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This species is accepted, and its native range is N. America, Peru to Brazil and S. South America.
Xanthium strumarium

[FTEA]

Compositae, H. Beentje, C. Jeffrey & D.J.N. Hind. Flora of Tropical East Africa. 2005

Morphology General Habit
Coarse annual herb to 1.5 m high; stems scabridulous, often reddish.
Morphology Leaves
Leaves broadly deltate or broadly ovate, simple or 3–5-lobed, 5–12 cm long, 4–18 cm wide, base cordate as well as broadly cuneate, margins coarsely crenate, apex acute or obtuse, scabrid on both surfaces; 3-veined from base; petiole to 12 cm long.
sex Male
Male capitula terminal on short axillary branches; involucre ± 3 mm long; corolla ± 2.5 mm long.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Inflorescences
Female capitula to 4 mm long, with connate involucre. Male capitula terminal on short axillary branches; involucre ± 3 mm long; corolla ± 2.5 mm long.
sex Female
Female capitula to 4 mm long, with connate involucre.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Fruits
Fruit ellipsoid, 1.5–2.3 cm long, covered in hooked spines 3–4 mm long, apex acute.
Figures
Fig. 178 (page 818).
Habitat
uderal sites; 20–1650 m
Distribution
probably originally from North Americanow a global weed K4 K5 T2 T5

[UNAL]

Bernal, R., G. Galeano, A. Rodríguez, H. Sarmiento y M. Gutiérrez. 2017. Nombres Comunes de las Plantas de Colombia. http://www.biovirtual.unal.edu.co/nombrescomunes/

Vernacular
cadillo, cardo

[CPLC]

Bernal, R., Gradstein, S.R. & Celis, M. (eds.). 2015. Catálogo de plantas y líquenes de Colombia. Instituto de Ciencias Naturales, Universidad Nacional de Colombia, Bogotá. http://catalogoplantasdecolombia.unal.edu.co

Distribution
Adventicia en Colombia; Alt. 500 - 1600 m.; Andes.
Morphology General Habit
Hierba, arbusto
Conservation
No Evaluada

[FSOM]

M. Thulin. Flora of Somalia, Vol. 1–4 [updated 2008] https://plants.jstor.org/collection/FLOS

Morphology General Habit
Cosmopolitan weed. Annual or short‑lived perennial herb, 30–90 cm high, sometimes to 3 m in moist sites; stems unarmed, slightly scabrid
Morphology Leaves
Leaves broadly ovate to triangular, simple or 3–5-lobed, 4–15´4–8 cm, base cordate though cuneate into the petiole, margins irregularly dentate, apex acute to acuminate, scabrid, 3–5-nerved from base; petiole to 15 cm long
Morphology Reproductive morphology Inflorescences Capitulum
Male capitula sessile, involucre 2–3 mm long, florets to 2 mm long; female capitula axillary, solitary or in small groups, subsessile; fused involucre ellipsoid, 12–35 mm long, 8–15 mm across, covered in straight or hooked spines.

Native to:

Alabama, Alaska, Alberta, Argentina Northeast, Argentina Northwest, Argentina South, Arizona, Arkansas, Bolivia, Brazil Northeast, Brazil South, Brazil Southeast, British Columbia, California, Cambodia, Chile Central, Chile North, Colorado, Connecticut, Delaware, District of Columbia, Florida, Georgia, Idaho, Illinois, Indiana, Iowa, Kansas, Kentucky, Louisiana, Maine, Manitoba, Maryland, Massachusetts, Mexico Central, Mexico Gulf, Mexico Northeast, Mexico Northwest, Mexico Southeast, Mexico Southwest, Michigan, Minnesota, Mississippi, Missouri, Montana, Nebraska, Nevada, New Brunswick, New Hampshire, New Jersey, New Mexico, New York, North Carolina, North Dakota, Nova Scotia, Ohio, Oklahoma, Ontario, Oregon, Paraguay, Pennsylvania, Peru, Prince Edward I., Québec, Rhode I., Saskatchewan, South Carolina, South Dakota, Tennessee, Texas, Uruguay, Utah, Vermont, Virginia, Washington, West Virginia, Wisconsin, Wyoming

Introduced into:

Afghanistan, Albania, Algeria, Altay, Amur, Assam, Austria, Azores, Baleares, Baltic States, Bangladesh, Belarus, Belgium, Botswana, Brazil North, Bulgaria, Canary Is., Cape Provinces, Chita, Colombia, Corse, Cuba, Cyprus, Czechoslovakia, Dominican Republic, East Aegean Is., East European Russia, Egypt, France, Free State, Germany, Greece, Haiti, Hungary, India, Iraq, Italy, Jamaica, Khabarovsk, Korea, Krasnoyarsk, Kriti, Krym, Kuril Is., KwaZulu-Natal, Lebanon-Syria, Leeward Is., Lesotho, Libya, Madeira, Marquesas, Mongolia, Morocco, Netherlands, North Caucasus, Northern Provinces, Northwest European R, Palestine, Poland, Portugal, Primorye, Puerto Rico, Romania, Sakhalin, Sardegna, Sicilia, Sinai, Society Is., South European Russi, Spain, Sri Lanka, Swaziland, Switzerland, Tadzhikistan, Thailand, Transcaucasus, Tuamotu, Tunisia, Turkey, Turkey-in-Europe, Ukraine, Venezuela, West Himalaya, West Siberia, Yugoslavia, Zimbabwe

English
Donkey burr

Xanthium strumarium L. appears in other Kew resources:

Date Reference Identified As Barcode Type Status
Sep 1, 2012 Gardner, G. [524], Brazil K000895500
Sep 1, 2012 Gardner, G. [524], Brazil K000895499
Jul 1, 2012 Burchell [4911], Brazil K000955673
Jul 1, 2012 Burchell [2741], Brazil K000955675
Schimper [1343], Ethiopia K000410236 Unknown type material
Schimper [1958], Ethiopia K000410237
Kotschy [319], Sudan K000410238 Unknown type material
Douglas, D. [s.n.] K001065884 isotype
[Bulbley], E. [s.n.], India K001065887
Mc Callum Webster, M. [5165], United Kingdom K001045247
s.coll. [s.n.] K001065888 Unknown type material
[Helderich] [s.n.] K001065891
Graham, R.A. [1423 [Dorny], United Kingdom K001045250
Ricketts, V.I. [V-C 5], United Kingdom K001045256
Baker, C.F. [1760], California K001065883
Burchell, J. [2901], Brazil K000955674
Medlin, L.J. [s.n.], United Kingdom K001045253
Sledge, W.A. [H2258 1933], United Kingdom K001045248
Amaral, I.L. [107061], Brazil K001031230
s.coll. [s.n.] K001065894
Hunt, T.C. [s.n.], United Kingdom K001045251
Talbot [s.n.], Italy K001065893 syntype
Hoehne, W. [544], Brazil K001031231
Sherff, E.E. [3094], Illinois K001065882
McCallum Webster, M. [2181], United Kingdom K001045254
Herb. Lousley, J.E. [s.n.], United Kingdom K001045249
Medlam, L. [s.n.], United Kingdom K001045252
Ricketts, V.I. [V-C 5], United Kingdom K001045255
[Heldreich] [s.n.] K001065892
Sherff, E.E. [5012] K001065885

First published in Sp. Pl.: 987 (1753)

Accepted by

  • Aver'ianov, L.V. & al. (2006). Illyustrirovannyi opredelitel' rastenii Leningradskoi oblasti: 1-799. Nauka, Moskva.
  • Barooah, C. & Ahmed, I. (2014). Plant diversity of Assam. A checklist of Angiosperms and Gymnosperms: 1-599. Assam science technology and environment council, India.
  • GCC in GCC (2011). Global Compositae Checklist Global Compositae Checklist http://compositae.landcareresearch.co.nz/.
  • Ghazanfar, S.A., Edmondson, J.R. & Hind, D.J.N. (eds.) (2019). Flora of Iraq 6: 1-458. Ministry of Agriculture & Agrarian Reform, Baghdad.
  • Kharkevich, S.S. (ed.) (1992). Plantae Vasculares Orientalis Extremi Sovietici 6: 1-428. Nauka, Leningrad.
  • Krasnoborov, I.M. (ed.) (2007). Flora of Siberia 13: 1-499. Scientific Publishers, Inc., Enfield, Plymouth.
  • Liogier, A.H. (1996). Flora de la Española 8: 1-588. Instituto Tecnológico de Santo Domingo.
  • Probatova, N.S. & al. (2006). Flora Rossiiskogo Dal'nego Vostoka. Dopolneniya i izmeneniya k izdaniyu Sosudistye rasteniya sovetskogo Dal'nego Vostoka t. 1-8 (1985-1996): 1-454. Russian academy of sciences Far Eastern branch.
  • Pruski, J.F. (ed.) (2018). Flora Mesoamericana 5(2): 1-608. Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, México, D.F.
  • Welsh, S.L. (1998). Flora Societensis: 1-420. E.P.S. Inc. Utah.
  • Wu, Z. & Raven, P.H. (eds.) (2011). Asteraceae Flora of China 20-21: 1-992. Science Press (Beijing) & Missouri Botanical Garden Press (St. Louis).

Literature

Catálogo de Plantas y Líquenes de Colombia

  • ColPlantA (2021). "ColPlantA. Facilitated by the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Published on the Internet; http://www.colplanta.org/"

Kew Backbone Distributions

  • Aver'ianov, L.V. & al. (2006). Illyustrirovannyi opredelitel' rastenii Leningradskoi oblasti: 1-799. Nauka, Moskva.
  • Barooah, C. & Ahmed, I. (2014). Plant diversity of Assam. A checklist of Angiosperms and Gymnosperms: 1-599. Assam science technology and environment council, India.
  • Chou, S., Chhnang, P. & Kim, Y. (2016). A Checklist for the Seed Plants of Cambodia: 1-272. National Institute of Biological Resources, Korea.
  • Flora of North America Editorial Committee in Flora of North America Editorial Committee (2006). Asteraceae Flora of North America North of Mexico 21: 1-616. Oxford University Press, New York, Oxford.
  • Forzza, R.C., Zappi, D. & Souza, V.C. (2016-continuously updated). Flora do Brasil 2020 em construção http://reflora.jbrj.gov.br/reflora/listaBrasil/ConsultaPublicaUC/ResultadoDaConsultaNovaConsulta.do.
  • Ghazanfar, S.A., Edmondson, J.R. & Hind, D.J.N. (eds.) (2019). Flora of Iraq 6: 1-458. Ministry of Agriculture & Agrarian Reform, Baghdad.
  • Kharkevich, S.S. (ed.) (1992). Plantae Vasculares Orientalis Extremi Sovietici 6: 1-428. Nauka, Leningrad.
  • Koyama, H., Bunwong, S., Pornpongrungrueng, P. & Hind, D.J.N. (2016). Flora of Thailand 13(2): 143-428. The Forest Herbarium, Royal Forest Department.
  • Krasnoborov, I.M. (ed.) (2007). Flora of Siberia 13: 1-499. Scientific Publishers, Inc., Enfield, Plymouth.
  • Missouri Botanic Garden (2005). Vascular Tropicos Nomenclatural Database http://mobot.mobot.org/W3T/Search/vast.html.
  • Prakash, L. & Balasubramanian, P. (2018). Invasive alien flora of Sathyamangalam Tiger Reserve in Southern Eastern Ghats, India Indian Forester 144: 857-862.
  • Sarder, N.U. & Hassan, M.A. (eds.) (2018). Vascular flora of Chittagong and the Chittagong Hill Tracts 3: 1-978. Bangladesh National Herbarium, Dhaka.
  • St. John, H. (1988). Census of the Flora of the Gambier islands, Polynesia Pacific Plant Studies 43: 1-34.
  • Urgamal, M., Oyuntsetseg, B., Nyambayar, D. & Dulamsuren, C. (2014). Conspectus of the vascular plants of Mongolia: 1. Mongolian Academy of Sciences, Institute of Botany.
  • Welsh, S.L. (1998). Flora Societensis: 1-420. E.P.S. Inc. Utah.

Flora of Somalia

  • Flora Somalia, (2000) Author: by H. Beentje [updated by M. Thulin 2008]

Flora of Tropical East Africa

  • D.J.N. Hind in Fl. Masc. 109: 218, t. 75 (1993).
  • L., Sp. Pl.: 987 (1753).
  • Oliv. & Hiern, Flora of Tropical Africa 3: 371 (1877).
  • Wild in Kirkia 6: 3 (1967).

Catálogo de Plantas y Líquenes de Colombia
http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

Colombian resources for Plants made Accessible
http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/

Flora of Somalia
Flora of Somalia
http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

Flora of Tropical East Africa
Flora of Tropical East Africa
http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

Herbarium Catalogue Specimens
Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/

Kew Backbone Distributions
The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2021. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
© Copyright 2017 World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone
The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2021. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
© Copyright 2017 International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

Kew Science Photographs
Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/

Plants and People Africa
Common Names from Plants and People Africa http://www.plantsandpeopleafrica.com/
© Plants and People Africa http://www.plantsandpeopleafrica.com http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/

Universidad Nacional de Colombia
ColPlantA database
http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0