1. Family: Loranthaceae Juss.
    1. Erianthemum Tiegh.

      1. This genus is accepted, and its native range is Tropical & S. Africa.

    [FZ]

    Flora Zambesiaca. Vol. 9, Part 3. Polygonaceae-Myriaceae. Pope GV, Polhill RM, Martins ES. 2006.

    Style
    Style filiform; stigma capitate
    Note
    Closely related to Oncella and with some overlap of distinguishing features, but forming a coherent group that is soon recognized by familiarity with the common and widespread species, E. dregei. Vents appear in the mature flower buds through which sunbirds seek nectar, the withdrawal of the beak tearing between the corolla lobes, releasing the tension that explosively sheds the anthers with the coiling upper part of the filament depositing a puff of pollen on the bird’s head.
    Distribution
    16 species in eastern and southern Africa from Ethiopia to the Eastern Cape Province of South Africa, extending westwards to the Central African Republic, Katanga (Shaba) Province of Dem. Rep. Congo and Angola.
    Habit
    Shrubs mostly spreading 1–2 m from a single haustorial attachment; hairs stellate and dendritic, longer ones on flowers subsimple; twigs terete. Shrubs mostly spreading 1–2 m from a single haustorial attachment; hairs stellate and dendritic, longer ones on flowers subsimple; twigs terete
    Leaves
    Leaves opposite, subopposite or partly alternate, sometimes clustered on short shoots, penninerved. Leaves opposite, subopposite or partly alternate, sometimes clustered on short shoots, penninerved
    Flowers
    Flowers generally few, sessile in heads, sometimes shortly racemose or elsewhere spicate; peduncles axillary, clustered at older nodes or terminal on short shoots bearing (1)2 pairs of leaves; bract ovate to subcircular, concave, sometimes with a leafy limb. Flowers generally few, sessile in heads, sometimes shortly racemose or elsewhere spicate; peduncles axillary, clustered at older nodes or terminal on short shoots bearing (1)2 pairs of leaves; bract ovate to subcircular, concave, sometimes with a leafy limb
    Receptacle
    Receptacle generally long-hairy; calyx cupular to tubular, subentire to shortly toothed. Receptacle generally long-hairy; calyx cupular to tubular, subentire to shortly toothed
    Corolla
    Corolla usually joined less than halfway, 5-lobed, radially symmetrical, mostly yellow to green, flushed orange on tube, silky villous or at least with stellate and some long subsimple hairs on buds; tube constricted above a basal swelling, glabrous or hairy inside; lobes spreading-reflexed from below middle. Corolla usually joined less than halfway, 5-lobed, radially symmetrical, mostly yellow to green, flushed orange on tube, silky villous or at least with stellate and some long subsimple hairs on buds; tube constricted above a basal swelling, glabrous or hairy inside; lobes spreading-reflexed from below middle
    Stamens
    Stamen filaments attached well above the base of the lobe, the upper thickened and flattened part breaking off with the anther when the flower is opened; anthers 4-thecous, with a small bifid or hammer-shaped apical connective-appendage. Stamen filaments attached well above the base of the lobe, the upper thickened and flattened part breaking off with the anther when the flower is opened; anthers 4-thecous, with a small bifid or hammer-shaped apical connective-appendage
    Pistil
    Style filiform; stigma capitate.
    Fruits
    Berry orange, reddish or blue-green, with persistent calyx urceolate; seed orange to red. Berry orange, reddish or blue-green, with persistent calyx urceolate; seed orange to red.
    [FTEA]

    Loranthaceae, Polhill & D. Wiens. Flora of Tropical East Africa. 1999

    Habit
    Shrubs mostly 1–2 m. from a single haustorial attachment; hairs stellate and dendritic, longer ones on flowers subsimple; twigs terete
    Leaves
    Leaves opposite, subopposite or partly alternate, sometimes clustered on short shoots, penninerved
    Flowers
    Flowers generally few, sessile in heads, elsewhere sometimes shortly racemose or spicate; peduncles axillary, clustered at older nodes or terminal short shoots bearing (1–)2 pairs of leaves; bract unilateral, ovate to subcircular, concave, sometimes with a leafy limb
    Receptacle
    Receptacle generally long-hairy
    Calyx
    Calyx cupular to tubular, subentire to shortly toothed
    Corolla
    Corolla usually joined less than halfway, 5-lobed, radially symmetrical, mostly yellow to green, flushed orange on tube, silky villous or at least with stellate and some long subsimple hairs on buds; tube constricted above a basal swelling, glabrous or hairy inside; lobes spreading-reflexed from below the middle
    Stamens
    Filaments attached well above the lobe-base, the upper thickened and flattened part breaking off with anthers when flower is opened; anthers 4-thecous, with a small bifid or hammer-shaped apical connective-appendage
    Pistil
    Style filiform; stigma capitate
    Fruits
    Berry orange, reddish or blue-green, with persistent calyx urceolate; seed orange to red.

    Images

    Distribution

    Native to:

    Angola, Botswana, Burundi, Cape Provinces, Caprivi Strip, Central African Repu, Chad, Eritrea, Ethiopia, Kenya, KwaZulu-Natal, Malawi, Mozambique, Namibia, Northern Provinces, Somalia, Sudan, Swaziland, Tanzania, Uganda, Zambia, Zaïre, Zimbabwe

    Erianthemum Tiegh. appears in other Kew resources:

    First published in Bull. Soc. Bot. France 42: 248 (1895)

    Accepted by

    • Govaerts, R. (2001). World Checklist of Seed Plants Database in ACCESS E-F: 1-50919.

    Literature

    Flora Zambesiaca
    • J. Linn. Soc., Bot. 90: 132 (1985).
    • Feehan in J. Linn. Soc., Bot. 90: 132 (1985).
    • Webbia 11: 582 (1955).
    • Balle in Webbia 11: 582 (1955).
    • Verh. K. Akad. Wet., sect. 2, 29, 6: 53 (1933).
    • Danser in Verh. K. Akad. Wet., sect. 2, 29, 6: 53 (1933).
    • Bull. Soc. Bot. France 42: 247 (1895).
    • in Bull. Soc. Bot. France 42: 247 (1895).
    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    • Polh. & Wiens, Mistletoes Afr.: 234 (1998)
    • in Bull. Soc. Bot. Fr. 42: 247 (1895)

    Sources

    Flora Zambesiaca
    Flora Zambesiaca
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Kew Backbone Distributions
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2019. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

    Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2019. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0