

    Sources

    Flora Zambesiaca
    Flora Zambesiaca
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Herbarium Catalogue Specimens
    'The Herbarium Catalogue, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Published on the Internet http://www.kew.org/herbcat [accessed on Day Month Year]'. Please enter the date on which you consulted the system.

    Kew Backbone Distributions
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2020. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

    Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2020. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0