1. Family: Loranthaceae Juss.
    1. Plicosepalus Tiegh.

      1. This genus is accepted, and is native to Africa and Asia-Temperate..

    [FZ]

    Flora Zambesiaca. Vol. 9, Part 3. Polygonaceae-Myriaceae. Pope GV, Polhill RM, Martins ES. 2006.

    Stem
    Stems a few cm to several m, spreading by haustoria-bearing surface runners
    Corolla
    Petals connivent or joined in lower part, slightly to markedly curved in bud, mostly red or yellow, with 2 rows of oblique folds below filament insertion, these parts connivent, the upper part narrow below the linear-lanceolate to linear-spathulate tips, reflexing, looped and often twisted; corolla tube, if present, sometimes with further series of flaps or a lobed ledge Petals connivent or joined in lower part, slightly to markedly curved in bud, mostly red or yellow, with 2 rows of oblique folds below filament insertion, these parts connivent, the upper part narrow below the linear-lanceolate to linear-spathulate tips, reflexing, looped and often twisted; corolla tube, if present, sometimes with further series of flaps or a lobed ledge.
    Stamens
    Stamens following curve of style and subequal in length, red at least above; anthers 4-thecous Stamens following curve of style and subequal in length, red at least above; anthers 4-thecous.
    Style
    Style inserted in a depression on the ovary, filiform, angular, slightly curved to sinuous, sometimes corrugated near base, only slightly thickened where anthers appressed in bud; stigma capitate
    Fruits
    Berry red or yellow, ellipsoid or urceolate, smooth or warty. Berry red or yellow, ellipsoid or urceolate, smooth or warty.
    Note
    In the typical species of Plicosepalus a small slit opens on the upper side of the mature bud just above the point of filament insertion. The torsional tendency turns the inside surfaces of the petals to face outwards in this region, forming a distinct pair of lips of contrasting colour. The flower may open spontaneously, but the opening is probably a signal to sunbirds. Probing causes a tear between the petals, the distal parts reflexing backwards and downwards with a twisting motion. It is probable that friction between the petal-folds and the tip of the beak and tongue of the bird cause vibrations in the stamens and helps to dust the bird’s forehead with pollen (Feehan, 1985). Plicosepalus, including the species formerly referred to Tapinostemma, is easily recognized among the African genera by the corolla curved to S-shaped in bud, with prominent interlocking folds on the inner side of the coherent part of the petals. It is the only genus among the Tapinanthoid group to have haustorial runners The genus is generally considered to be related to Helixanthera and Amyema (Danser: 22 (1933); Balle fig 14 (1955)), but no close connection is now apparent.
    Habit
    Stems a few cm to several m, spreading by haustoria-bearing surface runners.
    Leaves
    Leaves irregularly opposite to alternate, often clustered on short shoots, sessile to shortly petiolate, leathery to slightly fleshy, palminerved. Leaves irregularly opposite to alternate, often clustered on short shoots, sessile to shortly petiolate, leathery to slightly fleshy, palminerved
    Flowers
    Flowers (1)few in umbels in the axils or terminal on short shoots, 5-merous; bract saucer-shaped, with a small umbonate or spurred oblong to ovate-triangular limb, sometimes lacerate. Flowers (1)few in umbels in the axils or terminal on short shoots, 5-merous; bract saucer-shaped, with a small umbonate or spurred oblong to ovate-triangular limb, sometimes lacerate
    Calyx
    Calyx rim-like to cupular, sometimes split as flower opens. Calyx rim-like to cupular, sometimes split as flower opens
    Pistil
    Style inserted in a depression on the ovary, filiform, angular, slightly curved to sinuous, sometimes corrugated near base, only slightly thickened where anthers appressed in bud; stigma capitate.
    [FTEA]

    Loranthaceae, Polhill & D. Wiens. Flora of Tropical East Africa. 1999

    Habit
    Stems a few cm. to several m. long, glabrous or rarely with short stiff simple hairs, spreading by haustoria-bearing surface runners
    Leaves
    Leaves irregularly opposite to alternate, often clustered on short shoots, sessile to shortly petiolate, leathery to slightly fleshy, palminerved
    Flowers
    Flowers (1–)few in umbels in the axils or terminal on short shoots, 5-merous; bract saucer-shaped, with a small umbonate or spurred oblong to ovate-triangular limb, sometimes lacerate
    Calyx
    Calyx rim-like to cupular, sometimes split as flower opens
    Corolla
    Petals connivent or joined in lower part, slightly to markedly curved in bud, mostly red or yellow, with 2 rows of oblique folds below the filament-insertion, these parts connivent, the upper part narrow below the linear-lanceolate to linear-spathulate tips, reflexing, looped and often twisted; corolla-tube, if present, sometimes with further series of flaps or a lobed ledge
    Stamens
    Stamens following curve of style and subequal in length, red at least above; anthers 4-thecous
    Pistil
    Style filiform, angular, slightly curved to sinuous, sometimes corrugated near the base, only slightly thickened where anthers appressed in bud; stigma capitate
    Fruits
    Berry red or yellow, ellipsoid or urceolate, smooth or warty.

    Images

    Distribution

    Native to:

    Angola, Botswana, Cape Provinces, Chad, Djibouti, Egypt, Eritrea, Ethiopia, Kenya, KwaZulu-Natal, Malawi, Mozambique, Namibia, Northern Provinces, Oman, Palestine, Saudi Arabia, Sinai, Somalia, Sudan, Swaziland, Tanzania, Uganda, Yemen, Zambia, Zaïre, Zimbabwe

    Plicosepalus Tiegh. appears in other Kew resources:

    First published in Bull. Soc. Bot. France 41: 504 (1894)

    Literature

    Flora Zambesiaca
    • Polhill & Wiens, Mistletoes Afr.: 87 (1998).
    • J. Linn. Soc., Bot. 90: 141, fig. 9 (1985).
    • Feehan in J. Linn. Soc., Bot. 90: 141, fig. 9 (1985).
    • Webbia 11: 580, fig. 14 (1955).
    • Balle in Webbia 11: 580, fig. 14 (1955).
    • Verh. K. Akad. Wet., sect. 2, 29, 6: 100 (1933).
    • Danser in Verh. K. Akad. Wet., sect. 2, 29, 6: 100 (1933).
    • Bull. Soc. Bot. France 41: 504 (1894).
    • in Bull. Soc. Bot. France 41: 504 (1894).
    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    • Polh. & Wiens, Mistletoes Afr.: 87 (1998)
    • in Bull. Soc. Bot. Fr. 41: 504 (1894)

    Sources

    Flora Zambesiaca
    Flora Zambesiaca
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Kew Backbone Distributions
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2019. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

    Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2019. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0