1. Family: Loranthaceae Juss.
    1. Vanwykia Wiens

      1. This genus is accepted, and is native to Africa..

    [FZ]

    Flora Zambesiaca. Vol. 9, Part 3. Polygonaceae-Myriaceae. Pope GV, Polhill RM, Martins ES. 2006.

    Flowers
    Flowers 2–6 in sessile to shortly stalked umbels in the axils and crowded at older nodes; bract unilateral, lanceolate to ovate Flowers 2–6 in sessile to shortly stalked umbels in the axils and crowded at older nodes; bract unilateral, lanceolate to ovate.
    Calyx
    Calyx annular Calyx annular.
    Corolla
    Corolla (4)5-merous, green turning reddish, tomentose, bilaterally symmetrical, developing only a short V-slit; buds straight, with ellipsoid to obovoid head, induplicate; lobes short, erect, somewhat incurved at tip, spathulate Corolla (4)5-merous, green turning reddish, tomentose, bilaterally symmetrical, developing only a short V-slit; buds straight, with ellipsoid to obovoid head, induplicate; lobes short, erect, somewhat incurved at tip, spathulate.
    Stamens
    Stamens attached at base of corolla lobes, short, essentially erect, but curving inward to form a central, collective anther-mass; anthers 4-thecous, with minute connective appendage Stamens attached at base of corolla lobes, short, essentially erect, but curving inward to form a central, collective anther-mass; anthers 4-thecous, with minute connective appendage.
    Style
    Style terete, tapered, pubescent on lower half; stigma obovoid to globular
    Fruits
    Berry red, cylindrical, hairy. Berry red, cylindrical, hairy.
    Note
    Closely related to Taxillus and included there by Balle, loc. cit. (1955). In Adansonia, n.s. 4: 105 (1964) she segregated the Madagascan genera Bakerella Tiegh. and Socratina Balle and indicated that the African groups should also be given generic rank. Vanwykia looks different with its large very hairy flowers, and technically may be distinguished by its hairy style from Taxillus, Bakerella and Septulina Tiegh. (from southern Namibia and the Cape). Socratina, from SW Madagascar, also has a hairy style, but the flowers are modified rather differently with a unique hairy covering to the inner face of the corolla lobes and, unlike the rest of these Taxilloid genera, filaments that inroll at anthesis. The flowers of Vanwykia are generally 5-merous in contrast to the 4-merous condition in Septulina, but occasional 4-merous populations have been found by Dr Feehan in V. remota from central Malawi. The flowers of Vanwykia are not or only weakly explosive. As described by Feehan in J. Linn. Soc., Bot. 90: 140 (1985), the corolla lobes separate as the flower matures to reveal the anthers grouped in a column around the pistil. The scarlet anther backs function as a honey-guide encouraging a pollinator to penetrate the vents, causing a short rent in the corolla tube sufficient to release the anthers and deposit pollen on the bird's head. After pollination the red coloration spreads further down the stamens, and the style also reddens. Kirkup in Polhill & Wiens, Mistletoes Afr.: 42 (1998) suspects that the heads of the mature flower bud may be squeezed by birds to release the pollen by a weakly explosive mechanism.
    Distribution
    Two species in eastern and south-eastern Africa.
    Habit
    Medium-sized to large shrubs extending to 1.5 m or so, spreading by stout haustoria-bearing surface runners; hairs stellate and dendritic; twigs terete. Medium-sized to large shrubs extending to 1.5 m or so, spreading by stout haustoria-bearing surface runners; hairs stellate and dendritic; twigs terete
    Leaves
    Leaves alternate to opposite, sometimes fascicled, petiolate, penninerved. Leaves alternate to opposite, sometimes fascicled, petiolate, penninerved
    Pistil
    Style terete, tapered, pubescent on lower half; stigma obovoid to globular.
    [FTEA]

    Loranthaceae, Polhill & D. Wiens. Flora of Tropical East Africa. 1999

    Habit
    Medium-sized to large shrubs to 1.5 m. or so, spreading by stout haustoria-bearing surface runners; hairs stellate and dendritic; twigs terete
    Leaves
    Leaves alternate to opposite, sometimes fascicled, petiolate, penninerved
    Flowers
    Flowers 2–6 in sessile to shortly stalked umbels in the axils and crowded at older nodes; bract unilateral, lanceolate to ovate
    Calyx
    Calyx annular
    Corolla
    Corolla (4–)5-merous, green turning reddish, tomentose, bilaterally symmetrical, developing only a short V-slit; buds straight, with ellipsoid to obovoid head, induplicate; lobes short, erect, somewhat incurved at the tip, spathulate
    Stamens
    Stamens attached at the base of corolla-lobes, short, essentially erect, but curving inward to form a central, collective anther-mass; anthers 4-thecous, with minute connective appendage
    Pistil
    Style terete, tapered, pubescent on lower half; stigma obovoid to globular
    Fruits
    Berry red, ellipsoid to cylindrical, hairy.

    Images

    Distribution

    Native to:

    Malawi, Mozambique, Northern Provinces, Tanzania, Zambia, Zimbabwe

    Vanwykia Wiens appears in other Kew resources:

    First published in Bothalia 12: 422 (1978)

    Literature

    Flora Zambesiaca
    • Polhill & Wiens, Mistletoes Afr.: 221 (1998).
    • J. Linn. Soc., Bot. 90: 140, fig.8 (1985).
    • Feehan in J. Linn. Soc., Bot. 90: 140, fig.8 (1985).
    • Fl. Sthn. Africa 10, 1: 28 (1979).
    • Wiens & Tölken in Fl. Sthn. Africa 10, 1: 28 (1979).
    • Bothalia 12: 422 (1978).
    • in Bothalia 12: 422 (1978).
    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    • Polh. & Wiens, Mistletoes Afr.: 221 (1998)
    • in Bothalia 12: 422 (1978)

    Sources

    Flora Zambesiaca
    Flora Zambesiaca
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Kew Backbone Distributions
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2019. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

    Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2019. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0