1. Family: Loranthaceae Juss.
    1. Phragmanthera Tiegh.

      1. This genus is accepted, and is native to Africa and Asia-Temperate..

    [FTEA]

    Loranthaceae, Polhill & D. Wiens. Flora of Tropical East Africa. 1999

    Habit
    Shrubs, often large and pendent, with a single haustorial attachment; branchlets slightly compressed; youngest parts, at least, always with scales, stellate and verticillately branched dendritic hairs
    Leaves
    Leaves opposite, subopposite or rarely ternate, generally petiolate, usually somewhat coriaceous, penninerved
    Flowers
    Flowers in sessile to shortly pedunculate umbels or 2–several in the axils; bract unilateral, often gibbous, sometimes enlarged and foliaceous
    Calyx
    Calyx annular to shortly tubular, generally shorter than receptacle, subentire to shortly lobed
    Corolla
    Corolla 5-lobed, with tube longer than lobes, usually yellow or orange with red markings or more generally reddish, but colours often muted by indumentum; apical swelling of bud fusiform to globular, sometimes ribbed or narrowly winged; basal swelling variably developed; tube split unilaterally, the V-slit extending little more or less than halfway, papillate along sutures and edges of filament-lines to varying degrees; lobes erect or reflexed, narrow below, the upper part expanded to varying degrees and often hardened inside
    Stamens
    Stamens attached near the base of the lobes, linear, inrolled at anthesis, sometimes with a tooth in front of the anther; anther oblong to linear-oblong, with 4 thecae transversely divided into several–many chambers
    Pistil
    Style slender, 5-angled or narrowly 5-winged, often expanded opposite the filaments and narrowed opposite anthers, sometimes papillate or hairy; stigma globular to obovoid or conical-ovoid
    Fruits
    Berry reddish or often blue to blue-green, ellipsoid or obovoid, generally with persistent calyx.
    [FZ]

    Flora Zambesiaca. Vol. 9, Part 3. Polygonaceae-Myriaceae. Pope GV, Polhill RM, Martins ES. 2006.

    Habit
    Shrubs, often large and pendent, with a single haustorial attachment; branchlets slightly compressed; youngest parts, at least, always with scales, stellate and verticillately branched dendritic hairs Shrubs, often large and pendent, with a single haustorial attachment; branchlets slightly compressed; youngest parts, at least, always with scales, stellate and verticillately branched dendritic hairs.
    Leaves
    Leaves opposite, subopposite or rarely ternate, generally petiolate, usually somewhat coriaceous, penninerved Leaves opposite, subopposite or rarely ternate, generally petiolate, usually somewhat coriaceous, penninerved.
    Flowers
    Flowers in sessile to shortly pedunculate umbels or 2–several in the axils; bract unilateral, often gibbous, sometimes enlarged and foliaceous Flowers in sessile to shortly pedunculate umbels or 2–several in the axils; bract unilateral, often gibbous, sometimes enlarged and foliaceous.
    Calyx
    Calyx annular to shortly tubular, generally shorter than receptacle, subentire to shortly lobed Calyx annular to shortly tubular, generally shorter than receptacle, subentire to shortly lobed.
    Style
    Style slender, 5-angled or narrowly 5-winged, often expanded opposite filaments and narrowed opposite anthers, sometimes papillate or hairy; stigma globular to obovoid or conical-ovoid
    Ecology
    Most of the species occur in or near forests, but a few have extended into relatively dry habitats especially in south-central and southern Africa.
    Note
    The flowers open by vents developing between the lower part of the corolla lobes, revealing the contrasting colour of the filaments as a honey guide. Penetration of the pollinator’s beak causes the characteristic V-shaped slit on that side, the sprung filaments incurve to scatter pollen and the stigma is often pulled towards the bird’s head by the curling stamens. After anthesis the conspicuousness of the inflorescence is often enhanced by intensive colouring of the corolla tube inside. Phragmanthera closely mimics Agelanthus in its flower structure, and both genera were included in Tapinanthus by Danser in Verh. K. Akad. Wet., sect. 2, 29, 6 (1933). It is easily distinguished from both those genera by the indumentum of scales, stellate and dendritic hairs, by the unilateral bract and locellate anthers. It appears most closely related to Oedina and the Asiatic genus Dendrophthoë, differing from both by the more specialized pollination mechanism.
    Distribution
    34 species, well distributed in tropical Africa and Arabia, the species often very common locally and liable to become pests of plantation crops. Most of the species occur in or near forests, but a few have extended into relatively dry habitats especially
    Corolla
    Corolla 5(exceptionally 6)-lobed, with tube longer than lobes, usually yellow or orange with red markings or more generally reddish, but colours often muted by indumentum; apical swelling of bud fusiform to globular, sometimes ribbed or narrowly winged; basal swelling variably developed; tube split unilaterally, the V-slit extending little more or less than halfway, papillate along sutures and edges of filament lines to varying degrees; lobes erect or reflexed, narrow below, upper part expanded to varying degrees and often hardened inside. Corolla 5(exceptionally 6)-lobed, with tube longer than lobes, usually yellow or orange with red markings or more generally reddish, but colours often muted by indumentum; apical swelling of bud fusiform to globular, sometimes ribbed or narrowly winged; basal swelling variably developed; tube split unilaterally, the V-slit extending little more or less than halfway, papillate along sutures and edges of filament lines to varying degrees; lobes erect or reflexed, narrow below, upper part expanded to varying degrees and often hardened inside
    Stamens
    Stamen filaments attached near base of lobes, linear, inrolled at anthesis, sometimes with a tooth in front of the anther; anther oblong to linear-oblong, with 4 thecae transversely divided into several to many locules. Stamen filaments attached near base of lobes, linear, inrolled at anthesis, sometimes with a tooth in front of the anther; anther oblong to linear-oblong, with 4 thecae transversely divided into several to many locules
    Pistil
    Style slender, 5-angled or narrowly 5-winged, often expanded opposite filaments and narrowed opposite anthers, sometimes papillate or hairy; stigma globular to obovoid or conical-ovoid.
    Fruits
    Berry reddish or often blue to blue-green, ellipsoid or obovoid, generally with persistent calyx. Berry reddish or often blue to blue-green, ellipsoid or obovoid, generally with persistent calyx.

    Images

    Distribution

    Native to:

    Angola, Benin, Burundi, Cabinda, Cameroon, Caprivi Strip, Central African Repu, Chad, Congo, Eritrea, Ethiopia, Gabon, Ghana, Guinea, Guinea-Bissau, Gulf of Guinea Is., Ivory Coast, Kenya, Liberia, Malawi, Mozambique, Namibia, Nigeria, Rwanda, Saudi Arabia, Senegal, Sierra Leone, Somalia, Sudan, Tanzania, Togo, Uganda, Yemen, Zambia, Zaïre, Zimbabwe

    Phragmanthera Tiegh. appears in other Kew resources:

    Date Reference Identified As Barcode Type Status
    Welwitsch [4886], Angola K000407029 Unknown type material

    First published in Bull. Soc. Bot. France 42: 261 (1895)

    Literature

    Flora of West Tropical Africa
    • Balle in Webbia 11: 583 (1955).
    • in Bull. Soc. Bot. Fr. 42: 243, 261 (1895)
    Flora Zambesiaca
    • Polhill & Wiens, Mistletoes Afr.: 246 (1998).
    • Webbia 11: 583 (1955).
    • Balle in Webbia 11: 583 (1955).
    • Bull. Soc. Bot. France 42: 261 (1895).
    • in Bull. Soc. Bot. France 42: 261 (1895).
    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    • Polh. & Wiens, Mistletoes Afr.: 246 (1998)
    • Balle in Webbia 11: 583 (1955)
    • in Bull. Soc. Bot. Fr. 42: 261 (1895)

    Sources

    Flora Zambesiaca
    Flora Zambesiaca
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Herbarium Catalogue Specimens
    'The Herbarium Catalogue, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Published on the Internet http://www.kew.org/herbcat [accessed on Day Month Year]'. Please enter the date on which you consulted the system.
    Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/

    Kew Backbone Distributions
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2019. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

    Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2019. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0