1. Family: Verbenaceae J.St.-Hil.
    1. Genus: Verbena L.
      1. Verbena aristigera S.Moore

        This species is accepted, and its native range is Bolivia to Brazil and N. Argentina.

    [FZ]

    Flora Zambesiaca. Vol 8, Pt 7. Avicenniaceae, R. Fernandes. Nesogenaceae, M.A. Diniz. Verbenaceae, R. Fernandes. Lamiaceae, R. Fernandes. 2005.

    Type
    Type from Paraguay. Type from Brazil.
    General
    Perennial prostrate trailing herb 10–80 cm high
    Calyx
    Calyx 7.5–9 mm long, tubular, becoming wider below and constricted above in fruit, densely appressed whitish strigose-pubescent with some intermixed darker glands; teeth ovate at the base, and abruptly contracted into a long seta 0.75–2 mm long, unequal Calyx 7.5–9 mm long, tubular, becoming wider below and constricted above in fruit, densely appressed whitish strigose-pubescent with some intermixed darker glands; teeth ovate at the base, and abruptly contracted into a long seta 0.75–2 mm long, unequal.
    Corolla
    Corolla mauve, lilac, mauve-blue, purple, purple-red, deep pink or sometimes white; tube 10–11 mm long, exserted for 3–5 mm from the calyx mouth, glabrous outside, hairy inside at the throat, with two longitudinal dense bands of white setae below the insertions of the lower stamens; limb c. 10 mm wide, the lobes 3–4 × 3–4 mm, broadly obcordate, emarginate Corolla mauve, lilac, mauve-blue, purple, purple-red, deep pink or sometimes white; tube 10–11 mm long, exserted for 3–5 mm from the calyx mouth, glabrous outside, hairy inside at the throat, with two longitudinal dense bands of white setae below the insertions of the lower stamens; limb c. 10 mm wide, the lobes 3–4 × 3–4 mm, broadly obcordate, emarginate.
    Stamens
    Stamens included, or with glands just exserted Stamens included, or with glands just exserted.
    Style
    Style 9–13 mm long, included, persistent Style 9–13 mm long, included, persistent.
    Fruits
    Mericarps c. 3.5 mm long, black, striate, longitudinally raised-reticulate in upper part. Mericarps c. 3.5 mm long, black, striate, longitudinally raised-reticulate in upper part.
    Ecology
    In Brachystegia woodland and grassland; also in old cultivation and on roadsides; 100–1520 m.
    Note
    Although Moldenke, in Phytologia 8 : 190 (1962) and Phytologia 11 : 284 (1965), treated V. tenuisecta Briq. and V. aristigera S. Moore as separate species, it is here considered best to follow Troncoso who, in Darwiniana 14 : 636 (1968), considered them to be synonymous.
    Distribution
    Botswana Zimbabwe Malawi Mozambique Native of South America (Brazil, Uruguay, Argentina, Paraguay, etc.), now widely cultivated as a garden ornamental, often becoming naturalized.  In Africa it also occurs in Egypt and Nigeria (fide Moldenke ), in Dem. Rep. Congo, South Africa (KwaZu District code: BOT SE, BOT W, ZIM W, ZIM C, ZIM E, MAL S, MOZ GI, MOZ M.
    Habit
    Perennial prostrate trailing herb 10–80 cm high.
    Stem
    Stems often woody at the base, decumbent, sometimes rooting at the lower nodes, tetragonal, sparsely pilose to pubescent or glabrescent. Stems often woody at the base, decumbent,  sometimes rooting at the lower nodes, tetragonal, sparsely pilose to pubescent or glabrescent
    Leaves
    Leaves petiolate, with short sterile densely leafy branchlets or fascicles of smaller leaves in the axils, 2–3.5 × 2–3 cm, ± triangular or ovate in outline, 2-pinnatisect or 3-sect with the segments also pinnatisect or 3-sect; the ultimate segments up to 1 cm long and c. 1 mm wide, linear, obtuse to acute; lamina somewhat thick, revolute on the margins, strigose-pubescent or ± glabrous on both surfaces, sometimes with brownish glands, entire or toothed; petiole up to 2 cm long. Leaves petiolate, with short sterile densely leafy branchlets or fascicles of smaller leaves in the axils, 2–3.5 × 2–3 cm, ± triangular or ovate in outline, 2-pinnatisect or 3-sect with the segments also pinnatisect or 3-sect; the ultimate segments up to 1 cm long and c. 1 mm wide, linear, obtuse to acute; lamina somewhat thick, revolute on the margins, strigose-pubescent or ± glabrous on both surfaces, sometimes with brownish glands, entire or toothed; petiole up to 2 cm long
    Inflorescences
    Inflorescences of solitary terminal spikes on stems and branches; spikes c. 1.5 × 2 cm, ovoid and dense in flower, elongating to 5–12 cm in fruit; peduncles 1.5–5 cm long, elongating to 10 cm or more in fruit; bracts green, 1/3 to 1/2 as long as the calyx, ovate-lanceolate, densely canescent-puberulous or strigose and sometimes glandular; flowers numerous showy, the upper ones dense and ascending, the lower ones spreading. Inflorescences of solitary terminal spikes on stems and branches; spikes c. 1.5 × 2 cm, ovoid and dense in flower, elongating to 5–12 cm in fruit; peduncles 1.5–5 cm long, elongating to 10 cm or more in fruit; bracts green, 1/3 to1/2 as long as the calyx, ovate-lanceolate, densely canescent-puberulous or strigose and sometimes glandular; flowers numerous showy, the upper ones dense and ascending, the lower ones spreading
    [FTEA]

    Verbenaceae, B. Verdcourt. Flora of Tropical East Africa. 1992

    Habit
    Perennial herb, often woody at the base, 10–40 cm. tall; stems decumbent below, sparsely pubescent but soon glabrescent.
    Leaves
    Leaves ± triangular in oudine, pinnatisect, 2–3.5 cm. long, 2–4 cm. wide; segments linear, up to 1 cm. long, 0.5–1(–3) mm. wide, ± acute or obtuse at the apex, substrigose-pubescent or ± glabrous, entire or toothed.
    Inflorescences
    Inflorescences terminal, dense and ± ovate, at first 1.5 × 2 cm. but soon elongating to 5–12 cm.; peduncles 1.5–5 cm. long, elongating to 10 cm. or more in fruit.
    Bracts
    Bracts subovate at base, lanceolate-subulate, 2–4 mm. long, 1.2–1.5 mm. wide, canescent-puberulous.
    Calyx
    Calyx tubular, 6–7 mm. long, densely adpressed strigose-pubescent and with some sparse dark glands; teeth ovate at base, contracted into along seta, 0.5–2 mm. long, unequal.
    Corolla
    Corolla blue or purple; tube 1–1.1 cm. long, glabrous outside, hairy inside at throat; limb ± 1 cm. wide, the lobes ± broadly obcordate, 3–4 mm. long and wide, emarginate for 1–1.5 mm.
    Stamens
    Stamens included or with glands just exserted.
    Style
    Style ± included, 0.9–1.3 cm. long, persistent.
    Fruits
    Nutlets subcylindrical, 3 mm. long, 0.8 mm. wide, reticulately ribbed outside, white verrucose inside.
    Habitat
    Cultivated but also as a weed locally on cleared land; 1650–2060 m.
    Distribution
    K3 K4 T2

    Images

    Distribution

    Native to:

    Argentina Northeast, Argentina Northwest, Bolivia, Brazil South, Brazil Southeast, Brazil West-Central, Paraguay, Uruguay

    Introduced into:

    Botswana, California, Free State, Greece, Guatemala, Honduras, India, Kenya, KwaZulu-Natal, Malawi, Mozambique, New South Wales, Nicaragua, Nigeria, Northern Provinces, Northern Territory, Queensland, South Australia, Swaziland, Tanzania, Venezuela, Victoria, Western Australia, Zambia, Zaïre, Zimbabwe

    Verbena aristigera S.Moore appears in other Kew resources:

    Date Reference Identified As Barcode Type Status
    Balansa, B. [1025], Paraguay Verbena tenuisecta K000470520 Unknown type material

    First published in Trans. Linn. Soc. London, Bot. 4: 439 (1895)

    Accepted by

    • Retief, E. & Meyer, N.L. (2017). Plants of the Free State inventory and identification guide Strelitzia 38: 1-1236. National Botanical Institute, Pretoria.

    Not accepted by

    • Govaerts, R. (2003). World Checklist of Selected Plant Families Database in ACCESS: 1-216203. The Board of Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. [Cited as Glandularia aristigera.]

    Literature

    Flora Zambesiaca
    • F.T.E.A., Verbenaceae: 10 (1992).
    • Rev. Fl. Ceylon 4 : 208 (1983).
    • op. cit. 41 : 403 (1979).
    • J.H. Ross, Fl. Natal: 299 (1972).
    • op. cit. 16 : 208 (1968)
    • Phytologia 11 , 4: 280 (1965)
    • Darwiniana 13 : 477, fig. 4 (1964).
    • Cabrera, Man. Fl. Alreded. Buenos Aires: 397 (1953).
    • Phytologia 8 : 189 (1952).
    Kew Backbone Distributions
    • Retief, E. & Meyer, N.L. (2017). Plants of the Free State inventory and identification guide Strelitzia 38: 1-1236. National Botanical Institute, Pretoria.
    • O'Leary, N. & Thode, V. (2016). The genus Glandularia (Verbenaceae) in Brazil Annals of the Missouri Botanical Garden 101: 699-749.
    • Dimopoulos, P., Raus, T., Bergmeier, E., Constantinidis, T., Iatrou, G., Kokkini, S., Strid, A., & Tzanoudakis, D. (2013). Vascular plants of Greece. An annotated checklist: 1-372. Botanic gardens and botanical museum Berlin-Dahlem, Berlin and Hellenic botanical society, Athens.
    • Davidse, G. & al. (eds.) (2012). Flora Mesoamericana 4(2): 1-533. Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, México, D.F.
    • Peralta, P.F. & Múlgura, M.E. (2011). El género Glandularia (Verbenaceae) en Argentina Annals of the Missouri Botanical Garden 98: 358-412.
    • Hokche, O., Berry, P.E. & Huber, O. (eds.) (2008). Nuevo Catálogo de la Flora Vascular de Venezuela: 1-859. Fundación Instituto Botánico de Venezuela.
    • Fernandes, R. & Diniz, M.A. (2005). Avicenniaceae, Nesogenaceae, Verbenaceae and Lamiaceae (subfams, Viticoideae and Ajugoideae) Flora Zambesiaca 8(7): 1-161. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    • Moldenke in Phytologia 8: 189 (1962).
    • S. Moore in Trans. Linn. Soc., Bot., ser. 2, 4: 439 (1895).

    Sources

    Flora Zambesiaca
    Flora Zambesiaca
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Herbarium Catalogue Specimens
    'The Herbarium Catalogue, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Published on the Internet http://www.kew.org/herbcat [accessed on Day Month Year]'. Please enter the date on which you consulted the system.
    Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/

    Kew Backbone Distributions
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2019. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

    Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2019. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

    Neotropikey
    Milliken, W., Klitgard, B. and Baracat, A. (2009 onwards), Neotropikey - Interactive key and information resources for flowering plants of the Neotropics.
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0