1. Family: Loranthaceae Juss.
    1. Helixanthera Lour.

      1. This genus is accepted, and is native to Asia-Tropical, Africa, New Caledonia and Yemen..

    [FZ]

    Flora Zambesiaca. Vol. 9, Part 3. Polygonaceae-Myriaceae. Pope GV, Polhill RM, Martins ES. 2006.

    Habit
    Mostly small shrubs from a single haustorial attachment in Africa, essentially glabrous in Africa; twigs terete, flattened or angular Mostly small shrubs from a single haustorial attachment in Africa, essentially glabrous in Africa; twigs terete, flattened or angular.
    Leaves
    Leaves opposite to alternate, sessile to petiolate, usually penninerved Leaves opposite to alternate, sessile to petiolate, usually penninerved.
    Flowers
    Flowers usually in terminal and/or axillary racemes or spikes, elsewhere sometimes crowded at apex of peduncle and subumbellate, 4-merous in Africa; bract unilateral to cupular, with a small ovate-triangular limb, often umbonate Flowers usually in terminal and/or axillary racemes or spikes, elsewhere sometimes crowded at apex of peduncle and subumbellate, 4-merous in Africa; bract unilateral to cupular, with a small ovate-triangular limb, often umbonate.
    Corolla
    Petals separate, white, yellow or red, but not conspicuously banded; lower part erect, generally thickened, sometimes calloused inside at top; upper longer part caudate to spathulate, spreading to reflexed Petals separate, white, yellow or red, but not conspicuously banded; lower part erect, generally thickened, sometimes calloused inside at top; upper longer part caudate to spathulate, spreading to reflexed.
    Style
    Style angular, slender in Africa; stigma small to capitate (in Asia)
    Note
    Helixanthera is the most primitive genus of the family in Africa and comprises several disparate groups of species scattered principally around the edge of the continent. It is easily recognized by its flowers with free petals arranged in racemes. H. woodii is related to forest species in the Guineo-Congolian region and one very local species in southern Tanzania. H. kirkii and H. garciana belong to a group characteristic of the woodlands and coastal regions of the southern half of the continent.
    Distribution
    About 45 species, 12 in tropical Africa, the rest in tropical Asia, south-east as far as the Celibes.
    Calyx
    Calyx rim-like to cupular, subentire to slightly toothed. Calyx rim-like to cupular, subentire to slightly toothed
    Stamens
    Stamens erect, normally arising from top of lower part of petal, sometimes higher; anthers shorter or longer than filament, 2–4-thecous, sometimes locellate. Stamens erect, normally arising from top of lower part of petal, sometimes higher; anthers shorter or longer than filament, 2–4-thecous, sometimes locellate
    Pistil
    Style angular, slender in Africa; stigma small to capitate (in Asia).
    Fruits
    Berries round to ellipsoid, smooth or warted. Berries round to ellipsoid, smooth or warted.
    [FTEA]

    Loranthaceae, Polhill & D. Wiens. Flora of Tropical East Africa. 1999

    Habit
    Mostly small shrubs from a single haustorial attachment in Africa, essentially glabrous in Africa, elsewhere sometimes with a scurfy indumentum including scales, short stiff hairs and small branched hairs; twigs terete, flattened or angular
    Leaves
    Leaves opposite to alternate, sessile to petiolate, usually penninerved
    Flowers
    Flowers usually in terminal and/or axillary racemes or spikes, sometimes crowded at the apex of peduncle, subumbellate, 4(–7 in Asia)-merous; bract unilateral to cupular, with a small ovate-triangular limb, often umbonate
    Calyx
    Calyx rim-like to cupular, subentire to slightly toothed
    Corolla
    Petals separate, white, yellow or red, but not conspicuously banded; lower part erect, generally thickened, sometimes callused inside at top; upper longer part caudate to spathulate, spreading to reflexed
    Stamens
    Stamens erect, normally arising from top of lower part of petal, sometimes higher; anthers shorter or longer than filament, 2–4-thecous, sometimes locellate
    Style
    Style angular, slender with a small stigma in Africa
    Fruits
    Berries round to ellipsoid, smooth or warted.

    Images

    Distribution

    Native to:

    Andaman Is., Angola, Assam, Bangladesh, Borneo, Cambodia, Cameroon, Central African Repu, Congo, East Himalaya, Ethiopia, Gabon, Gulf of Guinea Is., Ivory Coast, Jawa, Kenya, KwaZulu-Natal, Laos, Lesser Sunda Is., Malaya, Mozambique, Myanmar, Nepal, New Caledonia, Nigeria, Northern Provinces, Philippines, Somalia, Sulawesi, Sumatera, Tanzania, Thailand, Uganda, Vietnam, Yemen, Zambia, Zaïre, Zimbabwe

    Helixanthera Lour. appears in other Kew resources:

    Date Reference Identified As Barcode Type Status
    Harris, D.J. [1623], Central African Republic 63370.000

    First published in Fl. Cochinch.: 142 (1790)

    Literature

    Flora of West Tropical Africa
    • Balle in Webbia 11: 579 (1955).
    • Verh. Akad. Wetensch. Amst. Afd. Natuurk., sect. 2, 29: 55 (1933)
    • emend. Danger in Bull. Jard. Bot. Buitenz., ser 3, 10: 292 (1929)
    • Fl. Cochinch. 142 (1790)
    Flora Zambesiaca
    • Polhill & Wiens, Mistletoes Afr.: 79 (1998).
    • Verh. K. Akad. Wet., sect. 2, 29, 6: 55 (1933).
    • Danser in Verh. K. Akad. Wet., sect. 2, 29, 6: 55 (1933).
    • Fl. Cochinch. 1: 142 (1790).
    • Fl. Cochinch. 1: 142 (1790).
    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    • Polh. & Wiens, Mistletoes Afr.: 79 (1998)
    • Fl. Cochinch.: 142 (1790)

    Sources

    Flora Zambesiaca
    Flora Zambesiaca
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Herbarium Catalogue Specimens
    'The Herbarium Catalogue, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Published on the Internet http://www.kew.org/herbcat [accessed on Day Month Year]'. Please enter the date on which you consulted the system.

    Interactive Key to Seed Plants of Malesia and Indo-China
    The Malesian Key Group (2010) Interactive Key to Seed Plants of Malesia and Indo-China (Version 2.0, 28 Jul 2010) The Nationaal Herbarium Nederland Leiden and The Royal Botanic Gardens Kew

    Kew Backbone Distributions
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2018. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

    Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2018. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0