1. Family: Verbenaceae J.St.-Hil.
    1. Genus: Verbena L.
      1. Verbena brasiliensis Vell.

        This species is accepted, and its native range is Brazil to Chile.

    [FTEA]

    Verbenaceae, B. Verdcourt. Flora of Tropical East Africa. 1992

    Habit
    Annual or short-lived perennial herb, very similar to the last species, (0.3–)0.9–2(–?3) m. tall, branched above, sparsely to densely scabrid with tubercle-based hairs.
    Leaves
    Leaves oblong-elliptic to lanceolate at base and ± linear-lanceolate above, (1.5–)3–14 cm. long, 0.4–4.5 cm. wide, acute at the apex, cuneate to amplexicaul at the base, sessile, evenly to ± unevenly serrate, usually entire towards base, scabrid with tubercle-based hairs on both surfaces; venation impressed above, raised beneath.
    Inflorescences
    Inflorescences much branched, of numerous spikes 1.5–4.5(–10) cm. long, 5.5–6.5 mm. wide, dense or sometimes ± lax at base, arranged as in last species in dense heads; bracts lanceolate, (2.25–)4–5 mm. long, 1 mm. wide, hispidulous-ciliate.
    Calyx
    Calyx green, tinged purple, 2.5–3.5 mm. long.
    Corolla
    Corolla bluish purple, mauve or violet; tube 2.75–3.3 mm. long, scarcely exserted or not by over 1/3 its length, pubescent; limb 2.7–3.7 mm. wide.
    Anthers
    Anthers situated in upper 1/3 of tube.
    Fruits
    Nutlets brown, oblong, 1.2–1.5 mm. long, 0.5 mm. wide, ridged-reticulate outside, white scabridulous-scaly inside.
    Habitat
    Grassland, bushland, e.g. Acacia, Rhus, etc., disturbed ground and as a roadside weed; 1050–2220 m.
    Distribution
    K3 K4 K5 T2 T3 similar to last species but also northwards to Brazil (Minas Gerais) and NW. to Bolivia, Colombia and Peru, now widely naturalised in Africa, Malay Peninsula, Indonesia, tropical Australia, etc.
    [FZ]

    Flora Zambesiaca. Vol 8, Pt 7. Avicenniaceae, R. Fernandes. Nesogenaceae, M.A. Diniz. Verbenaceae, R. Fernandes. Lamiaceae, R. Fernandes. 2005.

    Type
    Type from Brazil (lectotype Fl. Flum., t. 40, chosen by Verdcourt).
    General
    Perennial herb up to c. 2.5 m tall
    Fruits
    Mericarps 1.2–1.7 mm long, with 3–5 ribs on the back, and slightly raised-reticulate in the upper part. Mericarps 1.2–1.7 mm long, with 3–5 ribs on the back, and slightly raised-reticulate in the upper part.
    Ecology
    In damp soil in grassland, in headwaters of streams and on river banks; also in old cultivation and on roadsides; 37–2270 m.
    Note
    This widespread species has often been confused with V. bonariensis L.  However, it may be distinguished from this species by its spikes in which the uppermost floral bracts form a short tufted apex not overtopped by the uppermost corolla limbs, and by its floral bracts being equal to or slightly longer than the calyces (mostly shorter in V. bonariensis ), and in its leaf indumentum in which the hairs on the leaf lower surface venation are longer and less crowded than in V. bonariensis , whitish not hyaline, and by its anthers smaller and inserted higher up in the corolla tube than in V. bonariensis.
    Distribution
    Native of tropical South America, now widely naturalized in the Malaysian Peninsula, Indonesia, tropical Australia, etc., and in Africa in Kenya, Tanzania, South Africa (KwaZulu-Natal and Transvaal), Madagascar and Réunion. District code: BOT SE, ZIM W, ZIM C, ZIM E, ZIM S, MOZ MS, MOZ GI, MOZ M. Zimbabwe Mozambique Botswana
    Habit
    Perennial herb up to c. 2.5 m tall.
    Stem
    Stem stiff, branched above, 4-angled, with whitish angles and flat faces, up to 7 mm wide at the base, somewhat constricted just below each node, scabrid and sparsely to densely hispid with tubercle-based hairs up to 1.5 mm long, the bristles whitish spreading and denser along the angles; branches 4–9 cm long, suberect or forming a wide V with the stem. Stem stiff, branched above, 4-angled, with whitish angles and flat faces, up to 7 mm wide at the base, somewhat constricted just below each node, scabrid and sparsely to densely hispid with tubercle-based hairs up to 1.5 mm long, the bristles whitish spreading and denser along the angles; branches 4–9 cm long, suberect or forming a wide V with the stem
    Leaves
    Leaves (1.4)5–8(12) cm long and 1.2–3.5(4.5) cm wide, oblong or ovate-oblong to lanceolate, acute at the apex, semiamplexicaul at the base, serrate to double serrate on the margin, the teeth ± acute, the base sometimes entire; lamina stiff, scabrid with patent acicular tubercle-based hairs, the indumentum densest beneath particularly on the nervation; midrib and nervation impressed above, raised beneath; the upper leaves smaller and relatively narrower, sometimes linear-lanceolate, sometimes entire. Leaves (1.4)5–8(12) cm long and 1.2–3.5(4.5) cm wide, oblong or ovate-oblong to lanceolate, acute at the apex, semiamplexicaul at the base, serrate to double serrate on the margin, the teeth ± acute, the base sometimes entire; lamina stiff, scabrid with patent acicular tubercle-based hairs, the indumentum densest beneath particularly on the nervation; midrib and nervation impressed above, raised beneath; the upper leaves smaller and relatively narrower, sometimes linear-lanceolate, sometimes entire
    Inflorescences
    Inflorescences much branched, consisting of numerous spikes in dense flat-topped or rounded clusters, the spikes cymosely arranged and mostly in dense groups of triads, of which the median spike is usually longer and subsessile, and the lateral ones on peduncles up to 12 mm long; spikes densely flowered, 0.5–1 cm long and conical when in flower, 3.5–8(10–12) cm long and 0.3–0.6 cm thick and cylindric when in fruit, sometimes arched; bracts usually equalling or slightly overtopping the calyx, the upper ones distinctly longer than the buds and forming a short tuft at the top of the spike, 2.5–3(3.5–4) mm long and 0.75–1 mm wide at the base, lanceolate, attenuate towards an acute sometimes ± filiform apex, pilose without glandular hairs intermixed, ciliate on the margins. Inflorescences much branched, consisting of numerous spikes in dense flat-topped or rounded clusters, the spikes cymosely arranged and mostly in dense groups of triads, of which the median spike is usually longer and subsessile, and the lateral ones on peduncles up to 12 mm long; spikes densely flowered, 0.5–1 cm long and conical when in flower, 3.5–8(10–12) cm long and 0.3–0.6 cm thick and cylindric when in fruit, sometimes arched; bracts usually equalling or slightly overtopping the calyx, the upper ones distinctly longer than the buds and forming a short tuft at the top of the spike, 2.5–3(3.5–4) mm long and 0.75–1 mm wide at the base, lanceolate, attenuate towards an acute sometimes ± filiform apex, pilose without glandular hairs intermixed, ciliate on the margins
    Calyx
    Calyx (1.75)2–2.75(3) mm long, with acute teeth, hispidulous outside. Calyx (1.75)2–2.75(3) mm long, with acute teeth, hispidulous outside
    Corolla
    Corolla mauve, purple or bluish-purple, pubescent outside, the uppermost not overtopping the spike except sometimes at the end of flowering; tube (2.5)2.75–3(3.5) mm long, (0)0.5–0.75(1–1.25) mm exserted above the calyx teeth; limb 2.75–3 mm in diameter. Corolla mauve, purple or bluish-purple, pubescent outside, the uppermost not overtopping the spike except sometimes at the end of flowering; tube (2.5)2.75–3(3.5) mm long, (0)0.5–0.75(1–1.25) mm exserted above the calyx teeth; limb 2.75–3 mm in diameter
    Stamens
    Stamens inserted near middle of the corolla tube; anthers 0.25–4 mm long. Stamens inserted near middle of the corolla tube; anthers 0.25–4 mm long
    Style
    Style (0.75)1–1.25 mm long. Style (0.75)1–1.25 mm long

    Images

    Distribution

    Native to:

    Argentina Northeast, Argentina Northwest, Bolivia, Brazil South, Brazil Southeast, Chile Central, Chile South, Paraguay, Peru, Uruguay

    Introduced into:

    Alabama, Arkansas, Botswana, California, Ecuador, Fiji, Florida, Free State, Galápagos, Galápagos, Georgia, Hawaii, Kentucky, Kenya, Korea, KwaZulu-Natal, Louisiana, Madagascar, Malaya, Mexico Northeast, Mexico Northwest, Mexico Southwest, Mississippi, Missouri, Mozambique, New South Wales, New Zealand North, New Zealand South, Norfolk Is., North Carolina, Northern Provinces, Oklahoma, Oregon, Portugal, Queensland, Réunion, South Carolina, Spain, Taiwan, Tanzania, Tennessee, Texas, Tonga, Transcaucasus, Victoria, Virginia, Zimbabwe

    Verbena brasiliensis Vell. appears in other Kew resources:

    Date Reference Identified As Barcode Type Status
    Jan 1, 2008 Cayola, L. [1348], Bolivia K000248360
    Hassler, E [3853], Paraguay Verbena litoralis f. angustifolia K000899618 isotype
    Hassler, E [3853], Paraguay Verbena litoralis f. angustifolia K000899619 isotype
    Hassler, E. [2459], Paraguay Verbena chacensis K000470518 isotype
    Hassler, E. [7064], Paraguay Verbena approximata K000470521

    First published in Fl. Flumin. 1: t. 40, 17 (1829)

    Accepted by

    • Retief, E. & Meyer, N.L. (2017). Plants of the Free State inventory and identification guide Strelitzia 38: 1-1236. National Botanical Institute, Pretoria.
    • Chang, C.S., Kim, H. & Chang, K.S. (2014). Provisional checklist of vascular plants for the Korea peninsula flora (KPF): 1-660. DESIGNPOST.
    • Kuo, M.L. (ed.) (2012). Flora of Taiwan, ed. 2, Suppl.: 1-414. Editorial Committee of the Flora of Taiwan, Second Edition, National Taiwan University.
    • Nesom, G.L. (2010). Taxonomic notes on Verbena bonariensis (Verbenaceae) and related species in the USA Phytoneuron 2010-12: 1-16.
    • Suzuki, M., Taufatofua, P. & Koyama, T. (2007). New records of plants from Tonga Makinoa, n.s., 6: 25-62.
    • Govaerts, R. (2003). World Checklist of Selected Plant Families Database in ACCESS: 1-216203. The Board of Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Webb, C.J., Sykes, W.R & Garnock-Jones, P.J. (1988). Flora of New Zealand 4: 1-1365. R.E.Owen, Government Printer, Wellington.

    Not accepted by

    • Castroviejo, S. & al. (eds.) (2010). Flora Iberica 12: 1-650. Real Jardín Botánico, CSIC, Madrid. [Cited as Verbena litoralis var. brevibracteata.]

    Literature

    Flora Zambesiaca
    • F.T.E.A., Verbenaceae: 9 (1992).
    • Kew Bull. 45 : 111, fig. 3 (1990).
    Kew Backbone Distributions
    • Retief, E. & Meyer, N.L. (2017). Plants of the Free State inventory and identification guide Strelitzia 38: 1-1236. National Botanical Institute, Pretoria.
    • Chang, C.S., Kim, H. & Chang, K.S. (2014). Provisional checklist of vascular plants for the Korea peninsula flora (KPF): 1-660. DESIGNPOST.
    • Kuo, M.L. (ed.) (2012). Flora of Taiwan, ed. 2, Suppl.: 1-414. Editorial Committee of the Flora of Taiwan, Second Edition, National Taiwan University.
    • Nesom, G.L. (2010). Taxonomic notes on Verbena bonariensis (Verbenaceae) and related species in the USA Phytoneuron 2010-12: 1-16.
    • Castroviejo, S. & al. (eds.) (2010). Flora Iberica 12: 1-650. Real Jardín Botánico, CSIC, Madrid.
    • Suzuki, M., Taufatofua, P. & Koyama, T. (2007). New records of plants from Tonga Makinoa, n.s., 6: 25-62.
    • Fernandes, R. & Diniz, M.A. (2005). Avicenniaceae, Nesogenaceae, Verbenaceae and Lamiaceae (subfams, Viticoideae and Ajugoideae) Flora Zambesiaca 8(7): 1-161. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Orchard, A.E. (ed.) (1994). Oceanic Islands 1 Flora of Australia 49: 1-681. Australian Government Publishing Service, Canberra.
    • Smith, A.C. (1991). Flora Vitiensis Nova. A new flora for Fiji (Spermatophytes only) 5: 1-626. Pacific Tropical Botanical Garden, Lawai.
    • Webb, C.J., Sykes, W.R & Garnock-Jones, P.J. (1988). Flora of New Zealand 4: 1-1365. R.E.Owen, Government Printer, Wellington.
    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    • Yeo in Kew Bulletin 45: 111, fig. 3 (1990).
    • Vell., Fl. Flum.: 1, t. 40 (1835).
    • Vell., Fl. Flum.: 17 (1825)

    Sources

    Flora Zambesiaca
    Flora Zambesiaca
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Herbarium Catalogue Specimens
    'The Herbarium Catalogue, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Published on the Internet http://www.kew.org/herbcat [accessed on Day Month Year]'. Please enter the date on which you consulted the system.
    Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/

    Kew Backbone Distributions
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2019. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

    Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2019. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

    Plants and People Africa
    Common Names from Plants and People Africa http://www.plantsandpeopleafrica.com/
    © Plants and People Africa http://www.plantsandpeopleafrica.com http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/